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TKIMKN'S 



JOUKNAL OF BOTANY 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



(fbircD bi) 

JAMES BRITTEN, F. L. S 

BiiiTisH Museum (Natural History), South Kensington. 



Qf E W SERIES, VOL. X.) 

(VUL. XIX. UF THK KNTIRE WOIUv.) 



ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES. ^ 




LONDON : 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN. 

18 8 1. 



LONDON : .1^,5. 

WEST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS, ■ ' 

54. HATTON GARDEN, E.C. 



(Lfiiitriljutors to tilt 'I'minuU at §otau]j/ lieto Series. 



Eev. F. Addison. 

Eev. T. Allin. 

W. Archer, F.R.S. 

Prof. F. W. C. Areschoug. 

Prof. P. Ascherson. 

Prof. C. C. Babington, F.R.S., 

F.L.S. 
J. Bagnall. 

C. Bailey. 

J. G. Baker, F.R.8., F.L.S. 
Mrs. Baker. 
J. Ball, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
I. B. Balfour, Sc. D., F.L.S. 
J. H. Balfour, M.D., F.R.S. 
R. M. Barrington. 
M. J. Barrington Ward, M.A., 
• F.L.S. 
W. E. Beckwith. 
W. H. Beeby. 

A ^-'-NETT, F.L.S. 

Bennett, M.A., B.Sc, 
I'.oj.S. 
G. Bennett, M.D., F.R.S. 
G. Bentham, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
S. Berggren. 

Rev. M. J. Berkeley, F.L.S. 
T. B. Blow. 

H. BOSWELL. 

J. T. I. BoswELL, F.L.S. 
R. Braithwaite, M.D., F.L.S. 
A. Brothersxon. 
N. E. Brown, A.L.S. 

G. S. BOULGER, F.L.S. 
Mrs. Bramwell. 

D. Brandis, M.D., F.L.S. 

T. R. Archer Briggs, F.L.S. 
J. Britten, F.L.S. 
H. Bromwich. 
R. Brown (Liverpool) 
H. G. Bull, M.D. 
fM. M. Bull, M.D. 
\V. Carruthers, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
Prof. T. Caruel. 
Prof. R. Caspary. 
Peof. a. H. Church. 
A. Christ, Ph.D. 
A. Craig-Christik, F.L.S. 
C. B. Clarke, M.A., F.L.S. 
J. W. Clark. 

H. Cleghorn, M.D., F.L.S. 
•T. Collins. 



T. Comber. 
M. C. Cooke, A.L.S. 
E. J. Cox. 
Prof. F. Crpein. 
Rev. J. M. Crombie, M.A., F.L.S. 
J. Cunnack. 

fF. CuRREY, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
N. A. Dalzell. 
Alph. DeCandolle. 
A. Deseglise. 

Prof. G. Dickie, M.D., F.L.S. 
Prof. A. Dickson, M.D., F.L.S. 
G. C. Druce, F.L.S. 
J. F. DuTHiE, B.A., F.L.S. 
W. T. Thiselton Dyer, M.A., 

B.Sc, F.L.S. 
Rev. a. E. Eaton, M.A. 
Mrs. Edwards. 
Prof. A. W. Eichlee. 
A. Ernst, Ph.D. 
Prof. W. G. Farlow, M.D. 
W. Fawcett, B.Sc, F.L.S. 
H. C. Field. 
W. Flight, D.Sc 
T. B. Flower, F.L.S. 

W. O. FOCKE. 
H. 0. FOEBES. 

E. FOURNIER. 

A. Franchet. 

Rev. J. Eraser. 
f A. French. 
fPEOF. E. Feies. 

H. G. Glasspoole. 

Prof. A. Gray, M.D. 
f J. E. Gray, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

L. H. Grindon.' 

H. Groves. 

J. Groves. 
fD. Hanbury, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

F. J. Hanbury, F.L.S. 

H. F. Hance, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

H. C. Hart, B.A. 

W. E. Hart. 

M. M. Hartog. M.A., B.Sc, 
F.L.S. 
fW. A. Hayne. 

W. B. Hemsley, A.L.S. 

W. P. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. 

Rev. W. M. Hind, LL.D. 

c. p. hobkikk, f.l.s. 
fMiss E. Hodgson. 



IV 



C0NTUIBUT014S. 



K. HoLLANU. 

E. M. Holmes, i<'.Jv.8. 

SiK J. i). HooKKU, K.C.S.I., M.U., 

F.R.S., F.L.S. 
T. Howsio, F.L.S. 
Rev. R. Hunteu. 

J. HUSSEY. 

f A. Ikvine. 

B. D. Jackson, F.L.S. 
J. R. Jackson, A.L.S. 
G. S. Jenman. 

J. H. Jennei!. 

Rev. AV. JohxVson. 

H. Halcro Johnston, M.D. 

Bolton King. 

F. E. Kitchener, F.L.y. 
f S. KuRZ. 

Rev. J. E. Leefe, F.L.S. 

E. Lees, F.L.S. 

F. A. Lees, F.L.S. 

Rev. W. a. Leighton, B.A., 

F.L.S. 
L. Leresche. 

E. Levier, M.L). 

Prof. S. O. Lindberg, M.D. 
A. Lister, F.L.S. 
Mrs. Lomax. 
c. longfield. 

A. N. LUNDSTRoM. 

Prof. W. R. McNab, M.D., F.L.S. 

J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, F.L.S. 

M. T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. 
F.L.S. 

W. Mathews, M.A. 

J. C. Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. 

H. T. Mennell, F.L.S. 

Mrs. Merrifield. 
f J. MiERs, F.R.S., F.L.S. 

W. Mitten, A.L.S. 
fD. Moore, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

S. LE M. Moore, F.L.S. 

T. MooKE, F.L.S. 

A. G. More, F.L.S. 

Prof. J. Morris. 

Baron F. von Mueller, Ph.D., 
F.R.S., F.L.S. 

C. J. Muller. 

J. MULLER (Al-g.j 

f General W. Munro, C.B., F.L.S. 

G. R. M. Murray, F.L.S. 
A. Nathorst. 

F. N.\YLOR. 

G. Nicholson. 

Prof. D. Oliver, F.R.S., F.L.S. 
•j-Rev. E. O'Meara, M.A. 

D. Orr. 

Rev. AV. H. Painter. 



W. H. Pearson. 
C. H. Peck. 
W. Phillips, F.L.S. 
C. B. Plowright. 

H. POLAKOWSKY. 

J. Pollard. 

C. Prentice. 

H. PRESTOE. 

Rev. T. a. Preston, F.L.S. 
fR. A. Pryor, B.A., F.L.S. 

Rev. W. H. Purchas. 

Rev. H. p. Reader, B.A. 

W. W. Reeves. 

H. Reeks, F.L.S. 

Prof. H. G. Reichenbach. 

J. Renny, F.L.S. 
f W. Richardson. 

H. N. Ridley, B.A., F.L.S. 

J. F. Robinson. 

AV. D. Roebuck. 

Rev. AV. Moyle Rogers, M.A. 

F, C. S. Roper, F.L.S. 
J. Sadler. 

f J. Scott, F.L.S. 
J. C. Shenstone. 
AA^ G. Smith, F.L.S. 
H. C. Sorby, F.R.S. 
R. Spruce, Ph.D. 

G. Stabler. 

F. Stratton, F.L.S. 

Rev. G. S. Streatfield, M.A. 

R. F. TOWNDROW. 

F. TowNSEND, M.A., F.L.S. 
Prof. J. AV. H. Traill, M.D., 
F.L.S. 
f Sir AV. C. Trevelyan, Bart. 
H. Trimen, alb., F.L.S. 
R. Trimen, F.L.S. 
R. Tucker, M.A. 

E. G. Varenne. 

S. H. Vines, M.A., F.L.S. 
T. AValkee. 
A. R. AVallace, F.L.S. 
H. AIarshall AVard. 

F. I. AVarner, F.L.S. 
Hon. J. L. AVarren, M.A. 

D. A. AVatt. 
fF. M. AVebb. 

IRev. R. H. AVebb, M.A. 

|F. AVelwitsch, M.D., F.L.S. 

AVest, W. 
fE. C. AVhite. 

J. A\^ AVhite. 

F. Buchanan AVhite, M.D., F.L.S. 

J. AViLLis, Ph.D. 

W. AVisE. 

Rev. R. AVood, .ALA. 



Dixections fur jilaciiiij the Plates. 



Tab. 


216 to face page 1 




217 » 65 




218 » 97 




219 and 220 .... „ 129 




221 „ 193 




222 and 223 ... . „ 321 




224 „ 353 




Mr. Watson's portrait to face title-page. 



WKST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS, 54, HATT'iN i.AllliEN, LONDON, E.C. 



I e tj r.tyj 




H Grrcvee li^.J.'NiiJi'.'itFuch.U.^ 



Cka.r>a. obtuss-Desv. 



, T R 1 M E N ' S 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

BEITISH AND FOEEIGN. 



C^vtgiual ^vttclcss. 



ON CHARA OBTUSA, Desv., A SPECIES NEW TO 

BRITAIN. 

By Henry and James Gkoves. 

(Tab. 216.) 

, As may be seen by the number of this Journal for October, 
1880, Mr. Arthur Bennett's careful mvestigatiou of the Flora of our 
eastern counties has been rewarded by the discovery of i'hara 
ohtiisa in Filby Broad, near Yarmouth, East Norfolk. This species 
not having been previously found m Britain, a description and 
plate are now given : — 

Chara obtusa, Desv. in Loiseleurs, Notice sur les plantes a 
ajouter a la Flore de France (1810), p. 136. 

C. vulgaris var. elumjata, WaUr., Ann. Bot. (1815), p. 182. 

C. idvoides, Bertoloni in Bruni, Nuov. coUez. d'opusc. Scient. 
1825, p. 113; Flora Italica, vol. x., p. 21. Amici, Descriz di 
alcune sp. nuove di Chara (1827), p. 21, t. iv., f. 7 — 9. Ganterer, 
Oesterr. Charen (1847), p. 11, t. i., f. 5. 

C. stelligera, Bauer in Moessler's Handb. der Gewachsk., ed. 2 
(1829), vol. iii., p. 1595 (fide Wallroth and Ruprecht). Braun, 
Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834, p. 852 ; Flora 1835, vol. i., p. 55 ; Cohn's 
Krypt. Flor. von Schlesien (1877), p. 402. Ruprecht, Symb. ad 
Hist. pi. Ross. (1845), p. 77. Ganterer, Oesterr. Charen (1847), 
J). 11, t. i., f. 4. Leonhardi, Oesterr. Armleuchter Gewachse 
(1864), p. 58. Braun, R. & S. Exs. 1 & 84. Nordst. & Wahlst. 
Exs. 49 a. b. 

C. transhicens (and var. stelHr/era), Reich., Iconog., t. 804-5, and 
comm. ix,, p. 2 (not of Persoon). 

N. nJrnuIrs, Kuetz., Phyc. Gen. (1843), p. 318. Wallm. Act. 
Acad. Stockh., 1852 (1854), p. 268. 

N. stelligera, Kuetz., Phyc. Gen. (1843), p. 318 ; Sp. Alg. (1849), 
p. 518; Tab. Phyc. vii., p. 118, t.27, f. 1. Coss. & Germ., Flor. 
Par. (1845), p. 681, and Atl. t. 41, f. G. Wallm., /. r., p. 267. 

.Y. Bertohmii, Kuetz., Tab. Phyc. vii., p. 11, and t. 26, f. 2. 

Stem stout, moderately branched, mthont cortical cells, pro- 
ducing at the lower nodes, white stellate processes (modified whorls). 

N. s. VOL. 10. [January, 1881.] b 



2 OS CHAHA OUTUSA. 

WJiorls of 5-G (^rarely 7), straight or slightly recurved branchlcts. 
Stipulocles '•' ill a single circle, ludiwenUiry. Branchlets very long, 
acute, of 2-3 segments. Developed hract cells 1-3 very long, 
patent, somewhat acute. Nucules subglobose 9-striate. Coronula 
minute, conical, persistent. Globules solitary, or two together. 
Dioecious. 

This is one of the largest species of the order, having branchlets 
sometimes over six inches, and bract cells two inches and a half in 
length. It is of a bluish green, usually considerably incrusted and 
very brittle. It may be immediately distinguished from the rest 
of the ]3ritish species of the genus by the absence of cortical cells. 
The most remarkable characteristic is the great tendency to 
accumulate large starch granules in all the nodal cells, as well as 
in the peculiar abbreviated branchlets of the lower (underground) 
whorls, which form beautiful white starlike structures. The 
branchlets of these lower whorls have usually one node, but rarely, 
as in one of the branchlets of the large specimen from which our 
magnified representation is taken, two are produced. It is usual 
among Charas for a correlation to exist between the stipulodes and 
bract cells, but in C. ohtusa the former are rudimentary, while the 
latter are very long. The nucules resemble those of the Nitcllor in 
the very thick spiral cells, and in the small size and shortness of 
the nucleus and coronula, which last, however, is composed of only 
five cells, and is decidedly persistent. The female plant has rarely 
been found, the reproduction usually taking place from the nodes 
which are capable of separate existence and survive the winter. 
Mr. Bennett's specimens are, however, of both sexes. 

The position of C. ubtusa in the order has always been doubtful, 
and the extent of its relationship to the XiteUccB is not yet clearly 
made out. It was taken by Eeichenbach to be a form of N. trans- 
lucens ; in Braun's earlier works it is placed between the Nitellas 
and Tolypellas, but he subsequently removed it to the true Charas, 
constructing for it a section which he called AstepJuma; ; Wallman 
placed it with Tolypclla in his section PseiuIohractcaUe ; Lconhardi 
included it among the Chai'as, constituting for it the section 
Tulypcllujisis. 

Braun adopted the German name of Cliara stelligera , passing 
over the two earlier names, C. uhlma and (\ ulvuides, the former on 
the ground of its being inappropriate, the latter as referring only 
to a stout form of C. stelJifjera. Now, although the name ohtusa is 
not so appropriate for the plant as stelliyera, the rejection of it on 
that account is altogether impossible, as the acceptance of this 
principle would lead to the instability of every name, for who can 
tell that a better name than stelli(jcrct may not be found, and this 
in its turn superseded ? With regard to the name of C. ulvoidis, 
Bert., it seems unreasonable to assume that this could refer 
merely to a form of the species described some years later. It is 
much to be regretted that this is wnly ( iic of many instances in 

* By an oversight we oiuitted to slate, lu our "Review of the British 
Characecr," that we are indebteil to Mr. Alfred W. Beiiuett for this term us 
applied to the cells suriounding tl.e base of the whorls in the Charece. 



HISTORY OF THE SCORPIOID CYME. 3 

wliicli the names used by Braun must be set aside, especially as 
from his great knowledge of the plants of this order, his nomen- 
clature has usually been adopted without question. The original 
description of C. ulvoides was contained in a letter from Bertoloni 
to Prof. Amici, dated 24th March, 1826, which was published in 
Bruni's Nuova Collez. for 1825 ; thus the exact date of ])ubhcation 
is uncertain. We have been unable to see the original description 
of C. stelUiiera, as we cannot find a copy of Moessler's ' Handbuch,' 
ed. ii., at "the libraries of the British Museum, Kew Herbarium, or 
of the Koyal or Liunean Societies. 

C. ohtum is Avidely distributed in Europe, but is not known to 
occur elsewhere ; it has been found in Sweden, Germany, Bel- 
gium, France, Italy, Austria, and South Eussia occurring in lakes, 
canals, &c. The nucules ripen about xlugust. The Norfolk plant 
is a large form ; although not so stout as the Mantuan specimens, 
it has the longest branchlets of any that we have seen. 



Desceiption of TiB. 210.— 1. Chara ohttisa, Desv., nat. size. 2. Stellate 
lower node, from below. 3. Upper part of a slender branch, sbowincr developed 
and undeveloped bract cells and riidimeut;ii'3- stipulodes. 4. A globule, b. A 
nucule. 



THE HISTOEY OF THE SCOEPIOID CYME. 
By Sydney H. Vines, D.Sc, F.L.S. 

In a recent number of the ' Transactions of the Linnfean 
Society of London,' the Eev. George Henslow publishes some con- 
clusions respecting the nature of the inflorescences usually termed 
scorpioid cymes by a study of their phyllotaxis. These conclusions 
are important, inasmuch as they assert that aU scorpioid cymes 
arc not formed in the same way, some being sympodia and others 
monopodia, and further inasmuch as they suggest that the term 
" scorpioid " is frequently used inaccurately in descriptive Botany. 
It will be at once seen that the questions at issue are by no means 
trivial, and I venture to think that a full discussion of them is 
called for. This I propose to give in the following pages as briefly 
as the extensive literature on tlie subject will allow. 

In order thoroughly to understand what is meant by a " scor- 
pioid cyme," it will be necessary to ascertain the particular forms 
of inflorescences to which it has been applied by various authors, 
and carefully to note any differences which may occur in their 
duiinitions of the term. The term appears to have been invented 
by A. P. DeCandolle, and he defines it, in his ' Organographie 
Vegetale,' tome i., 1827, p. 414, as follows: — " Une secondc 
diflcrence assez remarquable qu'on observe dans les cimes, et 
surtout sur les cimes dichotomes, c'cst que sur les deux rameaux 
qui doivent se developper a I'aisselle des deux bractees, il y en a 
quel(|uefois un qui avorte, et alors la flcur terminale semble 
laterale. . . . Dans ce cas, les lleurs sont generalement dis- 
posees d'un seul cote, soit par una tendance des rameaux k avorter 
du memo cote, soit par une torsion de I'axe. Les branches ou tiges 



4 HISTORY OF THE SCORPIOID CYME. 

dans lesquelles cette disi^osition a lieu, sont, en general, avant leur 
developpemont, ronlees en volute du coto extorieur ; c'est ce qii'on 
observe dans les Urosera, dont les cimes ont les ileurs unilaterales, 
dans les Silenes dits en cpi, dans les branches des cimes des Sedum, 
dans celles des Ecliium, et autres Borragiuees. Je donne a ces 
cimes, dont los flours scmblent unilaterales, le nom de cimes scor- 
j)ioi(l(>s, qui fait allusion a leur mode de developpement." 

The next important work on the subject appears to be that of 
Karl Schimper. He distinguishes two forms of unilateral cymes. 
A report of the lecture delivered at Stuttgart, in which he stated 
his views on this subject, is contained in the ' Flora ' for 1885 : 
from page 189 I literally translate the following passage: — "If 
only one of the two branches (of a dichasium) be developed, two 
different types of unilateral branching arise, accordingly as the 
developed branch is the homodromous or the antidromous one. 
When the homodromous branch is developed, the branching is 
always continued towards the same side, it assumes a screw- 
like form, and has therefore been termed a Schmuhel (Bostryx) : 
when the antidromous branch is developed, a system of alternating 
branches is produced, a Wicket (Cicinnus), to which the inflorescence 
belongs, which is known as the cynta scorpioides." The lecture was 
illustrated by a sheet of diagrams of the different forms of branching, 
which was distributed to the audience. Unfortunately I have not 
been able to find a copy of this sheet (known as chis Schimpcische 
T(ifelchen), but there is reason to believe that the figures given 
below (copied from Hofmeister) are due to Schimper. The examples 
which he gives are the following : of the Cicinnus, Alsine media, 
Helleborus fwtidus, Tribulus, Aizoon; of the Bostryx, Xerium, 
Hypericum . 

In 1837 the brothers Bravais published in the ' Annales des 
Sciences Naturelles ' an essay on the symmetry of inflorescences, 
from which it appears that they had independently arrived at a 
distinction of two kinds of unilateral cymes just as Schimj^er had, 
but their terminology is different. Their definitions are as 
follows : — 

" Ciine lielicoide : cime ou les fleurs Kuccessives sont rangees en spirale autour 

du psfudoLhalle : 
" Ciine scorpioide : cime on les Heiirs sont raug6es suivant deux series paiallele.s 

a I'axe du pseudotlinlle." 

And they further distinguish the hclicoid and scorpioid cymes of 
Dicotyledons from those of Monocotyledons. It is not easy to identify 
the forms distinguished by Schimper with those distinguished by 
Bravais, inasmuch as they appear to have studied dift'ereut plants. 
We shall see, however, that such an identification has been made. 

Payer follows Bravais in his distinction of two forms of uni- 
lateral cymes : thus, on page 98 of his ' Elements de Botanique ' 
(1857), he writes — " ... la cyme unipare peut etre definie ; 
uue inflorescence composee d'uue serie d'axes floraux places les uns 
au bout des autres." On page 99 he continues — " La cyme unipare 
helicoide peut done etre definie ; une inflorescence dans laquelle 
toutes les fleurs sont de generation diflereute, oppositifoliees, et 



HISTOKY OF THE SCORPIOID CYME. 5 

disposees eu helice :" and again, on page 100, "La cyme unijiare 
scorpiuUle peut done etre defiuie ; une inllorescence dout toutes les 
fleurs sont de generation differente, et rangees sur deux series 
seulenient." As an example of the Lelieoid c^'me lie mentions 
Alstrcemeria versicolor; and as examples of the scorpioid cyme he 
gives Seduin album, Hi/oscifamus ni(jer ; and he adds on p)age 113, 
" I'infiorescence des Myosotis." 

It is curious that the next French book of importance, namely, 
Le Maout and Decaisne's ' Traite Clenerale ' (1868), should ignore 
Bravais, and describe, as DeCandolle did, only one form of uni- 
lateral cyme, ushig the expression " cyme scorpioide." They apply 
this expression to the inflorescence of Myosotis, and to a diagram 
which precisely corresponds to the one given below, which Hof- 
meister, following Scliimper, calls a helicoid cyme. 

The most recent French text l)ook of Botany, namely, 

Duchartre's ' Elements de Botanique ' (1877), gives the following 

account of the unilateral cymes, from which it will be seen that he 

has reconciled the terminology of liravais with that of Schimper : — 

"La cyme unipare scorpioide (Ciciunus, ^\'^ickel de Schimper). 

Ses caracteres essentiels consistent. 

. " 1. En ce que son raehis n'est pas un axe unique, mais le 

resultat de la superposition d'un grand nombre de petits axes 

nes les uns des autres, par consequent subordonnes les uns 

aux autres, et dont I'ensemble forme des lors un sympode. 

" 2. Que ses fleurs sont placees sur ce raehis du cote opj)ose a 

celui qu' occupent tout autant de bractees, qui, a la verite, 

peuvent manquer, comme on le voit par la cyme scorpioide 

que represeute la figure 240. (Fig. 240. Cyme scorpioide 

du Symphyttmi asperrimnm.) 

" 3. Que ces memes fleurs sont rangees en deux files lougitu- 

dinales paralleles sur un cote de cet axe commun." 
"La cyme unipare helicoide (Bostryx, Schraubcl de Schimper) 
appartient surtout a des Monocotyledones, Hemerocallis, Alstrce- 
meria, Pliormium, Ornithogalum. Elle ressemble a la precedente 
en ce que son raehis est un sympode et que cliaque fleur est opposee 
a une bractee ; mais elle en differe essentiellement en ce que ses 
fleurs et ses bractees, au lieu d'etre situees respectivement les unes 
et les autres d'un raeme cote du raehis, tournent autour de celui-ci 
en sph'ale ou helice, particularity qui lui a valu son nom. Cette 
difference capitale tient a ce que si, dans une cyme scorpioide, les 
fleurs sont placees altcruativemeut Tune a droite et I'autre k gauche 
par rapport a la precedente par ordrc d'age et deposition, dans une 
cyme helicoide elles se trouvent toutes du memo cote par rapport a 
cette precedente, toutes a droite dans certaines plantes, toutes a 
gauche dans d'autrcs ; il y a done homodromie dans la cyme 
helicoide." 

But to resume the chronological order. Hofmeister, in his 
• Allgemeine Morphologic,' 18G8, p. 435, identifies the terminology 
of Schimper and of Jiravais just as Duchartrc docs. The following 
is a literal translation of what he says on the subject: — "Ex- 
perience shows that the solitary lateral branch always stands ou the 



c 



nrSTQUY OF THE SCOKPTOTD CYME. 



one side, either tlic right or the left, of the medican plane of the branch 
of a lower order which bears it. In this case the successive 
branches, provided that they are directed obliquely upwards, 
describe a screw-line ; when placed in a horizontal position, or if 
jtrojccted upon a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the branch 
of the first order in the system, this line is a spiral. Such a branch 
system is a Srhraubel or JJostri/x (Schimper), a ci/me unipare hcUcoide 
(Bravais), (fig. 1). This case occurs less frequently than the one 




31 






Fig. 1. 



i'iff. 2. 



in which the position of the lateral branch to the branch which 
bears it varies at each branching ; it does so in such a way that, 
for instance, the lateral branch of the second order is borne on the 
right side of the branch of the first order, then the branch of the 
thhd order is borne on the left side of the branch of the first order, 
and then the branch of the fourth order is again to the right of the 
median plane of the branch of the third order, and so on. Such a 
branch system, if projected upon a plane which passes transversely 
through the branch of the first order, forms a zigzag line (fig. 2). 
In infiorescences . . . it is rolled-up in a plane which is more 
or less nearly vertical. For this reason this form of branching has 
received the name of Wickel or Cicinnus (Schimper), and of cyme 
nnipare scorpioide (Bravais)." Examples, of the Bostryx, Hcmcro- 
ctillis fidra and jiava, and the individual inflorescences of Hypericum 
perforaUiiii ; of the Cicinnus, the inflorescences of the Boraginaces, 
of the various species of Helianthemum, of Drosera, and of 
Tradescantia. 

Sachs, in the most recent edition of his ' Lehrbuch ' (1874, 
p. 674), defines helicoid and scorpioid cymes just as Hofmeister 
does, and he also mentions the same examples. 

Eichler, in Vol. I. of his ' Bliithendiagramme ' (1875, p. 34), 
defines these cymes as follows : — 

" Schraidicl (cime unipare helicaide, Bravais) ; Seitenaxen in den 
successiven Generationen immer auf relativ die uamliche Seite der 



HISTORY OF THE SCORPlOID CYME. / 

relativen Abstammungsaxe falleud : Wickel {cime unipare scurpiu'ide, 
Bravais) ; Seitenaxen abwecliselnd auf entgegeugesetzte Seiten der 
relativen Abstammungsaxe fallcnd." 

From the preceding quotations it appears that the term " scor- 
pioid " has been used in two distinct senses by continental authors, 
by DeCandolle and by Le Maout and Decaisne it is applied in- 
differently to all unilateral cymes, by all the other authors it is 
applied to a particular form of unilateral cyme. 

We will now proceed to enquire as to the sense in which this 
term has been used in England. In the English edition of the 
' Traite Generale ' the words of Le Maout and Decaisne are literally 
reproduced, and the term " scorpioid " is evidently used in the 
general sense given to it by the French authors. In Prof. Bentley's 
' Manual of Botany ' (3rd edition, 1873), on page 200, the words 
" helicoid" and " scorpioid are used synonymously, and a diagram 
of a unilateral cyme is given which exactly resembles that given 
above. No. 1. These terms are applied indifferently to all uni- 
lateral cymes. In Prof. Balfour's ' Manual ' (5th edition, 1875), 
the following account of unilateral cymes is given on page 185 : — 
" The imiparous cyme presents two forms, the scorpioid and the 
lielicuid. In the scorpioid the flowers are arranged alternately in a 
double row along one side of the false axis, the bracts, when 
developed, forming a double row on the opposite side, as seen in 
the Henbane ; the whole inflorescence usually curves on itself like 
a scorpion's tail — hence its name. In fig. 273 (fig. 273 is a 
diagram exactly resembling No. 1 above) we have a diagrammatic 
sketch of this arrangement. The false axis ... is formed by 
successive generations of unifloral axes, the flowers being arranged 
along one side alternately, and in a double row ; the whole in- 
florescence is represented as curved on itself. In fig. 274 (inflo- 
rescence of Forget-me-not) the same scorpioid form of uniparous 
cyme is seen, with the double row of flowers on one side of the 
false axis, but in this case the bracts, which should appear on the 
opposite side, are not developed, and hence the cyme is not 
complete." 

" In the helicoid cyme there is also a false axis formed by the 
basal portion of the separate axes, but the flowers are not placed in 
a double row, and form a spiral or helix round the false axis." 
After briefly describing the inflorescence of Alstroemeria, the author 
adds: " In this case the axes are arranged, not in two rows along 
one side of a false axis, but are placed at regular intervals, so as to 
form an elongated spiral round it." 

Dr. Masters, in the last edition of Henfrey's ' Elementary 
Course,' page 83, describes these inflorescences as follows, a figure 
of the scorpioid cyme being given which is similar to our figure 1 : — 
" The subsidiary flower-stalks arc sometimes developed all on the 
same side, when the inflorescence becomes curled from the greater 
growth on one side than on the other. Such cymes are called 
scorjiioid cijnws. At other times the subsidiary pedicels or flower- 
stalks are developed alternately, first on one side and then on the 
other, Avhen the inflorescence has a zigzag shape. When the 



3 History of the scorpioid cyme. 

mainracliis is a sympodc, and the flowers, instead of being all on 
one or on two opposite sides, arc disposed spii-ally, the term 
helicnid cyme is given," 

It appears that the term " scorpioid " is used in two senses by 
English authors also. Sir Joseph Hooker and Prof. Bentley use 
it, as DeCaudolle did, in a general ser;sc. Prof. Balfour's definition 
of it is the more restricted one which is given by modern con- 
tinental authors, whei'eas Dr. Masters seems to include in his 
definition both the forms represented by our figures 1 and 2. But 
it also appears that Prof. Balfour and l)r. Masters apply the term 
" scorpioid " to a diagram (fig. 1) which continental authors 
describe as " helicoid." The editor of the English edition of Sachs' 
' Lehrbuch ' directs attention to the difficulty Avhich thus arises ; I 
did the same in the preface to the English edition of Prantl's 
elementary work ; and this difficulty appears also to have occurred 
to Mr. Henslow. In a review of the English edition of Prantl 
(' Nature,' July 8, 1880), the reviewer also notices it, and criticises 
Sachs and Prantl for having omitted to mention respecting their 
figures of helicoid and scorpioid branching (which resemble those 
given above) that a plan is given, and not an elevation, as is done 
in English text-books. It is by no means certam, however, that 
these authors really meant this. The figures in question are 
merely amplified reproductions of those of Hofmeister given above, 
and his account of the mode in which they were taken is also 
given. It is not easy to decide whether or not this account will 
bear interpreting in the sense in which the reviewer of Prantl takes 
them, but his suggestion has at least the merit of affording a means 
of avoiding what would be a striking case of contradiction in the 
use of terms. In all text-books, whether English or foreign, it will 
be advisable for the future that the authors should state distinctly 
which view of these branch systems their figm-es represent. 

So much for tlie mere terminology of the subject. The question 
now arises, does the description of the formation of the scorpioid 
cyme which is generally accepted, as the foregoing quotations 
shoAv, really correspond with observed facts, or is it merel}' a con- 
venient fiction ? Does the axis of the inflorescence really consist 
of a number of parts, each of which belongs to a separate branch ? 
Is the axis really a sympodium or pseud-axis as it is said to be ? 
Some doubt as to the sympodial nature of the axis appears to 
have existed so far back as the date of the appearance of Schleiden's 
' Grundziige der wissenschaftlichen Botanik,' for he there says, in 
his characteristically vigorous way (I quote from the English trans- 
lation, p. 308) : " DeCandoUe has further applied the term cyme 
to the inflorescence of the Boraginacea?, which, on account of the 
j)eculiar manner in which it unrolls itself, he terms cyma scorpioldes ; 
and he adds the fiction that the undermost, first-blooming flower, 
is really the terminal blossom, and the second, the terminal 
blossom of the side axis, is developed in a disproportionate degree, 
and so on. From the roUing-up there is just as little to be deduced 
as from the same phenomenon in the leaves of Ficus and Cyca- 
dace^e. The position of the bracts, as seen in Cerinthe, contradicts 



ON POTAMOGETON LANCEOLATUS OK SMITH. 



9 



this fiction ; and the history of development, which can alone 
determine the point, appears to me to prove (I own from a few 
very imperfect observations) that here a one-sided raceme or spike 
is present, whose unrolling is only a peculiar situation of the buds." 
From a study of their phyllotaxis, Mr. Henslow has come to the 
conclusion, which is stated in the paper mentioned above, that 
some at least of the scorpioid cymes {e.g., Hyoscyamus) are not 
sympodia, but monopodia. Interesting and ingenious though this 
method of investigation may be, it is too theoretical to afford per- 
fectly conclusive results, and, moreover, it cannot be applied in all 
cases. The only way to decide questions of this kind is, as 
Schleiden urged, to ascertain what actually takes place when the 
inflorescence is being formed, to study carefully its development. 
This has been done by several botanists with the following results : — 
Kaufmann concludes that the inflorescence of Syiiiphytjon pcre- 
(jri)utm, of Myosotis pitlu.'itris, of Anchusa ojficmalis, and others, is 
produced by repeated dichotomy of an axillary bud, and this con- 
clusion was confirmed by Warming, by Pedersen, and by liraus, 
in so far as bracteate scorpioid cymes are concerned ; but naked 
cymes, such as those of Myosotis and of Heliotropium, are, according 
to Kraus, monopodia with a flattened growing-point which bears 
two rows of flower-rudiments on its dorsal surface. The more 
recent researches of Goebel (Arb. d. Bot. Inst, in Wiirzburg, Bd. ii., 
1880), show not only that Kraus' account of the development of the 
inflorescence of Myosotis and Heliotropium is accurate, but that it 
applies also to that of Sijmphijtiua oificinale, Anchusa, Cerinthe, 
Borago, Cynoglossum, EcJdmii vuh/are, Lithospermum arvense, and 
Cariiolopha sempervirens. Goebel finds also that the development 
of the inflorescence of Hijosojamus nii/er and of Khujia Notoniana is 
the same as that of the Boraginacete which he investigated. These 
facts go far to justify Schleiden's description of the scorpioid cyme 
as a " fiction." It is evident that these inflorescences are mono- 
podia, and this being so, they must be termed not. scorpioid cymes, 
but unilateral racemes. Mr. Henslow, in fact, suggests in his paper 
that the inflorescence of Hyoscyamus ought to be termed a " scor- 
pioid raceme." The sympodial nature of any branch system must 
henceforth be regarded with suspicion until its development has 
been properly studied. It is only by this means that botanical 
science will become entirely free from the trammels of the 
" Naturphilosophie " which so long impeded the progress of 
research, and which wore first loosened by the efforts of Schleiden. 



ON POTAMOGETON LANCEOLATUS OF SMITH. 

By C. C. Babington, F.R.S., &o. 

This plant, which was until the present year only known to 
grow in one place, has long been what is called a " critical " species ; 
for very few botanists have seen it in its native place or in a living 
state, and none have ever seen its fruit. Its recent discovery iu 



10 ON POTAMOGETON LANCKOLATUS OF SMITH. 

the Fen country lias again especially directed attention to it. But 
before that discovery was known, it had been very recently 
gathered by Mr. J. E. Griffith, P.L.S., of Bangor, in the original 
locality. On his informing us of it, my friend Mr. A. G. More and 
I determined to go with him to the spot. 

The station is not even now a very accessible one, and until 
recently it might be almost called inaccessible. Tlie formation of 
tlie Anglesea Central liailway has removed much of the difticulty ; 
for by it the little town of Llanerchymedd is easily reached, and 
then there is about three miles of rough country to traverse in order 
to arrive at Penrhos-lhgwy, near whicli place the plant is found. 

It was first recorded by Sir J. E. (Smith, and named P. lan- 
ceolatiim (Eng. Bot. t. 1985), and well figured by Mr. Sowerby from 
specimens sent to them in 1808 by the Eev. H. Davies. Mr. 
Davies gives the exact locality in his own ' Welsh Botanology ' as 
" between Bodafon and Lligwy," in Anglesea. These are two gen- 
tlemen's seats, one a little above the bridge at Penrhos-lligwy, and 
the other some distance below it. Until the last summer this was 
the only known locality for it ; all the others being undoubtedly 
mistakes. The late Mr. W. "Wilson, the celebrated muscologist, 
gathered it in the small brook called the Lligwy, from which the 
parish takes its distinctive name, in July, 182G, finding it only in 
flower (Hook. Bot. Misc. ii. 140). Mr. Wilham Christy gathered 
it there in 1832, and Mr. J. E. Bowman at about the same date. 
I know of no visit having l)een since made to the place until 1879, 
when Mr. J. E. Griffith found it there." On August 31, 1880, he 
conducted Mr. A. G. More and myself to the place. We found 
plenty of the plant growing in the quieter parts of the rather rapid 
stream, both above and below the bridge of Penrhos-lligwy. In 
common with all preceding botanists, we found only flowers, and 
Mr. Griffith, who has been to the spot twice since, the second 
occasion being at the end of October, has not been more successful. 
He sent an abundance of fresh specimens to Mr. More and myself, 
but we have been unable to discover any trace of fruit ; only, even 
on the October specimens, such immature flowers as Wilson found 
in July. This is a very remarkable fact, and even the more 
remarkable from no fruit having been found on the Cambridgeshire 
specimens discovered on August 4, 1880, by Mr. A. Bennett in 
Burwell Fen. So the fruit still remains quite unknown. If it had 
not been for Mr. Bennett's discovery, we might have thought that 
the plant of Anglesea was a barren form of some species, and that 
it propagated itself by offsets, since it roots freely from the joinings 
of the stem. But the discovery of exactly the same plant in the 
Fens renders this improbable. There can be no doubt of the two 
plants being absolutely identical, for several of our leading botanists 
have most carefully compared them, and found them to be the 
same in all respects. 

At one time I thought that it might be P. variifolixis, Tliore, 
but am now convinced of my mistake ; I have a specimen of 

[* There are specimens in the ]5ritisli JMusenni Herbarium collected by 
Mr. F. M. Webb in the Lligwy in 1800. — Ed. Joueh. Bot.] 



MUSCI PEiETERlTl. 11 

There's plant, from " Uza, Depart, des Landes," gathered by 
Endress iu 1831, which is quite different Grenier placed it under 
P. (jramineus (our heterojjhi/flus}, which is also wrong. 

P. lanceolatus of Eeichenhach (Fl. Germ, exsic. No. 2401) is P. 
salicifolws, Wolfg., F. Lonchites, Tuckerm., I believe. P. panor- 
mitanus, Biv., as represented by No. 188 of Huet du Pavilion's 
" PI. Siculte," is much hke our plant, but has different stipules ; 
and Parlatore says that that name is " puro sinonimo dei P. 
pnsillum'" (Fl. Ital. in. 638). My specimen oi P. panormitanus is 
from one of the stations named by Gussone. Gussone has described 
this plant in his ' Fl. Siculs Synopsis,' i. 207. 

I have very little to add to my description of P. lanceolatus. 
The upper floating leaves are opposite, and differ very little from 
the alternate submersed leaves. Their stalks are very short, and 
they have more of the chainlikc network than the lower leaves. 
The lower stipules are almost subulate ; the uppermost are much 
broader, with two strong dorsal elevated ribs. In other respects 
my description appears to be correct, but I have been very much 
disappointed by not being able to add an account of the fruit to it. 

Fries joins our P. lanceolatm to his P. nigrcscens, with the 
remark, " descriptio Wilsonii P. lanceolatl (Sm.) in Hook. Brit, iv., 
p. 70, optime quadrat;" and certainly the descriptions in his 
Mantissa (in, 17) and Summa (214) do agree very well with our 
P. lanceolatus. Lq his case the fruit is described as "fr. compressis 
siccitate carinatis." I have not seen a specimen or ligure of P. 
nigrescens. It was published with that name in 1839 ; Smith's P. 
lanceolatus appeared in Eng. Bot. in 1809. 



MUSCI PEiETEEITI: 

SIVE DE MUSCIS NONNULLIS ADHUC NEGLEGTIS, PKiETERVISIS 
VEL CONFUSIS, NUNC EECOGNITIS. 

AUCTOEE ElCARDO SpRUCE. 

(Continued from p. 3(J;2.) 

6. Orthotrichum nivale. 

Spruce, Catal. Muse. Amaz. et Andin., p. 3, no. 127 (a. 1807). 

Elatiusculum pulvinatum fulvo-viride, inferne fusccscens, facie 
0. rupcstris vel fere O. cupulati. Caulcs li-2-pollicares, erecti, 
basi sola radicellosi, paulo et fastigiatim ramosi ramique sa3pe 
iteratim innovando-proliferi. Folia sat valida confcrtiuscula, 
erecto-patcntia vel patcntia, stricta recurvulave, siccando appressa, 
anguste ovato-lanceolata (4-0 x -9 mm.) — quasi longe hngulata — 
obtuse apiculata, basi decurrente hyalina excepta subopaca, 
utraquc facie aspcrula, cariuata, supra medium canaliculata, 
margine toto fere revoluto, costa infra apicem evnnida ; celluhc 
superiores mcdifeque minuta^ rotundo-liexagonae pachydermes alte 
papillosa.', pluriniiE inferiores longiores lineari-rectanguhe sub- 
l.'tvissimffi pellucidic. Flores monoici : 2 terniinalos, innovationc 
mox buperveniente quasi-laterales. . Bractciu subcrccla), foliis 



1^ MUSCI PK/ETEEITI. 

submajores, basi dilatate pellucida; plicatie(|ue. Vagiuula iiuda, 
ocrea brevi. Pediccllus pcrbrevis, in capsula) collum sensim abiens, 
Capsula immersa, obovato-pyriformis, pallida, ore vix rubescens, 
striis 8 iiavis angustiusculis perciirsa, siccando levissimc 8-costata, 
collo distiiicto post siccationem 5-angulo. Peristomium duplex; 
deiites externi capsula concolores, teneri, madore convexo- 
conniventes, sicci suberectis priinum 8, mox in 16 subulatos, 
linea media cxaratos, papillulosos, margine sfepe crenatos, 
secedentes ; ciliola iuterni 8, dentibus ajquilonga, tenuissimis, 
cellulis unisei'iatis constantia. Calijptra capsulam toUnn ohvelans, 
oblougo-campauulata, virescens, purpurco-acuminata, 12-plicata, 
pilis rarissimis erectis scabridis ad plicas S2)ai'sa. Andra^cia 
axillaria, foliis celata, rufesceutia, ovalia compressa ; bractete 
sub 8, ovatjB obtusatcG concaVcB arete imbricataj ; antlieridia 
plurima elougata paraphysata. 

Hab. Andes Quitenses, in mentis altissimi 7'.7 Altar latere 
australi, supra pr<T3dium Titaiciui, alt. 13,000 ped. Angl., ubi ad 
saxa nive recente obtecta, mense Novembri, a. 1858, legi. 

Syn. " O. striatum, L." Mitt, in ' Muse. Austro-Amer.' p. 189 
(a. 18G9). 

O. rupestrc, Schleicli., liuic certe proximum, differt fruetu 
subemerso ; calyptra insigniter villosa ; peristomio majore, ciliis 
validioribus e cellulis biseriatis eonflatis, etc. — O. striatum, L. 
capsula omnino ecostata ; calyptra dimidiam capsulam solum 
obtegente ; ciliis 16, latis et quasi-moniliatis, longe alienum est. 

7. ScopELOpmLA Agoyanensis. 

Weisia (ScopelopJiUa) Agoyanensis, Mitt. ' Musci-Austro -American!' 
p. 135 (1869). 

On tbe lOtli of July, 1845, in walking up the narrow and rather 
steep gorge leading from the village of Pierrefitte to the Baths of 
Cauterots, in the Pyrenees, and herborising by the way, I gathered 
tufts of a barren moss growing on crumbling ophitic shale, which 
was entirely new to me ; nor did closer examination at my quarters 
throw much light on its afliuities, for, although when growing it 
was not unlilie a muticous form of Turtula uiujuiculata, the micro- 
scope showed it to be very dijBferent. I gathered it afterwards in 
two other widely separated sites, but still in the same unsatisfactory 
sterile condition. The following are its chief characters : — 

Tufts dense and very fragile, greenish only at the growing apex, 
the lower part being of a dull reddish, or port-wine colour. Stems 
an inch high, erect, simple or forked, very sparingly radicellose. 
Leaves crowded, from a suberect and sharply-keeled (^almost 
complicate) base reflexo-patulous, — when dry iucurvo-crispate, — 
ligulate, gradually widening upwards so as to be somewhat 
spatulate, narrowing again in the upper fifth, but very obtuse at 
the point ; margin entire, recurved below the middle ; nerve 
failing a little below the point ; cells plane and smooth, those of 
the lower third pellucid, rectangular, twice as broad as long, upper 
cells 4 — 6 times smaller, subquadrate, opaque ; but three or four rows 
of marginal cells are thicker-walled and discoloured, so that the 



MtJSCi PiliETERITI. 13 

lower leaves have a red, the upx^er a yellowish, border. On some 
stems the leaves are here and there longer, formhig a coma — 
probably a sterile ? flower, but containing no genitals. (Terminal 
gemmiform 3' flowers have since been found, but no fruit to this 
day. ) 

The comparative anatomy of mosses, especially as to the 
correlation of leaf-structure to fructification, had at that time been 
only imperfectly studied, and my own knowledge of it was very 
slight. It was therefore with great difiidence that I published 
specimens in my exsiccata under the name of Encalypta ? ligulata, 
n. sp. ; the broadly-marginate leaves seeming to approach it, though 
very remotely, to Encalypta connmitata, Nees et H. 

Leavin" for a while the further consideration of its affinities, 
I must take my readers with me to the Andes of South America, 
about 1^ degrees south of the equator, and at an elevation of a 
little over 5000 English feet, where the river Pastasa, one of the 
northern feeders of the Amazon, and already become a considerable 
stream, rushes along a deep valley (the Gorge of Banos) at the 
northern base of the volcano Tunguragua, and at the cataract of 
Agoyan plunges down a cavernous clifl" into a deep lake-like basin, 
bordered on each side by walls and fallen blocks of mica-schist — 
richly clad with mosses ; and thence emerging resumes its 
tumultuous course, which scarcely slackens until reaching the 
great Amazonian plain. 

I explored the environs of this cataract pretty thoroughly in 
July and August, 1857, and on some of the mossy blocks I found 
growing in great profusion what seemed the identical Encalypta 
liyulata of the Pyrenees. It was covered with ripe capsules, and 
(as may well be imagined) I secured a large stock of specimens. 
It was a taller, firmer plant, — scarcely at all fragile, — and the lower 
(or inner) portion of the tufts was of a brownish black, and not the 
vinous tint of E. liyulata; but that it difl'ered any otherwise, with 
only memory to aid me, I could not venture to afiirm. The capsule 
was gymnostomous, and, taken in conjunction with the strap- or 
tongue-shaped foliage, reminded me much of two mosses I had 
frequeutl^y gathered in the forests of the Amazon, viz., Hyophila 
Tortula (Schwgr.) and H. melanostoma, Mitt. ; which, however, had 
leaves incurved at the sides, without any recurved margin or 
any border of discoloured cells, and a much longer and twisted 
calyptra. 

There was no a ]}riori reason why the Pyrenean and the Andine 
moss should not be specifically the same, since it has been 
ascertained that certain mosses of Western Europe reappear in 
the Andes ; of which, indeed, I had examples before my eyes. 
Junyeniumia hyalina, Hook., grew on rocks moistened by spray from 
the Falls of Agoyan, exactly as it does in similar sites in Europe. 
liryum Jiliformc, Dicks. {==■ Br. julaccum, Sm.) abounded by the 
Pastasa a few miles lower down, and fruited far more luxuriantly 
than it usually does in the British Isles ; and Torlula (Didyniodon) 
htarlnjiloittia, l^rucli., grew a little above the falls; while llypniDn 
ruscij'urine, Neck., var. (=^ i/. aquaticum, Humpe), covered half-. 



14 MUSCl PR.ETERITl. 

immersed stones in the Pastasa itself. The most conspicuous 
companions of the Scopehphila (as we must for the present call it) 
had, however, a distinctly tropical aspect. Three or four species 
of Macromitrium spread over rocks and trees in great Ilypuum-like 
flakes, studded with stalked, silky hrown or golden cones (the 
calyptras). Other mosses were Holomitrium ]nUchellu7n, Mitt., 
several species of Hookcria, FniUania, Madutheca, &c. ; and minute 
Daltonias perched on the slenderest twigs of overhanging trees and 
bamboos. 

When three years later I broke down in health, and for many 
years together was unable to use the microscope at all, I was 
obliged to entrust the naming of my South-American mosses to 
Mr. Mitten, and I had no doubt he would discriminate between 
this Andine moss and its Pyrenean congener, if they should be 
really distinct. His published account of the former appeared in 
the twelfth volume of the 'Journal of the Linnean Society,' under 
the name Weisia [Scopclophila] A'joi/anensis, Mitt. He did not point 
out how it differed from the Pyrenean moss, but merely remarked : 
"The other species referable to this group [Scupclojihila] are the 
Encahjpta ? liyulata, Spruce, Muse. Pyr. 331, and a few others 
from India and Java ; all agree in their rather firm smooth foliage 
and slender pale fruit-stalk." [I.e., p. 135). [S. Ivjulata, however, 
has soft fragile foliage.) 

The following diagnosis embodies all the differences I have been 
able to detect. It will be seen that the two species are separated 
rather by the sum of small differences than by any one marked 
character. It is, however, only the foliage we are able to compare, 
the fruit of S. Uijulata being still a desideratum. 

ScoPELOPHiLA Agoyaxexsis, Mitt., 1. c. {Wcisia i 5, Scopelophila). 
— S. lujulatcB Pyren^eorum simillima, vaUdiuscula tamen (nee 
fragihs), apicibus novellis solum vh-escens, foliis adultioribus fuscis 
V. fere nigris (in *S'. liijidata sordide rubro-vinoleutibi;s). Eadicellae 
pallida tenuissimae ramose ad caulem inter folia i^aulo copiosiores 
quam S. Hgulata. Folia i^arum diver sa, subbreviora, spathulato- 
Ugulata rotundata obtusutave, rarius solum obtusa, carinata, alis 
recurvulis apice explanatis, sicca apice incurvo-crispa, superne 
magis opaca (quam S. lioidata.) inferne tamen spatio longiore — a 
basi adusque v. ultra medium — pellucida ; cellulis omnibus planis 
iis S. Ugulatcc forma et magnitudine conformibus, marginalibus 
superne sub 6-, inferne sub 4-seriatis minutis flavido-limbata ; 
costa sublongiore, vix sub summo apice evanida. Flores dioici ; 
$ in caule remove innovando terminales. Bractere propria vix 
ullffi nisi folia suprema cateris iiaulo lougiora pellucidioraque, 
pedicelli vagiuulam laxe cingentia. Pedicellus 8-9 mm. longus, e 
viiidi stramineus, baud validus. Capsula 1-4 x '6 mm. ovahs v. 
ovato-oblonga, virescens, setate fusca, leptodermis, erecta v. parum 
inclinata et subgibba, ore vix constricto annulo duplici angusto 
diutius persistente instructa, cffiterum gymnostoma, sicca vix 
mutata estriata parum corrugata. Calyptra operculum paulo 
excedens viridis, apice uigrescens, conico-acuminata dimidiata, 
recta (nee tortaj. Operculum capsula plus duplo brevius, pallidum, 



Musci pr;eteriti. 15 

a basi convexa oblique rostratum, cellulis rectiseriatis conflatum. 
Sporae parvulae virides laeves. Flores masculi hand visi.''= 

To resume the question of affinities. My own crude reference 
of S. Uiiuliitd to EncaJijpta is at once set aside — now that the fruit 
of a closely-alhed species is known — by its small dimidiate 
calyptra ; besides by its lacking the large cloven papillte that stud 
the leaves of Encalyptas. 

The species was next described, from my specimens, by Carl 
Miiller ('Synopsis Muscorum,' a. 1851), who thought he had 
satisfactorily proved it a Z)j<ju(lon : a genus, however, which (taken 
even in its widest acceptation) differs from ScopclupJiila in its 
papillose, immarginate, sharp-pointed leaves, and in its long- 
necked, ribbed, exannulate capsule. I do not know of anything 
further having been published respecting it until it fell to Mr. 
Mitten's lot to describe the South-American species, as above 
stated. To properly estimate his judgment of its affinities, it will 
be requisite to sketch briefly his genus " Weisia,'' which he thus 
defines (Conf. 'Musci Austro-Amer.,' p. 14, et pp. 129-141): — 
" Perianthium si adsit dentibus rectis 8 vel 16 ad basin usque 
discretis. Folia viridia vel flavo-viridia margine incurva, cellulis 
parvis obscuris areolata." He proceeds to divide it into eight 
sections, viz. : — 

§ 1. Si/stet/iiim, Schimp. (= Phascicm crispum, &c.) 

§ 2. Gijmnostonum, Hedw. n. sp. (incluso Hyynenostomo , K. Br.). 

§ 3. Euiceisia (= IF. controversa et affines). 

§ 4. Hymenustylium, Brid. (= Gijnmostomum calcareiun, N. et H. 
et aff.) 

§5. Scopelojihila, M. " Theca gymnostoma. Folia spathulata 
obtusa, cellulis densiusculis liBvibus, perichfetialia propria nulla. 
. . . Thecse in pedunculo gracillimo oblong®, hucusque gymnos- 
tomje tantum viste." (Species tropicfe, Americanas et Asiatic^e). 

§ 0. Hyophila, Brid. "Theca gymnostoma. Folia lata stepe 
involuta." (Species omnes exotica?). 

§ 7. Tortularia, M. "Theca peristomio e dentibus 8 vel 16 
instructa. Folia spathulata. (Species omnes tropic®, nisi pro 
peristomio prsesente HyophiUc ascribendce). 

§ 8. Tapeinodon, M. "Perist. depressum, dentibus parvis infra 
OS thecsB insertis. Folia lata obtusa laxe areolata." (Species 
Americre tropic® et Indite ov.).\ 

Whatever may be thought of Mitten's "TFm/a," in the aggregate, 

* 3Ir. Mitten has a second species, Weisia {Scop.) cataractce, n. sp., gathered 
bj' myself in the same loeality, and probably about tlie base of the lall, wliure it 
was kept perpetually moist. It is said to ditiVr from W. AgoyancnsU in the 
subaeuminate leaves, with a shorter pellucid base; but I have no specimen of it, 
and can give no opinion on its specilic merits. 

t All these sections sec in to me closely related, and not unnaturally combined 
into a single genus, except the last, Tapcinodon, l\Iitt., which is a very curious 
group, certainly sui generix, and whoso place even in the order is not easy to 
assign. In the same year (I8C!)) C. Miiller took up this group, of which the 
type-species, Weisia obtusa, Brid. a. 1400 (= Didymodon splachnifuliits, Hook. 
Muse. Exot. t. 70, a. iHiO) is found in several islands of the West Indies, and 
described it as a new genus, Splachnohnjum, refeniiig it to the tribe Sphicltnacece, 
and adding some new species; and there is no doubt that his name — claiming at 



16 MUSCI PR/ETERITI. 

there can be little doubt that the section (or subgenus) Scopdophila 
is hero in its right place, viz., next to Ilijuphila, and possibly a 
subsection of it ; with some affinity on the other hand to Euweisia 
and (Ttjmnostomum. I have seen in their native habitats two 
species of Scopelojihila, and at least two of Hijop/tila; and I can 
testify to their close resemblance. If we compare their structure, 
we observe no differences sufficient to keep them apart. Ihjophila 
has, it is true, leaves with plane and concolorous margins. 8co- 
pelopJiila lif/ulata has the leaf-margin discoloured and slightly 
recurved below ; but in S. Agoyanensis it is rather the whole leaf 
which is somewhat reflexed on each side, but without any distinct 
recurvation of the very margin. Were the character even more 
marked than it is, it could not suffice to sever the two groups; 
otherwise we might have to place Puttia lanccolata in one genus 
and P. cccspitosa in another — the latter indeed being a true 
Hyopliila, as to the foliage, although the presence of a peristome 
would place it in Mitten's next section, Tortidaria. The calyptra 
is not twisted in every species of Hyopliila, and thus affords no 
constant distinction from Scopelophila. 

once generic rank — must be preferred to Mitten's contemporaneous and very 
appropriate sectional name, Tapeinodon. (Gonf. Braithwaite in Journ. Bot. 
July, 1S7^, p. 19:3, sub S'plachnohryo Wrightii, C. M.) Later on, Miiller added 
two more species: S. indicum, C. M., and S. Spruceanum, CM. [^=Weisia 
splachnifoUa, Mitt, pro parte). I bad gatbered S. Spruceanum in Nov., 1855, in 
tbe roots of tbe Peruvian Andes (proviuco of jMaynasJ growing on gypsaceous 
mud upon wet rocks by tbe river Huallnga and two of its tributary streams — 
certainly an unusual babitat for a Splacbnoid moss. I described it in my MSS. 
from fresh specimens, and called it Trichostomum Maynense, considering it 
nearer T. tophaceum tban any otber moss I could call to mind, altbougli widely 
different in its pelluiid laxly-areolate leaves. As it diverges irom tbe original 
generic cbaraeter (Braitbw., I.e.) in baving both axillary and terminal ^ flowers, 
in tbe didymodontous peristome, and in tbe smaller, nearly straight calyptra, I 
reproduce here my descriptiim, as an aid to determining the nearest relatives of 
these curious mosses : — Splachnohryum Spruceanum, C. M., dioicum, humillimum 
c£espitosum. Caules rubelli, 7 — 8 mm. alti, erecti, simplices v. rarnos 1 — 3 
profereutes, basi radicellosi. Folia angulo 45° jiatentia, baud arete imbricata, 
ovaUa V. subovata, apice rotundata obtusatave ; margine parum retiexo ; costa vix 
ante apicem evanida ; cellulis majusculis 4 — 6-gonis, aliis prosencbymaticis, 
aliis parencbymaticis mixtis, mai-ginaliljus rectangulis, alaribus vix diversis. 
Flores dioici, utriusque sexus eparaplujsati ; ^ gemmiformes, axiUares et 
terminales, plerumque octandri. Fl. J terminales; bracto:T3 foliis duplo fere 
longiores, ovali-oblongis, margine revoluto. Pedicellus brevis (5 — 7-5 mm.) 
ruber, siccus dextrorsum contortiis. Capsula eylindracea, superne parum latioi, 
erecta, raro subinclinata, olivacea, ore rubro, collo vix ullo. Calyptra breviuscula 
dimidiata. Operculum brevi-conicum. Peristomium rubrum, longe infra 
capsula; orificum oriundum, madore conniveus, siccitate retiexo-patulum ; d. 16, 
breviusculi, fere v. usque ad basin bipartiti, crura cellulis 8 uniseriatis constantia, 
mcmbrana hyalina velata, interdum in unum coalita. — The large pellucid cells of 
the broad leaves point, at first sight, to Splachnutn ; but as the cells are almost 
equally divided between pointed and truncate (Mitten calls them all prosen- 
cbyniatous, which I did not tiud them), this character seems to sever Splaclmo- 
bryum I'rom both Splachnacece and Tortulacece, which have normally all tbe cells 
truncate, or parenchymatous. The peristome is not unlike that of some 
Splachnacece, in the teeth springing from within the mouth of the capsule, 
connivent when moist, recurved when dry; but I knOw not of the absolute 
absence of paraphyses from any Splachnacece, where, on the contrary, they are 
usually a very marked feature. Jn fine, if the genus must be referred to 
Splachnacece, it can only be as an outlying and very aberrant member thereof. 



MUSCI PK.ETERITI. 17 

The alternative of cousideriug Scopclophila au aptychous 
member of the subtribe Zi/i/otlonte^e seems scarcely admissible, if 
all the other differences, above-enumerated, be duly estimated ; 
and if C. Miiller had possessed the fruit of Scajwlo/Jnla he would 
(I presume) no more have placed it in Ztjgodon than I should in 
Encahjpta, but, in all probability, alongside Hijopldki, as Mitten 
has done. Bridel's Hi/ophila is, however, for C. Miiller a member 
of the genus Pottia, Ehrh., which he divides into the four sections 
following, viz., Anacahjpta, Eupottia, Hyophila, B,nd. Hijmcnosti/liuiii. 
His definition oi Hijophila is rather fuller than Mitten's, and runs 
thus: — " Theca gymnostoma, rarissime peristomata. Folia plus 
minus lata, marginibus involutis, basi pellucide superne minute opace 
areolata, plerumque facile emollientia. Infl. dioica. Calyptra 
plerumque angusta subtorta. — A I'uttia nuuquam discerni potest, 
nam areolatio folii omnino Eiqwttice est." There is no denying 
that Hyopldla stands in quite as close a relation to Eupottia as to 
any section of Mitten's Weisia. Pottia is, in fact, one of those 
central groups with multifarious affinities, osculating with several 
other groups, which help to prove (if proof were needed) that no 
purely linear sequence of either genera or species can ever be 
thoroughly natural. 

Ketm-ning to Mitten, op.cit., we find him not admitting Pottia 
even as a section, but merging it in his Tortula § 8, Dcsmatodon. 

If we consult now the latest of new bryological systems, viz., 
Lindberg's ' Musci Scaudiuavici in systemate novo uaturali dispositi,' 
we have the genus Tortula of Muse. Brit. — Barhula of Bryol. Europ. 
— divided mainly into three genera, Tortula, MoUia, and Barhula; 
the lateral-fruited T. squarrosa having a genus to itself [Pleurocluvte, 
Lindb.) ; and each of those three genera is enriched by sundry 
species abstracted from neighbouring genera of previous authors. 
'^Tortula, Lindb." comprises Sijiitrichia (Brid.) ; Desniatodon, Brid. 
pro parte ; Anacalypta ; Pottia ; and Phascum hryoides. — " Mollia, 
Schrank. Lindb." is compounded of excerpts from eight genera of 
Bryol. Europ. and Syu. Muse. Europ., in the following order: — 
1. Barhula tortuosa snidfranilis ; 2. Trichoatoniumjiaroi-irem, Bruch, ; 
3. Didt/modon cylindricus, hraclujdontius, &c. ; 4. Eucladium verti- 
cillatum ; 6. Gymnostomum mrcirostrum and teniie ; 6. Weisia viridula 
(i.e., controversa), &c. ; 7. Hymenostomutii microstoinum, &c. ; 
8. Phascum [Systeyium) crisjnu)). '■'■'' 

* The species grouped under Mollia by Schrauk were — as I gather from 
Miiller's 'Synopsis,' for I Lave uot Sclnank's 'Baiersche Flora' (1789) at baud — 
the five following: — muralis, rurcilis, suhulata, tortuosa, and uiii/uiculuta. It 
therefoi-e coiresponded to the Tortula of Hooker and Tnylor, and to the Tortula 
and Barhula combined of Hedwig; and was remote enough from the Mollia 
sought to be re-instituted. Is there to be no limit to this disintermout and 
attempted resuscitation of fossilized names, especially of genera — in most cases 
used by their modern restorers in a much-modified, and sometimes in a very 
ditt'erent, sense from that of the original propounder? If the use of names be 
to enable us to dij-course about things, it is jdain that every change of a 
familiar name of long standing, whether in I'avour of an older or a newer name — 
and especifdly where made loi' the mere sake of the name — involves lo>s of time 
to the student, nnd tends to retard bis acquiring a perfect knowledge of the 
thing itself. 

D 



18 MUSCI PKy"ETEKrrI. 

If, with Mittun, we consider ScopelophUa aud lli/uj)hila congeners 
oi JIijmenuHtomam \xni\. Weida, then they might be Molluc of Lind- 
berg ; but if, following C. Miiller, we put IlynphUd with Vottia, 
they would be 'rurlnhc of Liudberg. 

We see, then, that there is great discrepancy in the views of 
our most eminent bryologists, and that many genera arc at present 
in what can only be styled a state of very unstable equilibrium ; so 
that it seems preferable to retain ScopelopJula, pro tern., as a genus 
apart, by the side of Hiiopliila, until some agreement can be come 
to as to its collocation in a more comprehensive genus. There can 
be no doubt that since the ancient GijiivuiMoiinuii was (very properly) 
broken up, and the members thereof turned adrift, they have been 
in too many instances recklessly bandied about among peristomial 
genera, to which they had often a merely superficial resemblance ; 
and that there is great need of a rigorous reconsideration of their 
true affinities — a task which can properly be performed only by 
one who has a familiar acquaintance with the mosses of the Avhole 
world. Furthermore, the analytical j^rocess has been pushed so 
far of late years that a little more subdivision would elevate almost 
every single species to the rank of a genus ; and what is now 
needed is a judicious synthesis ; nor should this be attempted by a 
bryologist skilled only in European species, but by one whose 
knowledge of mosses is universal; otherwise the resulting genera, 
instead of being each (what it ought to be) a large natural assem- 
blage of species, would be liable to turn out an incoherent medley. 

I have not yet quoted the most recent writer on ScojielojiJdla, 
namely, the late excellent Professor Schimper. In the first edition 
of his 'Synopsis' it is passed over withoiit mention, although he 
had already picked out specimens of it from intermixed Grimmia 
atrata, gathered by himself in the Austrian Alps so long ago as 
1840 ; but in the second edition (Addenda, p. 852) he describes it 
— from the barren plant only — as a new genus : — " Mercei/a. Genus 
valde paradoxum, cum nuUo curopteo commutandum, clar. A. de 
Mercey, florre bryologicse hyerensis et pyrcnaicaa scrutatori 
acutissimo, dedicatum." Yet he had had in his possession for 
several years good, fruited specimens (furnished by myself) of the 
Andine species, which, as I have shown above, is so closely 
related to the Pyrenean species as to be not easily distinguishable. 
Hence it is plain that he had never examined those specimens, nor 
read Mitten's remarks on them ; otherwise, to his experienced eyes, 
the genus would surely no longer have appeared paradoxical. 

One of my objects in drawing up the foregoing account has 
been to vindicate the priority of Mr. Mitten's name, Avhich, whether 
as genus or subgenus, has a right to be respected. When an 
author gives substantive names to his sections of genera, and adds 
a clear definition of them, he tacitly lays claim to their preservation 
by his successors, Avho — possibly aided by ampler materials — may 
judge it desirable to elevate any of those sections to the rank of 
separate genera. M. de Mercey's name, therefore, remains 
available for some genus hitherto unnamed, and (it may be hoped) 
whose claim to generic rank is indisputable. 

( Tu be L-oiitinued). 



19 



ON THE PLANTS OF (NORTH) ARAN ISLAND, 

CO. DONEGAL. 

By Henry Chichester Hart, B.A. 

The island of Aran is situated on the north-west coast of 
Donegal, and lies under the 55th parallel of north latitude. It is 
about a mile and a half distant from the mainland at the southern 
extremity, and from two to four miles elsewhere ; there are, how- 
ever, many other small islets intervening between Aran and the 
mainland, so that there is only about a mile of a clear and shallow 
channel around the eastern shore of the island. The best point 
from which to reach Aran is Burton Port ; the boatmen here are 
accustomed to the passage, and what with shallows, rocks, rapids, 
currents, and numerous windings amongst the islets, it is often by 
no means an easy journey. 

This (northern) island of Aran is to be distinguished from the 
southern islands of the same name at the entrance of Galway Bay, 
of whose Flora I published an account in 1875.''' 

Like many other Atlantic islands, Aran slopes eastward to sea- 
level, and faces the ocean with a wall of cliffs. The scenery along 
these cliffs is superb, especially that of the bay east of Torueady 
Point, where they range from 400 to 550 feet, rising perpendicularly 
from the water's edge. 

The island is about three miles and a quarter wide at its 
southern extremity, and about three miles and three-quarters long 
from north to south. It contains 4355 acres, or nearly seven 
square miles. Its population at the census of 1871 was 1174. 
The low ground from sea-level to about 100 feet along the eastern 
side, and especially in the southern half of the island, is almost 
exclusively the cultivated and inhabited portion of the island. 
Inland there is good mountain pasturage and abundance of turf 
for fuel, but the general appearance of the interior of the island is 
an undulating waste of heather and bog. There are eight small 
scattered lakes, of which Lough Shore, about three-quarters of a 
mile round, is the largest. The highest point in the island is 
Cluidaniller, 750 feet. 

The formation of Aranmore is chiefly a hard reddish sandstone, 
sometimes shaly, but generally purely siliceous, and often turning 
into quartzose. The red granite of the Rosses reappear here in 
small quantities, grey being more prevalent at the south-eastern 
corner of the island ; there are many intrusive bands of trap ; 
manganese and hon ore occur on the island, and at the south- 
western extremity there is a wonderful field of drifted boulders 
(drift apparently from the N.E.) of red granite lying on the sand- 
stone ; these extend for about a mile at from two to three hundred 
feet above sca-lcvcl, and the granite belongs to the adjoining dis- 
trict of the mainland called " The Rosses." 



*' A List fif Plants found in tlio Islands of Aran, Galway Bay,' by Henry 
Cluche^t'•r Hai't, 15. A. JJuLlin: llmlges, Foster, and Co. 1870. 



20 PLANTS OF (north) ARAN ISLAND, CO. DONEGAL. 

My visit to Aran was in the middle of September, 1879 ; and 
altliough I only spent three days there, 1 left very little ground 
unexamined. I made a complete circuit of the island, and went 
round and botanised all the lakes as well as all the hills. The 
only part which I gave less time to than I wished was the cultivated 
ground which was still under crops. It is therefore possible that 
some weeds of cultivation which do not appear in my list may 
occur in Aran. 

The Botany of Aran must be considered as an outlying portion 
of that of the mainland, and is interesting only as an island Flora. 
The only rarity I obtained new to the county was Saxifratja hirta; 
it occurred in very small quantities in the gully called Polldoo on 
the west side of the isbmd, and is more thickly covered with hairs 
than any Irish form I have met with ; Trifoliiuii medium grows 
plentifully along the east shore in several places both north and 
south of Leabgarrow, it is a scarce plant in Ireland ; Eh/mits 
arcnariua had been previously discovered by Prof. E. Murphy, it 
grows in small quantities along the shore in two places south of 
Leabgarrow ; it was stunted and bearing no inflorescence, and a 
very poor representative of this noble grass in its full luxuriance, 
as it may be seen on the western shore of Carrick Finn Island, 
about eight miles north-east from the locality on Aran. 

The Flora of Aran belongs almost eutirelv to Watson's British 
type. Four al^nne plants occur, Secliun Ilhodiuhi, Arctostajihi/Ios 
Uva-ursi, Isoetes lacustris, and Jimipenis nana ; all four descend to 
sea-level, both here and in other parts of Ireland, and are therefore 
by no means exclusively alpine plants, while of the latter I wish 
to remark that the decumbent form with short leaves grows luxu- 
riantly on sea bluffs and rocky shores in numerous parts of the 
Donegal coast. There arc also six plants belonging to Watson's 
Scottish type: Sa.cifraf/a hirta, Antennaria dioica, Lobelia Dortinanna, 
Evipetrum nigrum, Laiuiuui intermedium (a colonist), and Elymiis 
arenarius. 

The few trees which I observed were alders, sallows, &c., in 
the neighbourhood of the cottages, and in the wilder parts along 
the faces of the cliffs a low brushy growth of stunted oaks and a 
few birches may be met with. These two latter are native ; all the 
other trees on the island are, I believe, introduced. 

The following plants are especially abundant and characteristic 
of the vegetation in Aran : — Sedum lUiodiola, ArctostapJujlos Uva- 
vrsi, Em petriun nigrum , andJunijierus nana. Arctostajiliylus appears 
chiefly inland about the tops, and on bluffs above one or two of 
the lakes ; Sedum. Ilhodiola grows in extraordinary profusion at the 
south-western extremity, and with the others in many parts along 
the western cliff's. I have never seen any one of these four plants 
so abundant in any other part of Ireland. 

By comparing this list with Mr. More's account of the Flora of 
Inish Bofin," I find that the total for Aran is 232 species, and for 



*'-];f].ort on the Flnra of Inish I'-ofin, Gahvay," by A. (i. More, F.L.S., 
M.R.I.A., in the Koval Irish Academy I'locecdings, 2n(l Series, vol. ii. (Science), 
1870, 



PLANTS OF (north) ARAN ISLAND, CO. DONEGAL. 



21 



Inisli Bofin 303. The following species occurring in Aran were 
not found in Inisli Bofiu : — 



Caltlia palustris 

CardamiuG liirsuta 

Draba verna 
:}: Viola tricolor 

Sagina apetala 

Stellaria uligiuosa 
[Ulex europteus] 

Trifolium medium 
|Alcliemilla arveusis 

Myriopliyllum alteruiflorum 

Sedum Ptliodiola 

Saxifraga hirta 

Helosciadium nodifloram 
'''^gopodium Podagraria 

Autennaria dioica 

CarJuus pratensis 
f Crepis virens 

Arctostapliylos Uva-ursi 

Vacciuium Myrtillus 

Myosotis repeus 

Digitalis purpurea 

Veronica officinalis 



jVeronica hcderifolia 
,, serpyllifolia 
|Lamium incisum 
I , , intermedium 

Atriplex liastata 

Beta maritima 

Betula alba 
f Salix cinerea 
:[Alnus glutinosa 

Quercus Robur 
f Corylus Avellana 

Juncus maritimus 

Scirpus maritimus 

Carex vulgaris 
jAlopecurus pratensis 

Aira ctespitosa 

Sclerochloa maritima 

Catabrosa aquatica 
|Bromus sterilis 

Elymus arenarius 

Isoetes lacustris 



Of these, however, Seditm Bhodiola, Corylus Avellana, Betula alba, 
Salix cinerea, Care.r riih/aris, and Aira ete.spitosa occur upon Inish 
Turk, which is only five miles north of Inish Bofin, while it is to be 
remembered that Aran is about eighty miles north of Inish Turk. 

In conclusion, I take this opportunity of expressing my grati- 
tude to Mrs. Charley, the owner of Aran, through whose kindness 
I obtained accommodation upon the island : and to Mr. Hammond, 
of Leckbeg, Burton Port, the courteous agent of the Marquess of 
Conynghame, to whose hospitality and local knowledge I was much 
indebted in that most remote country. 



Ranunculus hederaceus, L. 

,, Flammula, L. 

,, acris, L. 

,, repens, L. 

,, bulbosus, L. 

Caltha palustris, L. 
Nasturtium officinale, l'>r. 
Cardamine hirsuta, L. 
Draba verna, //. 
Cakile maritima, L. 
Viola palustris, L. 

,, tricolor, L. 
Drosera rotundifulia, L. 
Polygala depressa, ]Ven(l. 
Silenc maritima, U'itfi. 



Oxalis Acctosella, L. 
Sagina procumbens, L. 

,, apetala, L. 
Honkencvja poploides, l-'hrh. 
Stellaria media, L. 

,, uliginosa, Murr. 
Cerastium glomeratum, Tlmil. 

,, triviale, ////;/.-. 

,, tetrandrum, (Utrl. 

Hypericum pidchrum, L. 
Geranium mollc, L. 

,, Bobertianum, L. 
Erodium cicutarium, Sni. 
Liuum catliarticum, L. 
Jl-.uWohi MiUegrana, Sm. 



22 



PLANTS OF (north) ARAN ISLAND, CO. DONEGAL. 



*Ulex europ.Tus, L. 
|Trifolium pratcnsc, L. 
,, medium, L. 
f ,, repens, L. 
,, minus, Siu. 

Lotus coniiculatus, L. 

Anthyllis Yaliiuraiia, L. 

Vicia Cracca, L. 
,, sopium, r.. 

Spii'ica Ulmaria, L. 

Alchemilla arveiisis. Scop. 

Potentilla reptans, L. 

,, Tormcutilla, Xestl. 

EuLus fruticosus, L. (discolorj 

Eosa spinosissima, L. 

Lythvuui Salicai'ia, L. 

Peplis Portula, L. 

Epilobium moutauum, Schreh. 
,, palustre, L. 

Myriopliyllum alteruifiorum, DC. 

Moutia Ibutaua, />. 

Lepigonum talinum, Presl. 
,, nipicola, Lcbel. 

Sedum Rliodiola, DC 
,, aiiglicum, Huds. 
,, aci'G, -L/. 

Saxifraga liirta, Sin. 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris, L. 

Helosciadium nodiflorum, Koch. 
*Ji^gopodium Podagraria, L. 

Angelica sylvestiis, ]j. 
jHeracleum Splioudylium, L. 

Caucus Carota, /.. 

Hedera Helix, L. 

Lonicera Periclymenum, L. 

Galium verum, L. 

G. saxatile, L. 

Scabiosa succisa, L. 

Tussilago Farfara, L. 

Bellis perennis, L. 

Solidago A^irgaurea, L. 

Achillea Ptarmica, L. 

A. IMillefolium, L. 
f Matricaria inodora, L. 

,, ,, car. niaritima 

t Chrysanthemum Leucauthc- 

mum, L. 
|C. segetum, L. 
lAvtexaism vulgaris, L. 

Gnaphalium uliginosum, L. 

Autenuaria dioica, (usit. 



iSenecio vulgaris, L. 
,, sylvaticus, L. 
,, .Tacob<X'a, Ij. 
,, aquaticus, Ihuls. 
I Arctium minus, Schk. 
•jCentaurea nigra, L. 
Carduus lauceolatus, L. 
f ,, arvensis, Curt. 
,, palustris, Jj. 
,, pratensis, lluds. 
jLapsana communis, L. 
f Hypochoeris radicata, L. 
Apargia autumnalis, Wilhl. 
jLeontudon Taraxacum, L. 
f Sonchus oleraceus, L. 
f ,, asper, Hojf'in. 
f ,, arvensis, L. 
jCrepis virens, L. 
Hieracium Pilosella, L. 
Lobelia Dortmanna, L. 
Jasioue montana, L. 
Campanula rotundifolia, L. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi, Spr. 
Call una vulgaris, Salisb. 
Erica cinerea, L. 
,, Tetralix, L. 
Vaccinium ^lyrtillus, L. 
Erythr;T}a Ceutaurium, Fers. 
Gentiana campestris, L. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, L. 
Convolvulus sepium, L. 
Myosotis repens, Dtm. 
„ arvensis, Huffm. 
,, Cfespitosa, Schultz, 
Digitalis purpurea, L. 
Pedicularis sylvatica, L. 
|Ehinanthus Crista-galli, L. 
{Euphrasia officinalis, L. 

,, Odontites, L. 

Veronica ChamjBdrys, L. 

,, officinalis, L. 
I ,, hederifolia, L. 
,, serj)yllifolia, L. 
Thymus Serpyllum, L. 
Prunella vulgaris, L. 
jLamium incisum, Willi . 
\ ,, intermedium, Willd. 
I ,, purpureum, L. 
|Galeopsis Tetrahit, L. 
Stachys palustris, L. 
Primula vulgaris, Huds. 



PLANTS OF (north) ARAN ISLAND, CO. DONEGAL. 



23 



fAuagallis arveusis, L. 

„ teuella, L. 
Glaux maritiina, L. 
Armeria maritima, Willd. 
Plantago Coroiiopiis, L. 
f ,, major, L. 
,, maritima, L. 
,, lanceolata, L. 
Litorella lacustris, L. 
IClienopodium album, L. 
Salsola Kali, L. 

Atriples augustifolia, Sin. (A. 
erecta, Hi«ls. 

,, Babiugtoiiii, Woods. 

,, hastata, L. (deltoidea, 

Bab.) 
Beta maritima, L. 
jKumex obtusifolins, L. 
,, Acetosa, L. 
,, Acetosella, L. 
f Polygonum Persicaria, L. 
,, Hydropiper, L. 

,, aviculare, L. 

Empetrum nigrum, L. 
I Euphorbia Helioscopia, L. 
Callitriche verna, L. 

,, platycarpa, Kiitz. 

lUrtica urens, L. 
I ,, dioica, L. 
tSalix cinerea, L. 
,, repens, L. 
Populus tremula, L. 
Myrica Gale, L. 
Betula alba, L. 
f Alnus glutiuosa, (Ja.rt. 
Quercus Robur, L. 
f Corylus Avellana, L. 
Jimiperus communis, L. [car. 

nana) 
Orchis maculata, L. 
Iris Pseud-acorus, L. 
Narthecium ossifragum, Ihuh. 
Juncus maritimus, Sm. 
,, communis, Mreij. 
,, squarrosus, L. 
,, compressus, Jacq. 
,, bufonius, L. 
Luzula multiriora, Jacq. 
Sparganium minimum. Fries 
Lemna minor, L. 
Potamogeton polygonifolius, L'r. 
Zostera marina, L. 



Eleocharis palustris, Br. 

,, multicaulis, Sm. 

Scirpus maritimus, L. 

,, Savii, 5. M. 
Carex arenaria, L. 
,, stellulata. Good. 
,, vulgaris, Fries. 
,, prfecox, Jacq. 
,, glauca, Scojj. 
,, extensa, Good. 
,, distans, L. 
,, binervis, S)ii. 
Anthoxauthum odoratum, L. 
Alopecurus pratensis, L. 
jNardus striata, L. 
Phragmites communis, 2'riii. 
Agrostis canina, L. 
,, vulgaris, With. 
,, alba, L. 
fHolcus lanatus, L. 
Aira ca^spitosa, L. 
,, flexuosa, L. 
,, caryophyllea, L. 
„ prc^cox, L. 
I Arrhenatherum avenaceum, 

Beauv. 
Triodia decumbeus, Beauv. 
Molinia cierulea, Mamch. 
Glyceria fluitans, Br. 
Poa annua, L. 
Sclerochloa maritima, Lindl. 
Catabrosa aquatica, Prcsl. 
Cynosurus cristatus, L. 
Dactylis glomerata, L. 
Festuca ovina, L. 
JBromus sterilis, L. 
B. mollis, L. 
Triticum repens, L 

„ junceum, L. 
Elymus arenarius, L. 
Equisetum arvense, L. 
Polypodium vulgarc, L. 
LastnBa Filix-mas, Presl. 
„ dilatata, Presl. 
,, ajmula. Brack. 
Athyrium Filix-fa3mina, Roth. 
Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum, L. 

,, marinum, L. 

Blechnum boreale, Sw. 
Ptcris aquilLua, Sic 
Osmunda regalis, L. 
Isoctcs lacustris, L. 



24 



SlIOilT NOTES. 



The Flowering of Primula scotioa, Jloolc. — In the early part 
of Majs 1880, in company with a friend, I visited the Links of 
Uunnct, in Caithness. We marked twelve plants of Prinnila srotica, 
Hook., each of which had one scape in flower. During the year 
my friend observed and recorded the progress made by these plants. 
On 5th July the flower scapes of May were in fruit, and seven of 
the plants were in flower for the second time. By 10th August 
the flower scapes of July were in fruit, and two of the plants had 
flowered a third time. Thus, of the twelve plants observed in one 
year, five flowered once, five twice, and two thrice. I have plants 
of F. scotica in my herbarium, which exhibit the following number 
of scapes at each period of flowering in one year : — 1st, plants 
which have flowered once in one year — [a) with one scape ; {h) with 
two scapes. 2nd, plants which have flowered twice in one year — 
[a) with one scape both times ; [b) with one scape the first time, 
and two the second ; (c) with two scapes the first time, and one 
the second ; {d) with three scapes the first time, and two the second. 
3rd, plants which have flowered thrice in one year — [a) with one 
scape each time. It is evident from the above that the number of scapes 
on a plant is not always a trustworthy indication of the periods 
of flowering in one year. I have one curious plant in which a 
scape and single pedicel stand side by side. The plant has flowered 
twice in one year — first with the above-mentioned scape and 
pedicil, and second with one scape. It was collected by my friend 
on the Links of Dunnet between 12th and 14th July, 1880. In 
my herbarium I have specimens in which the normal form of flower 
and that of the so-called variety acauUs are combined in the one 
plant. These plants have flowered twice in one year — first like 
acanlis and second like scotica. I collected them and plants of 
scotica and acaulis growing on the heath to the west of the Standing 
Stones of Stenness, in Orkney, on 24th of September, 1880. The 
above observations show that the so-called variety acaulis some- 
times occurs on the same plant as the species. In other words, 
the species scotica may have a scape or be acaulescent. In my 
experience the height of scotica varies from three-quarters to seven 
inches, and that of acanlis is about one inch. The earliest and 
latest dates on which I have found P. scotica in flower were 
respectively 25th April, 1880, and 19th September, 1879. — Henry 
Halceo Johnston. 

A New British Carex. — The following note, signed with the 
initials of Mr. F. A. Lees, is from Hardwicke's ' Science Gossip ' 
for December last. We hope soon, by the kindness of Mr. Lees, to 
publish a detailed description of what appears to be an interesting 
novelty: — "At first, sparingly in July, later more abundantly in 
August, I observed a species of sedge exceedingly graceful in 
appearance, growing in tufts in deep shade, out of crannies of the 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND ME.AIOIRS. 25 

old moss-grown sandstones at Plumpton Rocks, near Knares- 
borongh. At first, from its narrow deep green leaves as long as its 
Howering stem, from its interrupted spike with oval spikelets, its 
pointed dark glumes, and its remarkably developed leafy bract, I 
tboiight it the variety neniorusa (Lumnitz.) of Carex muricata. Not 
feeling satistied, however, I sent examples to Mr. H. C. Watson. 
He pronounced them at first (J. poh/rltiza (Hoppe), but expressed 
doubt. Specimens went from him to Kew Herbarium, where Mr. 
Bailer [Baker] I believe detected their affinity rather with 0. 
jiilulifcra, but diverging so distinctly from that type, having such 
long bracts, a straight not arcuate rachis, and not a couple of 
round pill like female spikelets, that Mr, Watson wrote me the plant 
was new, and quite sufficiently distinct to merit a varietal if not a 
specific name. I have therefore bestowed upon my sedge of shady 
rocks the name of C. Sa.cuinlirK. I hope soon to describe and figure 
it.— F. A. L." 



Notices of Booiis autr iitcmoivs. 



The Botanical Record L'lnh: I'lianerogamic Report for 1879, and Cri/pto- 
cjamic Report for 1879 and 1880. By the Referees and EnrroR. 
We have already expressed our satisfaction that the adverse 
circumstances which at one time threatened the extinction of this 
useful Club had been overcome ; and the interestnig Report now 
before us is a good specimen of the work undertaken by the 
members. We had hoped tliat a union might have been effected 
between the Botanical Exchange Club and the Record Club ; but 
this does not seem to have been thought practicable. As recon- 
stituted, the Record Club is under the management of four 
referees (Prof. Babington, Mr. Baker, Mr, H. Boswell, and Dr. Car- 
rington), an editor (Mr. F. A. Lees), and a secretary and treasurer 
(Mr. C, Bailey), who holds a similar post in connection with the 
Botanical Exchange Club. One result of the existence of two 
botanical clubs is a division (real or apparent) among British 
botanists — those who are most active in supporting the one being 
as a rule conspicuously absent from the reports of the other ; and 
we miss from the most recent Report of the Record Club the names 
of several of those who were among the earliest and most active 
of its members. 

The contents of the present Report are of great value and interest, 
although they do not lend themselves to t^uotation so easily as 
the notes in the Exchange Club Report. Besides the usual "new 
county records," " general locality hst," &c., we have "basis lists" 
for tlie counties of Cardigan and Peebles — the former, containing 
851 species, by Mr. H. Lewis Jones ; the latter, with 319 species, by 
Mr, A, Brotherston; " the only counties now remaining from which 
lists of common plants (compiled from actual recent observation) 
are still lacking, are Flintshire, Wigtonshire, and West Ross." 

The Cryptogamic Report, whicli is confined to the bryological 
section, is especially interesting. County catalogues are given for 



26 NOTICES OK BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

South Devon (R. V. Tclkm and John Ralfs), North Somerset (Dr. 
11. F. Parsons), Dorset (the Rev. H. H. Wood), Middlesex (Dr. 
Eyre de Crcspigny), Hereford (Rev. A. Ley), Merioneth and 
Chester (John Whitehead), South-east York (Dr. H. F. Parsons), 
Cumberland (Rev. R. Wood), and Isle of Mull (G. Ross). There 
are also new county records for West and East Cornwall and 
North Lincolnshire, the latter containing the diagnosis of a new 
form of KiirJninchiuiii. ■■striatum, which Mr. Lees proposes to call 
arciuitiun; "its most striking feature is its beautiful deep-green 
colour, its short arcuate branches, and its squarrose leaves, more 
crowded on the stem and more acuminate than in striatum ; and 
too broad, too little attenuate at the point, and too strongly serrated 
and striated for Rtriatnluin.''' We wish tlie Record Club every 
success, and trust that no further hitch may occur to hinder its 
usefulness. J. B. 

Species, (icnerd, et Ordincs AhiarHinjScitdescriptiimcssuccinctcc sjiccieruin, 
fienenun, et ordimun, (juibus Ahjanun Reipnim const ituitur. 
Auctore Jacobo Georgio Agardh, Bot. in Acad. Lund. Prof. 
Emer. Vol. III., Pars ii. Morphologia Floridearum. Lipsiae : 
Apud T. 0. Weigel. 1880. 

A YEAR has not elapsed since the announcement in the pages 
of this Journal of the appearance of a new work on the ' Mor- 
phology of the Floridea3,' by Dr. J. G. Agardh. We have now to 
record the publication, by the same author, of another volume. 
The present is a Latin edition of the first-mentioned work, which, 
having been written in Swedish, and printed in the Acta of the 
Academy of Stockholm, was a sealed book to many readers. The 
new work is intended to form Part II. of the third volume of the 
author's well-known ' Species, Genera, et Ordines Algarum,' to 
which it is a valuable addition. 

In treating his subject, the Morphology of the Floridete, the 
ex-professor shows, not only his own intimate acquaintance with 
the structure of the species described, and the characteristics of 
the different genera and orders, but a not less intimate acquaint- 
ance with the most recent literature on the subject. The observa- 
tions and opinions of his contemporaries are examined carefully, 
and full reasons are given on points on which the author's 
experience differs from theirs. 

After treating of the external forms of the plants, he describes 
their habit, the ramification and evolution of the external parts, 
and the formation of the root, stem, and fronds. He then treats of 
the structure of the internal parts, and of the organs of reproduc- 
tion, namety, the antheridia, spores and sphasrospores, and cysto- 
carp, in most of the families of the Florideje, concluding with obser- 
vations on the so-called double fructification in this class of Algaj, 

We are glad to see not only a table of contents, but an index 
rerum, and a list of the species whose structure is described in the 
work, with special references to their constituent parts. This is a 
great boon to algologists, and will facilitate the study of this 
important aiul useful work. M. P. M. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 27 

Ueber Geysirs mid nehenan enstehende verkieselte Bciumc. Von Dr. 
Otto Kuntze. ' Das Auslaud,' 1880 passim. (Beparat- 
Abdruck.) 

Dr. Kuntze, in the course of his study of the geysers of the 
United States and of Japan, observed that the siHcic hydrate with 
which trees lying in the water are impregnated does not harden, 
but that trees exposed to the air gradually become silicified. He 
combats the view that wood has undergone silification in water, 
which he thinks especially difficult to understand in the case of 
woods of lesser specific gravity than water. He distinguishes 
between silicifaction and petrifaction. Petrified trees, he adduces 
evidence to show, sank under water, and becoming embedded in 
mud were then carbonised. On the other hand, trees were silici- 
fied in situ by means of comparatively small but constantly flowing 
quantities of the silica-holding water of geysers and hot springs 
which rises in the wood by capillarity, and evaporates gradually in 
the air. We doubt whether this has occurred in all cases. Even 
if geysers and hot springs be the sole sources of silicifaction, 
silicified leaves, stems, ferns, &c., have been observed on the 
borders of geysers in such positions as to render this notion of 
capillarity unnecessary. Further, may not standing trees have 
been to some extent silicified by receiving the heavy showers 
occurring on the leeward side of geysers, as figured by Sir Charles 
Lyell (' Principles,' 11th edition, vol. ii., p. 218)? Dr. Kuntze, in 
conclusion, finds from his observations fresh support for his theory 
that the plants of the coal-measures floated in the sea. S. M. 



Revision von Sargassum imd das sor/ennante Sargasso-Meer. Von Dr. 
Otto Kuntze. Mit einer Phototypie und einer Karte. Separat- 
Abdruck aus Engler's botanischen Jahrbiichern, I Band, 3 Heft. 
1880. Leipzig : AVilhelm Engelmann. 

The " Gulf-weed " is commonly supposed to consist of a single 
species [S. bacciferum), and to be confined to a particular portion 
of the Atlantic Ocean. In this treatise. Dr. Kuntze conclusively 
shows that both these suppositions are erroneous — that not only 
does the Gulf- weed consist of several species and many varieties, 
but that it is not met with in the same spots nor in similar quan- 
tities by dift'ercnt travellers at different times, the masses of de- 
tached sea-weed evidently drifting within certain limits, and never 
remaining stationary. It needs only a glance at the photographed 
specimens of floating Gulf- weed at the end of the pam])hlet to see 
that they evidently belong to several difierent species ; while from an 
excellent map, on which the author delineates the routes taken by 
those who have at various intervals described the Srinidssuiii, it is 
obvious that his conclusions are drawn from legitimate grounds. 
By his own observations, as well as by those of previous writers on 
this subject, Dr. Kuntze demonstrates that the name of Sarf/assuni 
hdccifennn sliould no longer l)e retained as 'a specific one, and that 
Piumphius, who first descrilted the so-called ^S. bacvi/i'ntin as a 
floating form of a species growing on the shore, was quite correct 
in his statement. In proof of his position, the author adduces as 



28 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIKS. 

evidence the I'iicts that S. harrlfcvnm possesses no character suffi- 
ciently constant to distinguish it from N. vidian'. Neither the old 
plant nor the young one, which in this genus are bladderless and 
thick-leaved, have ever been found floating, nor has growth l)ecn 
accurately observed on the evidently detached imperfect portions, 
which, moreover, have always an inihealthy appearance, and a paler 
hue than the shore plants. He believes also that these detached 
portions do not last longer than three months. 

In botany, as in politics, there may be said to exist two 
parties of opposite views — the one with a liberal tendency, which 
exhibits a desire to give a name and specific rank to every 
observed variety, and the other more conservative, which prefers 
to group a number of forms around certain types. Dr. Kuntze, 
who evidently belongs to the latter class, proposes to reduce the 300 
hitherto described " species " to 11 central types (" formenkreise "), 
around each of which are grouped a number of intermediate forms, 
the species being characterised by their degree of differentiation 
of leaf and stem, while minor characters are derived from the 
shape of the leaves and air-vessels, &c. 

It is obvious that in a genus the plants of which differ so 
greatly as do those of Sargaaswii, at different periods of theu" 
development, it is only possible to prove the value of specific 
characters by careful observation in situ of their growth and de- 
velopment, and recognising this fact, the author does not put for- 
ward his classification as a final or complete one, but merely claims 
to have made a beginning in clearing up some of the confusion 
which has existed hitherto regarding many of the species. He 
believes that as future investigation will present more inter- 
mediate forms, so the number of real species will probably have to 
be diminished. The alphabetical list of synonyms, each of which 
is referred to its equivalent in the author's classification, cannot 
fail to be exceedingly useful to algologists. Dr. Kuntze's researches 
bear evidence of that spirit of laborious and thorough investigation 
of detail so characteristic of the German nation, and as such form a 
valuable contribution to our knowledge of the genus. E. M. H. 



We have received from Mr. J. E. Griffith, of Bangor, a reprint 
of his ' Flora of Carnarvonshire and Anglesea,' to the issue of 
which in the pages of the ' Naturalist ' we referred at p. 124 of oiir 
last volume. It is a useful list, although very far from a complete 
flora in the usiial acceptation of the term ; there is no reference to 
previous records, the plants having been nearly all of them collected 
by Mr. Griffith in the stations he assigns to them. In a few 
cases the author has relied on dried specimens ; and as he has 
kindly indicated these in the copy we have received, it may be well 
to enumerate them for the benefit of those into whose hands the 
list may fall. They are as follow : — Mutthiola siniuita, Dniha incava, 
Lepidinm Uiti/oliuiii, Ccrdstiuiii aJjdHHiii, ('. latifoliiuu, Tri folium 
scaln'uiji, T. strict niii, Potentillu aljicstris, Ajw/a aljiinn, 2lalaxis 
pcdudusa, Juncus hij/hoins, J. triijhiinis. IHantlius jihoiiarius is to be 
substituted for D. cccsius. Further information as to the occurrence 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 29 

of these is desirable, and we suspect some error with regard to 
such plants as Kialohium alpinum, Eriophonim rjracile, and one 
or two more. Mr. Griffith notes that the middle of June 
is the best time for collecting the Anglesea Helianthemums, 
H. guttatum and H. Breivcri; he adds, " The botanist must try to 
get [them] in the morning, as the petals all drop off before three 
p.m. ; the flower only lasts about six hours." The best time to 
get LloijiUa is from the 10th to the 18th of June. We hope that 
Mr. Griffith may be induced to undertake a more complete investi- 
gation of the botany of these two counties ; a good flora of Anglesea 
would be a very useful and interesting addition to our local 
floras, and the author of this list has special opportunities for 
executing it. 

Mr. Henry Ullyett, B.Sc, has recently published a little 
volume entitled ' Eamblcs of a Naturalist round Folkestone,' to 
which are appended various local lists, including one of the 
flowering plants and ferns containing about seven hundred sj)ecies. 
Mr. Ullyett cautions botanists that seeds of various garden plants 
have been sown upon some parts of the slopes along the lower 
Sandgate road. 

Under the title of ' The Guests of Flowers ; a botanical sketch 
for Children,' Mrs. Meetkerke has published a pretty little volume 
treating in simple language of some of the more striking phenomena 
ill connection with the fertilisation of flowers, showing how some 
are protected from the visits of useless insects, while they offer 
every facility to those which assist in the process of fertilisation. 
As an attempt to familiarise children with some of the more note- 
worthy of Dr. Keruer's investigations, it merits a word of praise. 

We have received the thhd part of Dr. Braithwaite's ' British 
Moss-Flora,' containing the I'oh/tricJiacea. Both plates and letter- 
press continue to justify the high expectations formed of them ; and 
we are glad to notice certain improvements in the arrangement of 
the latter which add materially to the readiness with which the 
work may be consulted. 

We have also received Mr. A. Pi. Wallace's interesting volume 
'Island Life,' and hope, if our space will permit, shortly to bring 
some extracts from it before the notice of our readers. 

Mr. W. ]\Iathews has reprinted from the ' Transactions of the 
Bu-mingham Philosophical Society ' his paper on ' The Flora of 
Algeria considered in relation to the physical history of the 
Mediterranean Kegion and supposed submergence of the Sahara.' 
He gives an interesting analysis of the Algerian flora, and considers 
that the distribution of the plants of the Sahara militates strongly 
against the theory of its recent submergence. 

The part of Engler's ' Botanische .Jahrbuclier,' issued in July 
last, contains an important paper on the gfOgrapliical distribution 
of the Jimcacca', by F. Buchenau, the flrst part of an exhaustive 
monograph of Lijtkracea:, by E. Koehne, and contributions to the 
knowledge of Ann-ca', by A. Eugler. 



30 NOTICES OK BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

The last part of Maximowicz's ' Diagnoses plautarum novarum 
asiaticarum ' contains, inter alif/, monographs of Tilia, Geniiiiuin, Acer, 
Viburnum, and Iris, so far as tlie species of Eastern Asia are con- 
cerned; and the diagnosis of a new genus of CrnciJ'cra — L'adonema — 
from China. 

New ])ooks. — E. Bkaithwaite, ' The British Moss-Hora ' 
(part iii., Puh/trichacece, .5s.). — C. Darwin, ' The Movements of 
Phints' (Murray). — E. Hallier, ' Untcrsuchungen iibor Diatomeen ' 
(Gera-uutermhaus, Kohler). — H. Leitgeb, ' Untersuchungen uber 
die Lebermoose ' (part vi. and last.) (Graz, Leuschner). — H. 
Muller, ' Alpenblumen, hire befruchtung durch insekten und 
hire aufassungen an dieselben ' (Leipzig, Engelmann). — L. Pierre, 
' Elore Eorestiere de la Cochiuchine,' fasc. i. (Paris, Doin). — M. 
WiLLKOMM, ' Illustrationes Florae Hispanias insularumque Balea- 
rium,' livr. i. (Stuttgart, Koch). 



Articles in Journals. 
November. 

A)in. Sciences Xaf. (Botanique, 6th Series, vol. x. nos. 2, 3.) — 
A. Famintzin, ' The decomposition of carbonic acid by plants 
exposed to artificial light.' — Id., ' The influence of the intensity of 
light on the decomposition of carbonic acid by plants.' — A. Pauchon, 
' Kesearches on the role of light in germination.' 

Bull. Soc. Bat. de Belgique (vol. xix. i)t. i.). — E. Paques, ' Plants 
of Turnhout.' — A. Deseglise, ' Descriptions of French Pioses ' 
(contains two forms found also in Devonshire — Fiusa Carionii, 
Desegl. & Gillot (Canince jmbescentes) , and E. Lucandiana, D. & G. 
[Canincc Collimr). — A. Gravis, ' Floral auomahes of the pear and the 
morphological nature of the anther ' (tt. 2). 

Jjot. Notiser.- — F. W. Areschoug, ' Artemisia Stdleriana, Bess.' — 
0. Nordstedt, ' New Swedish Plants, 1880.' 

Naturalist (Huddersfield). — J. E. Griffith, 'Flora of Carnarvou- 
shu-e and Auglesea ' (concluded). — W. West, ' Bryological Notes.' 
— C. P. Hobkirk. ' How to examine a Moss.' 

American Xaturalist. — W. K. Higle}", 'On the microscoj)ic 
crystals contained in plants.' — E. L. Greene, ' Botanising on the 
Colorado Desert.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. — A. Brown, ' Notes on New Jersey 
Flora.' — G. E. Davenport, 'Venation of Botnjchium bureale.' — W. 
W. Bailey, ' The Herbarium Olneyanum.' 

(Esterr. Bot. Zeitschrift. — G. Beck, ' On the development of 
Lyci'podium.'- — T. von Heldreich, ' Stachys Sjneit^cnJioferi,' n. sp. — 
T. F. Hanausek, ' A monstrosity of Zca Mays.' — W. Yoss, ' Myco- 
logical Notes.' — F. Ivi-asan, ' Plant- distribution in Gorz and 
Gradisca ' (contd.). — C. Baewitz. 'On Botn/chiiim bmralc.' — P. G. 
Strobl, ' The Flora of Etna.'— M. Gandoger, ' Pugillus Plantarum 
novarum vel minus recte cognitarum ' (contd. ; forms of Cystojitcris 
fray His and Bolypodium rha:ticuvi). 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



'61 



Botanische Zeltumj. — K. Goebel, ' On the Morphology and 
Physiology of Leaves ' (1 tab.). 

Flora.— C. Kraus, ' On Heliotropisni hi Hedera: — L. Celakovsky, 
' On the dorsiventral inflorescence of Burrcujumc,' &c. — A Minks, 
' Morphological-lichenographical studies.' 

Hedwigia. — P. Eichter, ' Enquiry regarding a unicellular Phyco- 
chromacea.' — W. Voss, ' Peronoqiora citida.'—F. v. Thiimen, on 
the same. — G. Winter, ' Mycological Notes.' 

Maijijar Xovenytani Lapok. — V. de Jauka, ' Eomulearum 
Europfearum clavis analytica.' 

Revue Enjolot/ique [No. 6). — S. 0. Lindberg, ' Scliistoi)lujllum 
Onii,' n. sp.' — Philibert, 'The true Thuidiiun ddicatulum.' — 
Venturi, ' ThiUdium jndchiilum.' — P. Eenauld, ' On some Pyrenean 
Mosses.' — Eavaud, 'Bryology and Lichenology of Grenoble' (contd.) 



pvoccctriugjj of ^octetits. 



LiNNEAN Society or London. 

Xovember 4, 1880.— Prof. Allman, E.E.S., President, in the 
chair. — The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of the Society : 
— Edward Brown (Newcastle-on-Tyue), H. E. Bressen (London), 
and T. Eraser Pippe (Bengal). — Mr. Arthur Bennett exhibited and 
made observations upon British specimens of Cham ohtusa, Desv. 
— Mr. E. M. Holmes exhibited microscopical slides of two marine 
Alga3 new to Britain, viz., Dusija Gihhesii, Harv., from Berwick-ou- 
Tweed, and Ectucarpus terridnalis, Ktz., from Weymouth ; examples 
of Callithamnion roseum and C. spongiosum with antheridia, and a 
specimen of C. brachiatum with antheridia and trichophore on the 
same branchlet; and specimens oiHelvtlntJiora divaricata with zonate 
tetraspores which have not hitherto been observed. — Mr. E. A. Webb 
exhibited a proliferous inflorescence of pMbus Idmus, L., in which the 
flowers w^cre represented by elongated axes densely covered with 
minute pubescent bracts, the apical portions of which Avcre fasciatod. 
— Two botanical papers were read : I. " Contributions to the Flora of 
the North- Western Plimalayas," by Prof. George Watt, of Calcutta. 
In this communication the author gives a general review of the 
geographical features of the W. Himalayas as elucidating their 
botanical aspects. The mountain chain divides into many approxi- 
mating parallel ranges, whereof three predominate : 1. Tliat nearest 
the plains of India with southerly spurs rises to an altitude of from 
8000 to 14,000 feet, and thus the Eavee Basin, while having 
magnificent forests of Cedrus Dcodara on its northern slopes, has on 
the southerly ones a more decidedly Indian facies of vegetation 
barely outside the humid influence of the rains of the plains. 
2. The second range, comprising the subsidiary districts of Pangi, 
Tjower Lahore, and British lialiorc, after passhig through lower 
hills and gorges, rises through lofty passes to altitudes of from 
15,000 to 19,000 feet. Here, with short summers and perpetual 



82 



PKOCKKDINr.S OF SOCIETIKS. 



snow-clad mountains, the flora is altogether changed, as is the 
fauna, man himself included. In Pangi the atmosphere is dry in 
summer, infinitely drier than in the liavue J3asin ; and a comparison 
of the plants found in the former but not in the latter area shows, 
by the marked atmospheric alterations and diminutions in the 
degree of humidity, a corresponding change in the vegetation, and 
birds and butterflies attest new climatic conditions. WJiile several 
batrachians are common in the Eavee Basin, not one is known to 
inhabit Pangi or Tjahore, and even the domestic fowl cannot survive 
the winter of Pangi. 3. The tliird range evinces a still further 
change of flora, and assumes a Thibetan type. The author 
describes three new species, lUaiunnihis ptnv/icnsis, Aral/is paw/iensis, 
and A. hijui/ti. — 11. " Notes on a Collection of Flowering Plants made 
by Mr. L.Kitching in Madagascar in 1879, "by J. G. Baker. The prin- 
cij^al districts in which these were obtained were the northern and 
eastern slopes of the mountains of Ankara tra, the highest range in 
the island, at an elevation of 10,000 feet or more. The flowering 
plants of Madagascar are much less known than are the ferns, 
though the collections of Bojer, Lyall, and Needer still lie at Kew 
partially undetermined. Mr. Baker describes two new genera of 
plants : (1), KitcJiiw/ia (Crassulacete), a succulent perennial glabrous 
herb, with flexuose stem, numerous opposite sessile or petiolated 
fleshy leaves, and large bright red flowers in lax terminal cymes. It 
is allied to linjoiihijJlniir, from which it secedes by its small calyx and 
divergent carj)els; (2) Jlhodocodun (LiliaceaB), a plant with subulate 
leaves, a slender scape, small red laxly racemose flowers, and 
peculiar small spurred bracts ; it comes between Muscari and 
Un/inea. Of sixty species described thirty are new to science. 

Nijveniher 18th. — Piobert M'Lachlan, Esq., F.E.S., in the chair. 
— Lieut. -Col. H. Godwin-Austin was elected a Fellow of the 
Society. — A paper was read "On a proliferous condition of 
Yerbascum niijniw, L.," by the Eev. G. Henslow. This was received 
from Mr. Marshall, of Ely, and it very closely resembled a malformed 
plant of Li/simacJtia Ephoiicriiin, described by Baillon (' Adansonia,' 
torn. 3, p. 310). The upper part was very diffuse, with leafy axes 
produced from the centres of the flowers. The lower part had 
flowers with very large ovaries adherent within to arrested pro- 
liferous branches. Several kinds of malformation occur amongst 
those on the upper part, which will be described in the paper itself. 
The difference between the lower and upper parts may be attri- 
buted to the general tendency of the sap to run to the extremities' 
which will thus account for the development of the p)roliferous 
axes above and their arrested state below. — In a second paper read, 
" Novitates Capensis," by Messrs. P. MacOwan and H. Bolus, the 
authors have described several interesting new South African 
plants. Among other novelties are liaunnculus lUturii, Ericinella 
j^asserinoides, OrtJiosijiIion andtiiiiicns, and Hcrpuliriun capensis, the last 
a representative of a form hitherto known only from Australia. 
A third botanical communication was by the Eev. M. J. Berkeley, 
" On Australian Fungi," principally received from Baron F. von 
Mueller. 



33 



<!^ncjmal llvttcif^. 



MUSCI PRyETEKITI: 

SIVE DE MUSCIS NONNULLIS ADHUC NEGLECTIS, PE^TEUYISIS 
VEL CONFUSIS, NUNC RECOGNITIS. 

AUCTOEE ElCAllDO SpRUCE. 

(CuncludeJ from p. Is.) 

8. JUNGEEMANIA PeAESONI, 11. ,sp. 

Dioica pusilla depresso-Cfespitosa luride viridis, facie fere 
Cephalozm diran'cata'majox'is. Caules 8 mm. lougi flaccidi semel 
bisve (raro pluries) furcati, iiullo ramo postico, subtequaliter 
foliosi, radicL'llis perraris. Folia dissita — raro subcoiitigua — 
transversa, late cuueata, complicato-cariiiata, ab apice ad f usque 
bifida," carina angulo lato (sub 80°) e caule extaute, segmentis 
suberectis (cauli subparallelis) planiusculis ovatis subacuminatis 
acutis subobtusisve ; cellulfe minutubB subquadrat^B, parum 
elongate, opaculae vel subpellucidaj, pariete subleptodermi, cuti- 
cula vix asperula. Hj^popliylla nulla, vel raro unum alterumve, 
subulato-lineare, caulis apicem versus. Andrtecia medio caule 
raniove posita ; bractete pauci- (3-4-) jugfe, foliis consecutivae, 
majores, confertfe, basi turgida pellucida interdum dente autico 
incurvo auctse ; antlieridia solitaria magna longi-stipitata. Folia 
•2 X '17, '15 X "15 ; cellulaB ^'^^ mm. 

Hab. Wet rocks on Glyder Vaur, North Wales. (W. H. 
Pearson, May, 1877). Planta mascula sola adliuc lecta. 

Huic proxima est J. opacula, n. sp., mcipso in saxis terra 
obtectis ad pedem montis Cliimborazo austro-orientalem, alt. 
2G00 m. lecta, magnitudine, colore et ramificatione bifurca 
conveniens, diversa tamen foliis ad ^ solum bifidis, magis obscure 
carinatis, segmentis semper obtusis subdivergentibus, cellulis 
eadem magnitudine vero valde cliloropliyllosis. Altera species 
peraffinis videretur J. intricata, L. et G., Syn, Hep. ; Gottsche 
Mex. Leverm., t. 18, cum J. Pearsoni liabitu, "colore foliorum 
fusco-atro, summorum novellorum viridi-flavo," et foliis ercctilobis 
conveniens ; diversa autem foliis siib([uadratis ad ^ solum fissis, 
lobis subobtusis. Hujusce speciei liabuit ill. Gottscheus peri- 
antliia perfecta, terminalia, brevi-cylindracca, os subconstrictum 
versus obtuse 3- (4-) plicata. Bractete ? foliis paulo majores sed 
perfecte conformes — neque plurilobas nee denticulatae. J. riifida 
Lindb. Botaniska Notiser, 1872, mihi nondum visa, e descrip- 
tione baud longe aliena crit, colore et ramificatione eadem fere, 
diversa foliis confertis rigidis cymbiformi-concavis vix ad i usque 
bilobis. 

N. 8. VOL. 10. [February, 1881.] f 



34 MUSCI PR/'ETEEITI. 

This curious little plant, whicli I venture to dedicate to its 
indefatigable discoverer, might be passed over for a large form of 
Cephaluzia diraricata, but is at once distinguished from that and 
every other species of Cephahnia by the forked, or lateral and 
axillary, branching, and the entire absence of the postical branches 
characteristic of Cephalozia. From Marsupclla {Sarcosci/jihrn) it 
differs in wanting the rhizomatous base, in the ramification, the 
deeply cloven leaves and their texture, and (so far as I have seen) 
in the absence of oil-granules from the cells. As we have only the 
male plant, which has monandrous bracts, its place among other 
bifid-leaved JioujeDiKDiue is not easy to assign. It is not unlike 
small forms of J. viinuta, Schrad., and -/. riijida, Lindberg ; but 
its nearest allies are doubtless the two Avith which I have above 
compared it, viz., J. opacula, n. sp., gathered by myself in the 
Andes, between Eiobamba and the Plateau of Chimborazo, on 
rocks shattered by the great earthquake of 1796 ; and J. intricata, 
Lindenb. et G., found by Liebmann in Mexico, near Oaxaca, where 
it grew closely interwoven with J. colorata. 

9. Lepidozia Pearsoni, n. sp. 

Dioica, reptans, e pallide vu-idi fulva. Caules 2-3 pollicares 
subteretes, cellulis pluristratis, corticalibus paulo majoribus, 
conflati, fiaccidi, furcati simplicesve, dein laxe pinnati; ramis 
brevibus intequilongis simplicibus — rarissime ramulosis, aliis apice 
flagellari microphyllo vix radicantibus ; radicellte ca3terum tam ad 
caulcm quam ad flagella perrarfe vel fere mull®. Omnes rami pro 
more laterales, axillares, plures apice masculi ; rarissime advenit 
stolo posticus, ex parte foliosus, interdumque ramosus, vel 
florescentia postica amentiformis. Folia parva, caulina pro more 
distantia, rarius subcontigua, oblique incuba, subquadi'ata, ultra 
dimidium palmatifida ; laciniis plerumque 4, rarissime 5 vel 6, 
subulatis subacuminatis, incmwo-unciuatis, basi 3-5 cellulas latis, 
duabus mediis cjeteris latioribus, postica breviore ; cellulfe medioci'es 
subquadrato hexagon ns, paulo elongatte, subpellucidfe, pariete ad 
angulos parum incrassato. Folia ramea minora, 3-4-fida — 
superiora solum bifida ; foliolis 3-4-fidis. Folium ad ramorum 
origiuem Cc^tcris longius et angustius, profunde bifidum. Foliola 
(s. liypophylla) foliis sat breviora, fere tequilata, ad \ fissa, laciniis 
4 vel baud raro 5, rarius 6, late subulatis obtusis incurvis. Flores 
dioici : $ spicati, rami apice tenui — rarissime basi — tenentes ; 
bractete 3-10 juga?, foliis paulo minores, imbricate concavfe bilobae, 
raro dente antico basali auctie, lobis ovatis acutis incurvis ; 
bracteolfe angustiores bilobte. Antheridia solitaria maxima 
brevissime stipitata. Planta ? adhuc nobis incognita. Folia 
•55 X "45, lacinite medi^ -35 mm. longa3 ; cellule jV ; foliola 
•3 X -4 ; bractesB $ -4 mm. 

Syn. " Lepidozia reptans, L." Carringt. et Pears. Hepat. Brit. 
exsicc. fasc. 1, no. 37 (1878). 

Hab. Tyn-y-groes, near Dolgelly, N. Wales, loosely creeping 
among other Hepaticce, especially DiplophyUuiiL albicans, and mosses. 
(W. H. Pearson, May, 1877). 



MUSCI PR^TERITI. 35 

Florescentici masciila normaliter ramum lateralem terminante 
— rarissime ramulum proprium posticum sistente — inter Lepidozias 
singularis et valde distiucta species. L. reptam certe distat liabitu 
robustiore ; colore (in vivo) saturate viridi, iu sicco csrulescente ; 
caule breviore uiagis ramoso ; tbliis subimbricatis ad ^ solum 
fissis, laciuiis latioribus (basi 4-7 cellulas latis), cellulis subopacis 
tain latis quam longis ; foliolis solum 3— 4-fidis, segmentis acutis ; 
florescentia monoica, mascula amentum posticum semper sistente. 
Adsunt tamen Lepidozia, exoticte L. Pearsoni affiniores ; tales sunt 
L. microphylla, Liudenb., L. trichudcs, Nees, pr^ecipueque L. ///«- 
mentusa, L. et L., Spec. Hei). 36, t. 0, ex America boreali-occidentali 
(et iusulis Aucklandicis ?) nostr£E quoad habitum magnitudinemque 
sat similis, diversa autem foliis ad dimidium solum fissis, laciniis 
paucioribus (plerumque 3, nee 4-G). 

10. Lejeunea ulicina, Tayl. 

JuiKj. rilicina, Tayl., iu Trans. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 1841, p. 115. 

Minuta viridis laxe etfusa, raro subca;spitosa, sa'pe supra 
muscos reptans. Caules ^ — | poll, longi, stricti (nee geniculati) 
vage ramosi, subradicellosi. Folia dissita vel subcoutigua, rotundo- 
ovata cocbleato concava, apice sensim angustata obtusa vel abrupte 
acuta, Itevia vel e cellulis convexulis obscure tuberculosa, a basi ad 
•J- — f — raro ad apieem fere usque obtuse complicata ; lobulus lobo 
plus minus brevior angustiorque — raro fere requilatus, ad plicam 
turgidus, margine incurvo vel sajpe piano, apice apiculato-acuto ; 
celluliB minutulte subfequilatera), cbloropliyllo parco subpellucidai, 
pariete ad augulos vix incrassato. Foliola distantia foliis triple 
breviora ovalia ultra medium bifida, segmentis lineari-subulatis, 
inferne 2 cell, apice solum 1 cell, latis, sinuque subobtusis. Flores 
dioici : $ terminales, inuovatione bine vel utrinque suft'ulti. 
Bracteae maximns, foliis subtriplo majores, ad angulum 60° — 90° 
inter se divergentes, ab apice ad medium fere bifide, complicate, 
ad carinam anguste alatae, lobo antico semiobovato acuto, lobulo 
breviore — raro fequilongo — semilaneeolato vel oblique cuneato, 
margine celluloso-erosae interdum subdenticulatie ; bracteola paulo 
brevior erecta, oblonga vel ovali-lanceolata, ad ^ usque acuto 
bifida, segmentis acutis. Periantbia (vix matura) involucro inclusa, 
p}Tiformi-oblouga obovatave, apice depresso vix umbonulata, teretia 
nisi apieem versus in carinas 5 valde obtusas prominula, cellulis 
convexulis parum papulosa vel fere laevia. Cietera hand visa. 
Planta 3- adbuc desideranda. Folia •15x"08, •2x"15; c. j}^\ 
foliola -05 — -10; hnict. lab. -4 X "2, -5 x "3 ; bracteola •3x'15; 
perianthia -35 — -4 x "18 mm. 

Junyermania minutissivia, Hook., Brit. Jung. t. 52, ex parte 
(nee Smitliii). 

Lejeunea viinntissima, Spruce in Ann. Nat. Hist, et Trans. Bot. 
Soc. Edinb., 1849 (nee ./. niinutissiina, Sm.) 

Hab. per totam fere Europam tempcratam, ad arborum corticem 
ct supra muscos ; in Hibernia australi-occidentali prsrcipue vulgaris, 
sjepeque L. minutinHiina consociata. Killarney in cortice, ni primis 
IHnl sylvestris, Caliume. ct micis (Taylor, Spruce, etc.) ; supra 



36 MUSCI PRyT.TERITI. 

Fridlaniani (lilatatam (Carrington) ; supra Fr. Tamarisci — forma 
pulcliella, flore $ semper dichotomiali, i. e., innovationibus duabus 
oppositis suffulto (Wilson in lib. Hook.) Anglia : Bolton Abbey, 
Wliarfedale, supra Ncrhflrum crispfDii parasitans — forma luxuriaus, 
fol. majoribus (R. S.) Levens Park, Westmorlandiae, in cortice 
vetusto (G. Stabler). Ex aliis plurimis locis Insularum Britanni- 
carum et GalliiE occidentalis habemus, semper autem plantara 
5 solam, sterilem et sine perianthiis ; nisi prope Vire Normandiae 
ubi CEespitem periantliia vix matura ferentem — nunc in lierbario 
Schimperiano ad Kew couservatum — cl. Brebisson (ut videtur) 
legit. Plantam g adliuc frustra qu^esivimus. 

A L. ulicina longe diversa est L. minutLssima, Sm. (vera E. Bot. 
t. 1633, a. 1806 = Jung, inconspicua, Piaddi = Lcjrunea Tayhiri, 
Spruce), florescentia monoica, absentia foliolorum completa 
(imo e flore foemineo) ; caule geniculato-flexuoso ; foliis miuoribus 
distantibus ad caulis genua insertis, tota fere longitudiue complicato- 
concavis; radicellis (dum adsint) cuique folio — neque solum 
alteruis foliis — tributis ; bracteis minoribus, ad carinam exalatis ; 
perianthiis turbiuatis argute 5-cariuatis, carinis plerumque cellulis 
exstantibus uniseriatis pellucidis moniliatis. 

In America tropica plures Lejcuneas minutas legi, L. idicincB 
arctius affiues quam L. minutissiwa. Talis est L. hullata, Tayl. ! 
(in sylvis Audium subalpinis) a L. ulidna diversa foliis minoribus 
distantibus, totis fere convoluto-conclioideis, cellulis pneminutis ; 
foliolis minutis caule absconditis ; bracteis exalatis ; perianthiis 
pyriformibus alte 5-carinatis. Alia species vicina est L. perpusilla, 
Spruce (in m. Azuay lecta) foliis ovato-triangularibus subacutis, 
lobulo minore ; foliolis pro ratione multo miuoribus ; bractearum 
lobo falcato-rhomboideo, &c. Alia L. aphanes Spruce (in truncis 
fl. Casiquiari inundatis), colore fulvo ; foliorum lobulo sat minore, 
cellulis solum ^^arvis ; foliolis minxxtissimis (foliis 7-plo minoribus) ; 
bracteis foliis minoribus exalatis ; perianthiis obovatis altiuscule 
5-carinatis, Paucee species tropicte, facie nostrge sat similes, 
monoicas sunt. L. dirersiluba, Spruce (prope Killarney inventa) 
foliis majoribus planioribus siiberectis, obovato-oblongis vel sublin- 
gulatis, lobulo sat minore vel persfepe deficiente, facile distincta est. 

I introduce this species, partly for the sake of describing the 
perianth, hitherto unknown, which I have found in the herbarium 
of the late Professor Schimper (now in the possession of the Pioyal 
Gardens at Kew), on a specimen marked " Jiingermaniaminutissima, 
Sm. Prope Vire," without the collector's name, but apparently in 
the handwriting of the late M. de Brebisson ; my chief motive, 
however, is to correct a mistake into which I unwittingly fell, 
many years ago, and which has been the cause of misleading 
others. 

When, after Sir J. E. Smith's decease. Sir W. J. Hooker, at 
Sowerby's request, undertook to edit a series of supplements to 
'English Botany,' he associated with himself Mr. Borrer, for 
the Lichens, and for certain critical genera of flowering plants, 
notably Uuhus and S<di.v. Hooker, after a while, finding the taslc 
interfered with his more important publications, resigned it entirely 



MUSCI PRiETERITI. 



37 



into Borrer's hands, who thereupon sought the aid of W. Wilson, 
fortheMusci and Hepaticae. When Borrer entered on the office 
of editor, Sowerby gave to him portions of the original specimens 
of many of the Cryptogamia he had figured in Eng. Bot. ; and 
when I visited him at Henfield in the sprhig of 1846 he allowed me 
to examine those specimens, and gave me a scrap of a few that 
were divisible. Among the latter was J. minutissima, Sm., E. Bot. 
t. 1633. I examined it, and found it exactly what Taylor had 
called five years before J. uUcina. The specimen is now before me, 
and it is indisputably Taylor's plant. At that time Borrer, and 
especially Wilson, considered the testimony of an authentic specimen 
supreme, however much it might vary from the author's own 
account of it ; and Wilson would rarely name a moss unless after 
comparison with a specimen from the author himself. I, as a 
young botanist, could only follow the example of my elders ; and 
therefore, on the faith of Sowerby's specimen, reduced Taylor's 
J. ulicina to ,/. viiuHtissiwa, Sm. ; and for the other " J. miniUmii)ui,'' 
which differed from Sowerby's specimen in the monoicous hitto- 
rescence, the absence of underleaves (or stipules), and the smaller 
bracts, very shortly cloven, and not winged at the fold, — I coined 
the name Lejeunca Tnijlori. 

Sowerby's figure represented J. iJiinKtissima in fine fruit. We 
had never seen the fruit, or even the perianth of J. ulicina, but 
only the ? involucres ; yet we hoped fruit might be found, and 
there was no a. priori reason why it should not correspond to 
Sowerby's figure. In truth, I paid too little attention to that figure, 
considering the evidence of Sowerby's specimens all-sufficient. 
But when, a few years ago, I came to study the genus Lejeunca in 
its entirety, for the sake of the South American species, and found 
that after more than thirty years the perianth of L. ulicina was 
still unknown, I procured the Eng. Bot. figure of L. minutissima, 
and, comparing it closely with Sowerby's specimen, I became con- 
vinced that the figure never could have been made from that 
specimen. The figure does not reproduce J. ininutiadma very 
accurately, especially as to the stem and branches, which are 
shown straight, histead of zigzag (^as they ought to be), although 
there is a slight hint of the latter in the lowest magnified figure (of 
a portion of a stem, with two leaves in situ). The stipules, if 
present, might have been overlooked ; but the fact alone of the 
plant being in fruit assures us that it could not be J. ulicina. The 
sharp keels of the perianth are shown clearly enough, and contrast 
well with the almost ecarinate perianth of J. ulicina, now that we 
have been able to compare the two. 

Hooker's ' British JungermannifE,' being founded on far more 
accurate observation and fuller knowledge of the tribe than either 
Smith or Sowerby could pretend to, was naturally most relied on 
by students; but his figure of J. viinutissiiiia was very puzzling, for 
it showed a fertile plant without stipules, and a portion of a barren 
stem possessing them. We can see now that he must have had 
before him specimens of both species, and have failed to distin- 
guish them. It is very usual to sec the two species growing mter- 



38 



MUSCI PR^TERITI. 



mixed ; I have myself gathered them thus, and they are associated 
in the majority of the specimens in Sir W. Hooker's herbarium, 
especially in those from Killarney, and from Devon and Cornwall. 
Dr. Taylor showed me in his herbarium a bit of furze-stem, 
gathered near Dunkerron, which had growing on it six apecies of 
Lejeunea, viz., L. serpyllifulia, L. ulicina, L. ovata, L. hamatifolia, 
L. 7nimitissiina, and L. microscopica, i.e., all the Irish species of 
Lejeunea known to him except L. cchinata (=L. ctdcarca). The 
multitude of Hepatic® that grow intermixed — or partly parasitic on 
one another — upon living leaves, in tropical countries is truly 
surprising. I thought it a wonderful thing when I found in the 
Peruvian Andes seven species of Lejeunea growing on a single pinnule 
of an Acrostichum ; but I afterwards found in the Cinchona forests 
on the western slope of Chimborazo a large leaf of a nutmeg-tree 
so completely and thickly clad with Lejeunea, &c., that it took me 
(some years afterwards) a couple of days' close work to disentangle 
and separate the species. They comprised twenty species of 
Lejeunea, most of them in perfect state, and a few of them never 
found elsewhere by me ; besides a pretty Dendioceros in good fruit ; 
two or three species each of Metzyeria and I'layiuchila; and seed- 
lings of other Hepaticre. If I had given a clipping from that leaf, 
in the name of a Lejeunea that certainly grew on it, but intermixed 
with other species, it might have been impossible for the recipient 
to know which was the particular Lejeunea meant. The Junyer- 
maniic of temperate climes, growing often on moist earth, with 
which they are partially encrusted and obscured, are often difficult 
to separate by the eye alone, or with an ordinary lens, from allied 
species that grow intermixed, especially if the leaves are apt to curl 
up in drying. Junyomania hicrenata, Linden b., and J. capitata, 
Hook. (= J. intermedia, Lindenb.) — two closely-allied but really 
distinct species — often grow intermixed. It Avas thus I most 
frequently saw them in the Pyrenees, and although I succeeded in 
distinguishing them, it was Avith difficulty. I had noticed a peculiar 
odour in a patch of fresh, or moistened jjlants, and I attributed it 
to both species ; but Dr. Gottsche showed me that -/. hicrenata alone 
was sweet-scented, and that by this character it was most readily 
separated from J. capitata. In this country also they sometimes 
grow together, and Mr. Slater has lately found at Gothland, near 
Whitby, the two species mixed in the same patch in a very bewil- 
dering fashion. There is little doubt that Dickson's Juny. excisa, 
Crypt, iii., t. 8, f. 7, was compounded of these two species, and of 
a small form of J. rentrieosa (which often grows with the other two, 
especially where the habitat is rotting wood). His description may 
apply to any or all of the three ; his figure is almost certainly J. 
hicrenata (as is also Martius's figure of J. excisa, Fl. Erlaug., t. o, 
f. 42) ; and the specimen in his herbarium is (according to Lind- 
berg) J. capitata. But they who rely on the testimony of specimens 
should consult those given by Dickson, for his ^' Jitny. excisa,'' to 
Hooker and Taylor (and possibly to Greville). I have not done so, 
but I have reason to beheve them partly the small variety of J. 
veiitricosa figured by Hooker as J. excisa, Brit. Jung. t. 9. These 



MUSCI PE^TERITl. 39 

specimeus are assuredly quite as authentic — as much derived from 
the author's own hand — as the specimen preserved in his own 
herbariuni ; and for this very adequate reason. The older 
botanists — indeed up to the period of my youth — rarely preserved 
the actual stems, &c., of a moss (but especially of a liverwort) they 
had described or figured. Dissections were mostly thrown away 
after examination. In Hooker's herbarium the specimens are 
mostly glued down, and there is rarely any indication of the par- 
ticular specimen from which the plant figured in ' British Jun- 
germanuife ' had been taken, or any loose stems (in packets) which 
might presumably have served that purpose. Even where we 
know, from the locality, or from some incidental reference in the 
text, the exact specimen from which the type-plant was taken, if 
that plant has disappeared the remainder of the tuft may consist 
entirely of other species. 

Dillenius's specimens can rarely have undergone any dissection, 
for he had no microscope (to our great loss !) Yet the actual plant, 
or portion of a tuft, figured by him may in some cases have been 
thrown away, and it is by no means certain that that portion of it 
preserved in his herbarium is always the identical species figured. 
Here is a crucial instance. The Juikj. midti flora of Hudson, Fl. 
Angl. 510, is indisputably what we now call Lepidozia sctacea 
(Web.); his phrase " frondibus simpliciter ;u'»;u<iis bdsi Jioriferis, 
foliolis setaceis," followed by the synonym from Linnaeus (Mant. ii.) 
" Jiinr/. fronde repente ramosa, foliolis alternis geminis setaceis 
sequalibus " proves this. Nor is the synonym quoted from 
Dillenius (Muse. 481) " Lichenastrum multiflorum exile, foliis 
aiifiustissimis," opposed to the conclusion that it refers to the same 
species. Yet Dillenius's figure, t. GO, f. 4, is plainly Jung, biciis- 
pidata, L. — no one who looks at it with unbiassed eyes can ever 
make it anything else ; and the specimen corresponding to it in his 
herbarium is, accorduig to Hooker and Lindberg (who had l)oth 
examined it) Jung, connivens, Dicks. ! This is an extreme case, 
where description, figure, and specimen all contradict one another; 
and yet I can easily comprehend how the confusion may have 
arisen, for in a peat-bog near to where 1 am writing, the three 
species, J. hicuspidata, J. connivens, and J. setacea, grow intermixed, 
and the first two are not easily distioguished without microscopical 
examination. The third is distinct enough, almost to the imassisted 
eye, yet often adheres hy its radicles so firmly to the other two as 
to seem organically connected. I suppose Dillenius to have had 
such a tuft, of the three species combined ; but, however that may 
have been, it must be conceded that no number of specimens of J. 
connivens preserved in his herbarium can justify us in quoting his 
Tab. G9, f, 4 for that species ; and such seems also to have been 
the opinion of Hooker. 

Hudson and other writers on Cryptogamia immediately fol- 
lowing Linnaeus were often loose and inaccurate in their quotations 
from pre-Linncan authors; e.g., Hudson quotes for his ./. qninquc- 
dcntata, ]\licheli, t. 6, f. 2, yet Micheli's figure is i)lainly ,/. trilubata 
— a species with incubous trideutate leaves, while the leaves of 



•40 NOTES ON abbot's HEKBAEIUaf. 

Hudson's plant are succubous. But for J. trilohata, L., ho quotes 
Mich., t. 5, 1'. 10 — the figure of a Fussoinhronia, apparently F. 
am/nlatit. lieferences such as these were obviously mere guess- 
work, and many more might be cited. 

From all that precedes it may readily be understood how " false " 
specimens of Hcpaticte abound in herbaria. I have during the last 
nine years examined a great many (tntJicntic specimens of Hcpaticae, 
from all parts of the world, and in the whole number about one in 
evenj three was not (jenidne.-'' Wherefore, considering how often I 
and others have been misled by the evidence of so-called "authentic 
specimens" of this family, I am compelled to refuse absolutely to 
receive any such evidence where it is contradicted by the author's 
published descriptions. This is not to despise the valuable aid a 
genuine and original specimen (where it is really such) may afford 
in settling the claims or the synonymy of a disputed species, but 
only to fall back on the example of Linnteus, who desired that his 
species might be recognised from his published descriptions, rather 
than by the specimens that might exist under the same name in his 
herbarium. 



NOTES ON THE HERBAEIUM OF ABBOT, 

WITH REMARKS OX THE SYNONYMY OF SOME OF THE SPECIES. 
By R. a. Pryor, B.A., F.L.S. 

Through the kindness of Mr. W. Hillhouse, at that time of 
Bedford, I had not long since the opportunity of looking through 
the herbarium of Abbot, which is preserved at Turvey Abbey. The 
collection has been described in gloAving terms in the preface to 
the ' Flora Bedfordiensis,' where it is stated to be " the admiration 
of all who have knowledge and judgment to discern its superior 
beauty and excellence," and to have been prepared by the 
" amiable and interesting partner of his j)ursuits and labours." 
" But this," the writer goes on to observe, " is only one of the 
innumerable obligations for which he is proud to acknowledge him- 
self indebted to her assiduity and attachment," and it seems not 
improbable that the " fan* associate " in question was accustomed 
to expect or even to insist upon such public exhibitions of deference 
and gallantry. Be this as it may, the language employed by the 
excellent author of the Flora, to which this herbarium was de- 
signed to be a companion, is calculated to excite our interest in no 
common degree ; the expectations he has raised, however, will not 
be found to stand the test of examination. 

The collection is contained in five folio volumes ; owing, how- 
ever, to the immaturity and fragmentary condition of a considerable 

* Even among true mosses, an author's own specimens are not alwajs to be 
relied on (as Wilson himself liad frequently to confess in his Litter years); yet 
they much more rarL-Iy grow iutermixed than liverworts, and where a patch does 
consist of two or three species, they are nearly always separable by the eye alone. 
As with liverworts, so with mosses, no authentic specimen can be received in 
evidence which contradicts the author's description in its most essential 
characters. 



NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 41 

nnmbcr of the specimens, manj^ of which are mere tops and scraps 
quite impossible to determine, and the complete absence* of any 
indications as to the localities in which they were gathered, their 
value is very much diminished for critical purposes. 

Thus it cannot be certain that any one specimen was collected 
within the limits of the county which the herbarium professes to 
illustrate. Still we may be justified in assuming that it represents, 
on the whole, Abbot's own ideas of the species he has enumerated 
in his Flora, and, with the necessary reservations, it may fairly be 
used to throw at least a side light on disputed points in the text. 

In the following notes I have, I believe, marked all errors or 
uncertainties of name, and have noticed the frequent instances in 
which specimens — and that is the case unfortunately in many of 
the more interesting and critical genera — are altogether absent. 

The names first given are taken from the sheets of the her- 
barium, and notice has been taken of any discrepancy between 
them and those employed in the Flora. It has been thought 
unnecessary to mark the absence of the very common and 
universally known species. 

Callitriche verna. The specimen is a mere scrap, but with ripe 
fruit ; this has the erect styles and bluntly rounded edges of (.'. 
ohtusmujula, Le Gall. The figure quoted has been usually taken to 
represent C. jAatycarpa, Kuetz. It would be desirable for some 
resident botanist to search the ditches in the neighbourhood of 
Ford End. 

C autumnalis. Without fruit, and too young for determination, 
but looking more like C. venudis, Kuetz., than C. hamulata, Kuetz. 

Veroyiica agrestis. V. polita, Fr. 

Valeriana ojftcinalis. The true upland plant, V. Mikanii of 
Syme. Is not this V. jjrocurrens, Wallr. ? 

V. Locusta. VaJerianclla dcntata, Poll., the variety with hairy 
fruit, /j. lasiocarpa of Koch. 

Agrostis capillaris. A. vidgaris, With. 

Poa angnstifolia. P. nemoralis, L. 

P. nemoralis. The specimen is not altogether determinable, 
but is suggestive rather of the larger forms of P. compressa, L. 

P. retrojlexa. P. distans of Flora ; Ghjceria distans, Whlnb. 

Festuca rubra and F. dnrinscula. Indeterminable. 

F. ovina. Docs not well represent the typical plant, as figured 
in E. B. 585. 

F. Jluitnns. Exactly Ghjceria pcdicillata of Townsend, as might 
have been inferred from the reference to the " admirable figure " 
of Curtis. The plate quoted from the ' Flora Rustica ' apparently 
represents the same thing. In the last edition of the ' Manual,' 
Professor Babiugton has removed G. pcdicillata as a variety from 
G. plicata, Fr., and placed it under G. Jluitana, Br., and in this 
may perhaps have been influenced by Fries' reference to Curtis 

• There are a few specimeus from coiTi'spondenls with the usual records of 
date and locality, but in no case, I believe, do these refer to Bedfordshire plants. 
The great majority of Hclhun's specimens were in the same condition. See Bab. I'l. 
of Canib. p. 5. 

a 



42 NOTES ON AKHOt's HERHARIUM. 

under his G. jluilana festucacra (]\Iant. ii. p. 7). It Reems not 
improbable that some other of the forms described by Fries may 
occm' in Engbind. 

Arundo Calaviar/rostis. Calamaijrostk Kpigeios, Roth. 

A. Kpif/eioH. C. lanreolata, Roth. 

These are not errors of determination, but the mistake arises, 
as in other cases, from following the accepted nomenclature of the 
time. In this instance the confusion is increased by a reference 
to the erroneous, as originally issued, figures of ' English Botany,' 
t. -iUS, representing C. Kpincioa under Hudson's name of Arundo 
Calamagrvstis, whilst t. 402, to which Abbot refers under A. 
Fjiif/i'iiis, the name originally affixed to the plate, is a figure of 
Phalaiis arundinacca, L., the Antndu colurata of Solander, and the 
' Flora Britannica.' The matter was set right at a later period 
(v. E.B. 2159). 

Mo'iitia fontanel. M. minor, Gm. 

Galium palustre. The genuine plant. Another specimen has 
been labelled G. awiUcum. 

G. jirocuuihens. G. sa.catilc, L. 

G. MuUuijo. The ordinary large plant, G. datum, Th. 

G. erectum. G. elatum, a smaller plant than the last. 

G. pusilluin. A weakly lateral shoot from the lower part of the 
same form as the last. 

Cuscuta curupiEu and (J. Epithijmum are correctly named. I have 
seen also specimens of the former gathered at Flitwick, in 1841, by 
the late Rev. R. H. Webb. 

Putamofjeton compresswn. No specimen. 

Sagina apetala. The specimen looked not unlike -S'. maritima, 
Don. 

Mt/osotis scorpioides ; 3/". arvensis of Flora. 3/. intermedia, Lk. 

Symphytum patem. The wild waterside plant, which may, how- 
ever, be quite distinct from ,S'. officinale, L. 

Primula elatior. A hybrid or intermediate form, probably P. 
vulyari-officinalis, Gr., not of course the true P. elatior of Jacquin. 

Anagallis cairulea. Petals without glandular hairs. 

Chenopodium 2irJ)icnm. The usual form (C. intermediu)n, M. & K). 

C. serotinum. No specimen. 

C. album. C. viride, Angl. 

C. viride. C. ^xiyanum, Reich. 

Ulmus cainpestris, U. ejfusa. No specimens. 

There has always been some degree of uncertainty as to the 
proper names of the two species of elm which occur in Britain. 
The indigenous tree has usually been recorded as U. montana of 
Smith, and it so stands in many of the continental Floras. The 
earliest name is, however, U. glabra of Hudson (Fl. Angl. ed. i. 
p. 95 — 1762), and if we may rely on his citation of the unmistak- 
able figure of Johnson (Ger. Em. 1481, 3), which is the original 
authority for his species, and for the U. montana of all subsequent 
"writers, there could be little room for doubt in the matter. The 
uncertainty is, however, owing to the use of the words " cortice 
glabro" in the specific character; and on that account Stokes, in 



NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 43 

the second edition of Witliering's arrangement (p. 250, 1787) 
altered the name to U. montana, and added a note that the bark ol" 
the trunk was rough. It is not altogether clear what Hudson may 
have intended by this expression, but the boughs of the Wych Elm, 
although occasionally corky, are in general much smoother than 
those of the other species, as has been noticed by most writers on 
the subject {c.<j., "branches not corky, cinereous, smooth." — 
Lindley Syn. p. 227). Should, however, Hudson's name not be 
accepted, the priority clearly rests with that of Stokes, who 
described and named the species a dozen years before the appear- 
ance of the ' Flora Britaunica ' of Smith,"'' who indeed quotes 
Withering as his authority ; while Lindley's adoption of U. 
viontana, Bauh., in which he is followed by the ' British Mora,' 
is in defiance of all rule. 

With regard to the other I'lmus, it is now pretty generally 
agreed that U. campestris, Sm., does not represent the original 
species of Linnaeus, which probably was intended to include all the 
European elms, and has no especial reference to a tree which does 
not occur in Sweden. Still less can U. suberosa of Ehrhart be 
legitimately employed to denote a species which is excluded from 
his definition by the primary, or rather only character,! the corky 
bark being altogether absent in typical examples of the small- 
leaved elm. It is true that Willdenow has defined the var. of his 
U. suberosa as with " ramis la^vibus," the lower ones only " e trunco 
vel radice ortis" being " alato-suberosis " (Willd. Sp. v. i. p. 1324) ; 
but this is a considerable departure from the original idea of 
Ehrhart, and is hardly consistent with the phrasing of his own 
character " cortice ramulorum suberoso-alato." Were either the 
species of Smith or WlUdenow original creations, there could be 
no objection to their nomenclature, but in each case there has been 
a misapplication of a prior name (supposing Willdenow to have 
understood by his suberosa the same species as Smith by his ca}n- 
})estris, and otherwise his application of it is nothing to the point), 
and their authority is in this instance undeserving of the respect 
which has been so generally accorded to it. Dr. Stokes, however, 
in his ' Botanical Materia Mcdica,' has described and named afresh 
the elm " seminaturalised in Britain," with " seeds rarely if ever 
ripening " and " roots throwing up suckers," as U. surculosa 
fStokes, /. c. V. ii. p. 35, 1812). He gives an excellent account, 
with full references and notes as to the distribution of both species, 
and it is strange that the work of so accurate and painstaking a 
botanist should have been so much overlooked. 

Gcntiana campestris. No specimen. 

The specimen of Ihininm jJe.ruosuin had been originally ticketed 
as Jjitlbocastanuvi. 

* As an instance of Smith's careful animus in small matters take his note, 
K. B. 2101 :— " We on^jlit at V. mnntana, t. 1887, to have quotoil Sm. l'"l. 15rir. 
282 aili.r IJauh. I'in. 427 ;" and tlRrufoic before the rtl'erL'iR'e to Willirriiig. 

+ The sole distinction between the rharacters of U. ninhi and U. suberono, 
Ehrh., resides in the " nmiis iiuinquimi siiherosis" of the foriucr, and" sub- 
erosis " of llie latter. Cf. Willd. Sii. v. i, i). Ib24. 



44 Notes on abbot's iiERUARiuaf. 

Sium rrpens. No specimen. 

Oenanthepeucedavifulia. Probably Oe.silaifolia, Angl. Nyman, in 
his ' Conspectus,' has again referred the British plant to Oe. pmcc- 
damfulia, Poll., and restricts Oc. silnifolia, M. B., to the south and 
sonth-easi^of Europe. A specimen of Oe. Lachmalii, Gm. (not in 
the Flora), has been labelled Sison rerticillatum. 

I'hdlandrium aquaticum. Ocnanthe Phellandrium, Ijam., and not 
Oe. jluciatilis, Golem., "which, however, does occur in the county. 

Cicuta virosa is con-ectly named. 

Pimpinella dissecta. The cut-leaved form of P. Saxifrarja, L., 
and not that of P. major, Huds.,''' which has since been found in 

the county. 

Drosera lonr/ifolia. No specimen. D. cmr/lica is correctly named. 

Juncus articxdatus. The name has been altered from covipressus. 
The specimen is almost certainly J. Jamjiocarpns, Ehrh., to which 
indeed Smith (E. B. 2143) has referred Abbot's plant, in spite of the 
latter's quotation of his own earlier figure (E. B. 238). He may not 
improbably have seen Bedfordshire specimens. It seems rather 
curious that Sir J. D. Hooker, in the ' Student's Flora,' should look 
upon J. silvatlcus, Eeichard,f as especially the rtrftcttZrtius "proper" 
of Linnaeus, in opposition to the opinion of almost all other 
botanists, and in the teeth of the Linnean character, ^' petalis 
obtusis." (Sp. PI. 4G5.) 

J. Indbosus. J. supmus, Mcencli. 

(A specimen labelled J. acutus is Scirpus Diaritimus, L.) 

J. silv aliens . Litzida rernalis, DC.| 

J. pilosus. Same as the last. 

Rumex sam/uiiteus. No sjiecimen. 

ii. acutus, ft. E. conr/lomcratus, Murr. 

Alisma Flantarjo. The usual plant with cordate leaves. 

EpUobium amjustifulium. The garden escape, E. brachjcarpum, 
Leight. 

E. tetrayunum. The restricted plant. 

E. palustre. Correctly named. 

Pob/r/unum vihms. No specimen. 

Stellaria media. The prmcipal specimen is correctly deter- 
mined, S. palustris, Ehrh., Pietz.j ; but an example of S. (jraminea, 
L., has been afterwards added. 

Arenaria serpijllifolia. The restricted plant. 

Scdum Tekphiuui. S. Fabaria, Koch. 

Cerastium vidcjatum. C. triviale, Lk. 

C. viscosum. C. ijlomrratuw, Th. 

C. semidecandnun. Error of name. 

*P.7;K(jor,Huds., Fl. Angl. 110 (17G-2). P. magna, L., Mant. ii. 219 (1771). 

\J. silvaticus, Eeichanl, Fl. Mccn.-Fr. ii. 181 (1778); J. acutijlorus, Ehrh. 
Beitr. vi. 82 (1787—92). 

+ Luzula vcrnaUs, DC. Fl. Fr. iii. ICO (1805). L. pilosa, "WilUl. Enum. a93 
(1809j. 

§ S. palustris, Retz. Prodr. Fl. Scand. ed. ii. n. 548 (1795). S. glauca. With. 
Arr. ed. iii. p. 420 (1790). S. media, Sihth. (11. ox. p. 141 (1794), is inadniissible, 
as it bad been previouslv employed for auotber sjiecies of tbe same geuus. 



Notes on abbot's herbarium. 45 

C. pumilum. No specimen. 

Sperffula arvensis. S. vuhjaris, Bngh. 

S. pentandra. No specimen. 

Prunus CerasKs. No specimen. 

Papaver dubium. P. Lecoqii, Lmt. 

An mmamecl specimen of a T/uiUvtmw (vol. iv., no. 184) seems 
to be precisely the Hertfordshire plant from Eoyston Heath. This 
— from the compressed 10-ribbed achenes, not at all ovoid, but " gib- 
bous above within, and below without," the divaricated branches 
of the petioles, the reflexcd auricles of the stipules, and the striate 
stem (Avhicli is, however, compressible, at least when dry) leafy 
all but to the very base — is certainly, I believe, the T. viajus of the 
' Student's Flora,' and the T. jicxuosiim of the sixth edition of the 
' Manual.'* It seems safest to follow Nyman in referring it to T. 
Jacquiniannm, Koch. (Syn. ed. ii. p. 5 and 1015, IG), the descrip- 
tion of which applies in all particulars, Avhile there seems to be 
some doubt as to the precise plant of Bernhardi, nor are Eeichen- 
bach's figures altogether satisfactory. Mr. Webb's examples from 
Flitwick (Journ. of Bot. 1876, v. 26) are probably the same thing, 
and it is perhaps possible that Abbot's plant Avas gathered in the 
same locality. Hertfordshire specimens from a new locality, recently 
collected by Dr. E. de Crespigny, have, however, been named, I 
know not on what authority, T. viontanum, "Wallr., a form which 
has usually been placed under T. minus, L., Sm. 

Futnunciilns hirsiitus. Fu sarduus, Crautz, Stirp. Austr. fasc. ii. 
p. 84 (1763); R. hirsutus, Curt. Fl. Loud. f. ii. t. 40 (1778) t ; 
R. j)hilonotis, Ehrh. Beitr. 1788, ii. 145. The identification of 
Curtis' s plant with the R. sardous of Crantz is, I believe, owing 
to the research of M. Aug. Gras (Bull. Bot. 1862, p. 324), and 
has been accepted by Grenier (Fl. de la Chaine Jurassique, 
p. 21), and Nyman in his ' Conspectus.' I siibjoiu Crautz's 
original description : — " RaninicHlus sarduus. R. foliis radicalibus 
apii trilobis, fructu rotundo. R. pahistris apii folio lanuginosus. 
C. B. Pin. 180. R. II. species vel sarduus. Cordi Hist. fol. 
119. R. secundus ; Camer. epit. 381. Icon. R. secnndiis. B. in 
Matthiol. fol. 458. Abundat tota Austria. Observatio I. A 
Raminculu scelerato differre lanugine, pluribus foliorum incisuris, 
jam C. B. monuerat ; hiG diii'erentia3 Linnjeum non niovere, 
debuisscut tamen circumspectiorem rcddere : fructus, qui in 
priore oblongus, tactus impatiens, elasticus dissilit, in hoc 
rotundus, seminibus compressis, simpliciter apice acutis, in capi- 
tulum collectis visitur. Calyces lanuginosi, colorati, retlexi, fios 
parvus, gummeo nitore splendcns, cxiguo unguc maculatus. Obs. II. 
Semina in plerisquc ranuucalis apiccm habent reficxum, semen in 



* I look upon T. saxatile of the ' Manual' as an altogether imaginary plant. 

t It has usually been held tliat Curtis commenced his <,'reat work in 1777, 
but in a IMS. note of Pulteney's, in his copy of the first edition of the 'Flora 
Anglica ' of Hudson in tlie library of tlie Liimean Society, it is stated thnt " the 
fust no. of the ' l''liira Londinensis ' ivas ])iiblisbed in May, 177;")." 'I'lic date 1777 
in the title-i)ii{,'e to the first volume is that of the completion of the lirst I'abci- 
culus. Stokes (,'ivus 17 7 (i fur the hrst imblieutiou. 



■IG A NEW UONG-KONG MELASTOJIACEA. 

iiostro sardoo liabet apicem sursum spectantcm ; quro uota prfcter 
alias liuiic satis ab aliis scparat." (Crantz, /. r.) Tlic observation 
on the achenes will be at once understood by a reference to E. B. 
1504. In other respects the jfigure quoted from Camerarius is a 
sufficiently good representation of our plant. Crantz's name is 
quoted also, as a synonym, by Koch and Decandolle. 

li. hcdrraceiis. BatracJduvi hcderaceum, Gray, the form with 
floating leaves. 

li. hrtcrophijUm. Apparcnth' Pj. JieteropJnjlhnn, Gray, but in- 
cluding also a specimen of i>. atjuatile, Dcsm. 

TcitA-riiim Chammlrys. Correctly named. 

Mentha odorata. No specimen seen. 

Tlnjiims Sojnjlhi))!. T. Cluiiiutdnjs, Fr. 

Mr'lissa C<daminth(i. CaJawuitha oscendcns, Jord. This is also 
the Hertfordshire plant, and has smaller flowers than C. Xepeta, 
Clairv. Cf. the quoted figure from Blackwell. 

Eujdtmsia Odontites. Probably Odinttites vema, Keich. 

Draha mnralis. Correctly named. This was not discovered by 
Abbot until after the pubHcation of his Flora. It seems to have 
occurred as a casual also on the Conthient. ( Cf. ' Grenier Flore de 
la Chaine Jurassique,' p. 62.) 

Cardamine hirsuta, C. parnfJova, and C. jie.ruosa, With. 

Erodium vum-hiitim. No specimen. The E.B. figure was, 
however, as in the case of Braha mnralis, drawn from a plant sent 

by Abbot. 

An unnamed specimen of E. coniwi.vtum, .lord., probably repre- 
sents E.pivijdnelhefdium of the Flora. Should not Bibthorp's name 
be kept up for this plant ? 

(To be continued.) 



A NEW HONG-KONG MELASTOMACEA. 

By H. F. Hance, Ph.D., &c. 

Amongst a number of new plants which Mr. Charles Ford, the 
able and energetic Superintendent of the Hong-Kong Botanic 
Gardens, has within the last few years detected, one of the most 
interesting is the subject of the present notice. It was first met 
with at the close of last IMarch, growing in one locality only, near 
the top of the peak to the south-east of the Happy Valley, at an 
elevation of about 1000 feet, amidst a rank vegetation of grass and 
shrubs, close to the bed of a water-course. The plant bore old 
fruit only, and Mr. Ford, who thought it might be Alhmorphia 
paucijlora, Benth., sent it me for determination. Though the 
specimen received was quite too incomplete to enable me to name 
it generally, it sufiiced to show that it was diflerent from any 
Chinese Melastomad hitherto recorded. In the middle of July, 
Mr. Ford, who kept his eye steadily on the locality, was rewarded 
by finding the plant in full bloom, and the specimens he placed at 
my disposal showed it to belong to Otanthera, a small genus, of 



A NEW HONG-KONG MELASTOMACEA. 47 

which the few known species* are met with in Burma, the 
Malayan Archipelago, the Philippines, and Eastern Tropical 
Australia. It is very distinct from all heretofore described, 
especially in its indumentum ; but, on account of its fruit being, 
even when young, scarcely entitled to the qualification of fleshy, 
and at maturity perfectly diy and crustaceous, and splitting 
irregularly at the summit, it is manifestly most nearly allied to 
the Sumatran and Australian 0. bracteata, Korth. (of which a very 
full description and well executed figure has been given by the 
discoverer!), and for this reason Blume proposed to separate 
geuerically the Sumatran plant, under the name oi Lachno podium. I 
From that, however, it is at once to be distinguished by its soft 
glandular pubescence, the shape of its leaves, its bractless 
inflorescence, inappendiculate calyx-throat, broadly ovate acute 
petals, and longer stamens, with the anthers three-spurred at the 
base. The flowers are sometimes, though rarely, tetramerous, 
and the cells of the ovary, as depicted by Blume in O. muluccana,'^ 
are surrounded by double their number of large cavities, which in 
the present plant are nearly twice the size of the cells themselves. 
The following diagnosis is drawn up from excellent materials, 
communicated by the discoverer of this interesting plant, to whom 
I have great pleasure in dedicating it : — 

Otanthera Fordii, sp.nov. — l-li pedalis, ramulis tetragonis 
cum pedicellis calycibusque dense glanduloso-tomentosis, foliis 
plus minus disparibus cordato-ovatis obtuse acuminatis margine 
deuticulatis utrinque opacis supra sparsim hirtellis sub lente 
punctis impressis minutissimis confertissime consitis subtus 
pallentibus pilis glaudulosis creberrimis tectis T-nerviis nervis 
venulisque trausversis subtus prominulis 3-4 poll, longis 2 poll, 
latis petiolo 1-2 pollicari, cymis terminalibus et ex axillis summis 
plurifloris umbelliformibus omuino ebracteatis, pedicellis 5-6 lin. 
longis, calycis tubo campanulato 3 lin. longo lobis lineari-lanceolatis 
1^ linealibus persistentibus, petalis orbiculari-ovatis acuminatis 
roseis 4 lin. longis, filamentis quam petala duplo brevioribus, 
antheris arcuatis subulatis basi autice 2- postice 1-calcaratis 
calcaribus parvis obtusis patentibus, stylo ad medium antherarum 
adtingente, capsula Crustacea glabra, vertice dehiscente, seminibus 
minimis pallide brunneis. 

In fruticetis ins. Hong-Kong, mense Julio 1880, coUegit 
C. Ford. (Herb, propr. n. 21099.) 

• There is considerable discrepancy in the number recorded by different 
authors. ]?hime (Mus. bot. LugJ.-Bat. i., bit) gives four, Naudin (Ann. Sc. 
Nat. :]e ser. xiii., '^h'i.) five, Miquel (I'l. Tnd. bat. i., 1, 515) six, I'eiitliam and 
Hooker (Gen. Plant., i., 74(i) two, Triaiia (Trans. Linn. Soc, xxviii., 55) seven, 
and Mr. C. B. Clarke (in Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind., ii., 522) two or three. 

t Korthals, Verhand. Nat. Gesch. Bot., 2:J5, t. 51. 

\ Les genres Melastoma et Otanthera font exception dans le groupe dss 
]\Ielastomees a grainos courh^es en liniavon, par leur Iriiit pulpcnx. (Triana, in 
'J'rans. Linn. Soc, xxviii., 1(U.) 

§ Mus. liot. Lugd.-Bat. i., t. 20. 



48 



NOTES ON SHPtOPRTIIRK PLANTS. 
By William E. Beckwith. 

Few comities in England present a more diversified surface, or 
a riclier field for the botanist, than Shropshire ; its high hills, — 
destitute of trees, like the Glee Hills, the Longmynds, the 
Stiper stones, and the Caradoc ; or clothed with Avoods, like the 
Wrekin, — its other great tracts of woodland ; the Rivers Severn, 
Tern, and Teme, with innumerable brooks, streams, and reservoirs; 
the meres near Ellesmcre ; the mosses near Whitchurch and 
Wem ; the far-famed Bomere Pool, with a multitude of smaller 
pools and bogs ; the beds of limestone round Much and Ijittle 
Wenlock, and on the Welsh borders ; the low rich valleys and poor 
uplands — all contribute to support various forms of plant-life. 

Since Mr. Leightou published his excellent ' Flora of Shrop- 
sliii'e' in 1841, great changes have doubtless taken place in tlie 
character of the soil, and drainage has either destroyed or circum- 
scribed the limits of many of the bogs and pools ("Golding Pool, 
near Pitchford," and the "boggy ground near Mosterley," have long 
been drained). Yet I have often had great pleasure in finding plants 
still flourishing in localities instanced by him, and bearing mute 
testinony ■'"o the accuracy of his work. 

With such a rich field for labour it may justly bo said that 
my notes are extremely meagre, and to this accusation I plead 
guilty, offering as "extenuating circumstances" the facts that I 
only began them in 1876, and have only included the rarer plants 
found by myself or sent me by friends since that date. 

I have followed the arrangement and nomenclature of Syme's 
edition of ' English Botany.' 

Thalictrum flavum , L. Banks of the River Tern, and ditches in 
Attingham Park ; banks of the Severn near Leightou, Buildwas, 
and Bridgnorth. 

Ilanuncnlus liederaceus, L. Small pools and ditches about 
Church Stretton, Frodesley, Atcham, Ellesmere, Eyton-on-the- 
Wcaldmoors, and Leighton. 

li. sceJenitHs, L. Very frequent about Ellesmere and Berrington. 

E. Lingua, L. Bomere Pool, near Shrewsbury ; Colemere and 
Whitemere Meres. 

11. auricowns, L. Frequent in woods round the Wrekin. 

R. parvijiorus, L. On Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

It. (irccusia, L. Common in fields near Eaton Constantine, 
Leightou, and round the l)aso of the Wrekin. 

Helleborun viridLs, L. Homer Common, near Much Wenlock ; 
apparently quite wild. 

H. fa'tidns, L. Several plants of this species still grow by the 
road leading from Much Wenlock to Buildwas, a locality mentioned 
by Mr. Leighton in his 'Flora of Shropshire.' 

Aquileijia vidgaris, L. Wood between Cound and Evenwood ; 
wood near Buildwas Bridge. 



NOTES ON SHKOPSHIRE PLANTS. 49 

Berheris viihjaris, L. Fouud iu woods and. hedges near Ludlow 
and Stokesay. 

Xymjiluta alba, L. Berrington ; Bomere, Almond, and Hencott 
Pools, near Slirewsbmy; Ellesmere Meres. 

Nuphar lutea, Sm. Found in the same places as the last 
species, and in the Eiver Tern at Attingham. 

[CurijdaUs solida, Hook. I have seen specimens from woods 
near Cruckton Hall, where it is naturalized. Mr. E. M. Sergeant- 
son has also shown me specimens gathered by the brook flowing 
fi'om Eveuwood to Cound.] 

C. lutea, DC. Naturalized on old walls in the town of Ludlow. 

C. claviculata, DC. Very frequent in the woods on and round 
the Wrekin. I have also seen specimens from Frodesley, Church 
Stretton, and Acton Burnell. 

Rapltanus liaiiliaimtruin, L. The white-flowered variety of this 
plant has grown for several years in a field near Eaton Con- 
stantine. 

Brassica temiifoUa, Boiss. Very frequent on walls in the town 
of Ludlow. 

Cardamine amara, L. Very frequent by the numerous small 
streams that run from the AVrekin to the Severn. I have also 
found it in Attingham Park, near Cantlop's Cross, near Cressage, 
and by the sides of Cound and Shiueton brooks. This species 
often grows in woods, usually in shadier places than C. pratensis. 

C. stjlratica, Link. Frequent and very luxuriant in a small 
wood on the bank of the Severn near Eaton Constantine. 

C. impatiens, L. Mr. E. M. Sergeantsou brought me specimens 
of this species fi'om near the Caradoc Hill, iu the summer of 
1880. 

Arabis thaliana, L. Frequent on dry sandy and gravelly banks; 
very common on walls and rocks near Bridgnorth. 

Barbarea vuhjaris, E. Br. Not unfrequent along the banks of 
the Severn and Tern ; by Cound and Shineton brooks, and about 
the Ellesmere Meres. 

Xastnrtium sylvestre, E. Br. Very frequent along the banks of 
the Severn. 

N. palmtre, DC. Banks of the Severn near Cressage ; sides of 
Ellesmere Mere, under Otelcy. 

N. amphibium, E. Br. Eight bank of the Severn, between 
Atcham and Brompton. 

Tldaspl arvense, L. Common iu the parish of Wroxeter, 
especially about Charlton Hill and Dryton. 

Tccadalia nudicaidis, E. Br. Frequent about the High Eock, 
Bridgnorth ; near Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

Lcpidiiun cainpestrc, E. Br. Most abundant iu cultivated fields 
round the Wrekin. 

L. Smithii, Hook. Eyton Eock, and near Dryton, Wroxeter; 
Neaves Castle, near Leighton. 

lleneda lAiti'Dla, L. Frequent aboiit ruins and gravel-pits. 
Very numerous about lime-woi'ks and coal-pits. 

Viola pulmtris, L. i'requent in damp woods near Bomere Pool. 

H 



50 NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 

V. ndnmtd, L. The white variety is frequent near Leighton 
and Llynclys; and a lilac variety grows near Dryton, Wroxoter. 

Vrvscra rotmuUfuUa, L. A few plants in a field at the south- 
west base of the Wrekin ; frequent on the Longmynds, on mosses 
near Bomere Pool, on Whixall Moss, and on a moss near Welsh- 
hampton. 

J), anijlica, Huds. Eather frequent on a moss near Welsli- 

hampton. 

I), inteiiiu'dia, Heyne. Frequent on mosses near Bomere Pool, 
and on Whixall and Welshhampton mosses. 

Dlanthus deltoides, L. Frequent near Dryton, Wroxeter. 

]). jdumniius, L. Old wall in the town of Ludlow, where it 
has grown for more than fifty years ; ruins of Haughmond Abbey. 

Saponaria offichudis, L. Limestone quarries near Much Wen- 
lock ; hedge at Allfield, near Condover. 

SUene infhda, Sm. Dry sandy banks and hilly ground ; frequent 
about Berrington, Charlton Hill, Much Wunlock, and Leighton. 

Stellaria aquatica, Scop. Banks of the Severn near Brompton ; 
banks of the Teme below Ludlow; boggy ground near Eaton 
Mascott ; ditches on the Wealdmoors near Eyton. 

S. (jlauca, With. Ditch in Attingham Park; sides of Ellesmere 

Mere. 

Arenarla trinervia, L. Woods and hedge-banks, very frequent, 

especially on light sandy soils. 

Sar/ina nodosa, E. Meyer. A few plants near Colemere Mere, 
Ellesmere. 

Sperr/ulttna ruhra, Fenzl. Charlton Hill and Eyton Kock, 
Wroxeter ; Atcham Bridge. 

Montia funtana , L. Frequent about the Ellesmere Meres. I have 
also found" it on Charlton Hill, Grinshill, near Craven Arms, and 
Leighton. 

[Clnytonia perfoliata, Don. I have specimens of this plant from 
Byton, near Shifnal, where it is perfectly naturahzed.] 

FAatine hexandra, DC. Bomere Pool, Whitemere Mere. 

Hypericum Androsamum, L. Frequent, and apparently wild, in 
woods round the Wrekin. I have also found it growmg near 
Coimd, Kenley, Acton Burnell, Stokesay, and Downton Hall, 
by Ludlow. 

[H. calycinum, L. Quite naturalized near Eyton Kock, Wrox- 
eter.] 

H. 2)erforatiun , L. Hedges and woods, everywhere. 

H. duhium, Leers. Hedges and woods ; very often found about 
the W^rekin. 

//. tctrapterum, Fries. Wet boggy places, and by brooks and 
ditches; not uucommon about Eaton Constantine, Leighton, 
Cound, and Berrington. 

H. hiimifusum, L. Frequent on high ground. I have found it 
on the Longmynds, near Stokesay, Bridgnorth, the Wrekin, Eaton 
Constantine, Bomere, and Ellesmere. 

H. jndchnim, L. Woods about the Wrekin, on Wenlock Edge, 
and near Cound ; very frequent. 



FEENS OF JAMAICA. 51 

H. hirsutum, L. Woods aud hedges, frequent ; very common 
on the hmestone about Much Wenlock and Buildwas. 

H. montaniim, L. Very rare. In 1878 I found several speci- 
mens near Stokesay, on the hill where Astmntia major grows. 

H. Elodes, L. By the side of Bomere Pool. 

Malva moschata, L. Dry sandy banks ; occurs in many places 
along the banks of the Severn. 

[Linum nsitatissimum,lj. A few plants in fields near Acton Burnell.] 

Geranium pratcvse, L. Banks of the Severn, about Bridgnorth. 

G. jnjrenaicum, L. Frequent in the town of Bridgnorth and 
about Coimd. I have also found it at Shelton, near Shrewsbury, 
and near Shifnal. 

G. piisillum, L. Very frequent about Cound, Berrington, and 
Condover. 

G. columhiuuui, L. Not unfrequent on dry gravelly banks. 
Occurs near Wroxeter, Condover, Buildwas, Leighton, Cressage, 
and EUesmere. 

G. hicidum, L. Frequent about Ludlow aud Downton Castle. 
I have seen it also near Church Stretton, Acton Burnell, Cressage, 
Uppington, and the Bui thy Hill near Middletown. 

Eradhiin cicutarium, L'Herit. Very frequent about Bridgnorth 
and Shifnal. 

Impatiens Noli-me-tangere, L. Mr. E. M. Sergeantson has 
brought me several specimens of this plant, which grows apparently 
wild near Acton Burnell. 

FAionymus curopaus, L. Frequent in hedges near Eaton Con- 
stantine and Leighton, and in woods round Much "Wenlock, Cound, 
and EUesmere. 

Bhamnus catharticus, L. Frequent in a wood between Cound 
and Evenwood. 

R. Frangula, L. Frequent about Whitemere and Blackmere 
Meres, near EUesmere ; occurs also on Shomere Moss, near 
Church Preen, and at the foot of Tentree HUl. 

(To be coutinued). 



THIED SUPPLEMENT TO THE FEENS EECOEDED IN 

GEISEBACH'S ' FLOEA OF THE BEITISH WEST 

INDIES.' 

By G. S. Jenman. 

HA\aNG left -Jamaica, I now add to my previous contributions to 
the ' Journal of Botany ' on the fern flora of the island (r/(/t; vol. vi., 
new series, page 263, and vol. viii., page 257), a few hitherto 
unrecorded plants which have come under my observation. I wish 
at the same time to thank Mr. Baker for his kindness from time to 
time in comparing and determining at Kew my gatherings, without 
which service these papers would possess little if any value, 
removed as I have constantly been in my labours so far from access 
to any collection of properly authenticated specimens. The series 
contains upwards of one hundred and twenty species and varieties 



6^ PEKNS OF JAMAICA. 

hitherto unknown to exist in the country. Tlic investigation was 
made mostly in the very rare and brief intervals allowed by official 
work ; and the results indicate forcibly how much yet remains to 
be accomplished before the general flora will be exhausted, much 
as Jamaica has been explored by botanical collectors. I hope to 
complete during the present year a handbook of the fern flora of 
the island, which has been, in progress for some time, giving, in 
addition to precise descriptitjus, the range of each species, and, 
if limited or rare in its distribution, the locality or localities where 
found ; and much other information gained in the woods in the 
com-se of several years spent in pursuit of other work. Such a 
work is much wanted by the many residents and visitors who take 
an interest in the extensive and abounding fern vegetation, the 
charm of which is irresistible. 

Ctjathea arhuiea, Sm., var. concinna, Baker. — Pinnas much nar- 
rower than in the type, only 2|— 3 inches wide ; pinnules 3 lines 
wide, and cut half-way down, often contracted near the base ; 
texture less rigid, and under surface rather more fibrillous scaly ; 
veins simple ; sori very scant ; stipites much less armed (No. 2, 
Herb. Kew, 1879). A very common plant in the forest below 
Newhaveu Gap, Cinchona Plantations, GOOU alt., and on the slopes of 
St. Catherine Peak, near Irene Castle. It is quite as closely related 
to C. Tussacii, Desv., and is thus a link between these species. 

C. DissoLUTA, Baker MSS., n. sp. — Trunk erect, 3 inches in 
diameter, 10-12 feet in height ; stipites curved outwards, 15-21 
inches long, bright castaneous, armed with short bluntish prickles, 
and densely clothed at the base with lauceolato-attenviate, glossy, 
dark brown scales, which are over -| inch long and li- line wide; 
fronds d-i^ feet long by 18-2-4 inches wide, lower pinnae reduced, 
but not signally, bi-tripinnate ; pinnae petiolate, 8-14 inches long, 
3-5 inches wide, loAvest pinnules hardly reduced ; pinnulfe oblong, 
acuminate, truncate and subpetiolate, ^— | inch wide, 2-3 inches 
long, pinnatient nearly to the costulse (or sometimes quite pinnate 
at the base) segments subfalcate, obtuse, toothed, 3-5 lines long. 
Inline wide; vehis fine, simple, or forked; sori copious, extending 
half to two-thirds up the segments, situated immediately below the 
fork of the vein ; involucre membranous, castaneous, entire and 
quite enclosing the sorus before maturity, ultimately much ruptm^ed; 
texture firm ; colour dark above, but rather paler beneath ; surfaces 
naked, but the costae and flexuose costulfB rusty pubescent above, 
the latter with a few minute bullate scales beneath; rachis chan- 
nelled, muricate below (No. 1, Herb. Kew, 1879). Intermediate 
between tiracilis and Schan-schiii. From the former it is distin- 
guished by its prickliness, compact, and much less difl'use habit, 
and from the latter by the perfectly glabrous, bright surfaces. 
Frequent between 5000 and GOOO feet altitude. Near Morce's Gap, 
Cinchona Plantation, and Portland Gap, Blue Mountain Peak. 

Trichomanes setifekum. Baker MSS., n. sp. — Pihizome thread- 
lilve, difl'use, spreading over the surface of large stones, puberulous; 
fronds membranous, scattered, 1-2 or 3 lines long, varying in shape 
from orbicular to linear ; stipites |— ^ line long ; veins fine, close. 



FERNS OF JAMAICA. 63 

patent, with or without spurious venules between ; midi-ib more or 
less distinct to the apex, where in the fertile fronds it terminates 
in the sorus ; margin ciliate, with stellate hairs, uneven, repand ; 
surfaces naked ; sorus single, apical ; involucre immersed to the 
neck, mouth two-lipped ; receptacle hardly exserted (Herb, Kew, 
1879). By far the most minute of the West Indian ferns. Bare 
in wet gullies, 4000-5000 feet altitude. 

AsPLENiUM (Diplazium) diminutum. Bilker MSS., n. sp. Eoot- 
stock short, creeping, 1-2 lines thick, the advancing point clothed 
with small dark-coloured scales ; stipites apart, but not distant, 4-9 
inches long, rather slender, greyish, channelled, naked or with a 
few deciduous scales at the base ; frond lanceolato-acuminate or 
ovato-lanceolate, 5-9 inches long, 2^5 inches wide, the lowest 
pinnse not reduced or slightly larger, bi-tripinnate, pinn® and 
pinnuL-e rather distant, the former 1-1-3 inches long by f-lf wide, 
serrato-acuminate, petiolate, the latter ovate-oblong, obtuse, 
sharply toothed, pinnatifid, or fully pinnate at the base, -|-| inch 
long, and cuueate below; texture thin, colour dark green ; surfaces 
naked; inferior veins forked; sori copious, the inferior double, 
reaching from the midi-ib to the marginal teeth; involucre dark, 
membranous ; racliis slender, subflexuose above (No. 19, Herb. 
Kew, 1879). Rare on wet rocks at 2000-3000 feet altitude. 

Hypolepis Purdieana, Hook., is a much larger plant than has 
hitherto been supposed, fi'om 2-4 feet high, and approaches H, 
repem by the unarmed variety of that species {ine)inis, Hk.), which 
is common on rock- strewn ground and coffee plantations of the 
Port Eoyal Mountains, at from 3000-5000 feet altitude. It is well 
marked by a few characters, such as its viscid fibrillose sm-face, 
herbaceous texture, castaneous stipes, and other vascular parts. 
It is, however, doubtfully distinct from H. repeiis, which again can 
only be distinguished from Foli/podium piivctatiim, Thunb., by the 
presence of an involucre and its prickly pale-coloured stems. 

Pteris quadriaurita, Eetz., Yav.fclosiiia, J. Sm. 

P. qiuidriaurita, Retz., var. ajfhtentius. — Buds densely coated 
with firmly adpressed, minute, greyish scales ; stipites 2-3 feet 
long ; frond 3-4 feet long, 2-3 feet wide ; pinnje few (6-12), 
distant, lowest with simply one anterior branch, longest lateral 
pinnfc 15-20 inches long, with a long caudate entire point ; pale 
straw-coloured throughout (No. 12, Herb. Kew, 1879). This plant 
is so well marked — contrasting in several features with the (local) 
normal form — that it cannot be overlooked in dealing simply with 
a local flora. 

P. pcdata, Linn., and P. pdhnaUi, Willd., should be combhied ; 
they represent simply the more or less extremes in development 
and cutting of the same plant. I have several times gathered both 
from the same individuals. 

Asplcniiiiii rithitphuruiit, Linn., var. sujiersum. — Hal)it loose, 
bipinnato ; pinnuhia small, 2-3 lines long, ovate or obovate-cuneate, 
subincisod. Resembling .1. rutamini, JMett., but of looser habit, 
with longer stipites. 

AcKosTicHUM siLiQUoiDEs, J(7n»(r//,n. s[i.--Root8tock short, fibrous. 



64 SHOET NOTES. 

clothed with brif,'ht ferruginous subulate scales ; stipites cncspitose, 
numerous or few, dependent, 2-4 inches long, thickly clothed with 
long hair-like glossy golden scales ; fronds lincar-ohlong, sub- 
sinuate, 4-10 inches long, f to nearly 1 inch wide, bluntly pointed, 
gradually tapering into the petiole, thickly clothed, particularly 
before maturity, on both surfaces with cuneate scales ; texture 
firm, rather thickish ; veins parallel, nearly 1 line apart, simple 
and forked ; fertile frond short, ovate-ellii^tical, at first folded 
together with even margins, expanding eventually ; petioles long 
(No. G, 1877, Herb. Kew). Infrequent on open banks from 
2500-5000 feet altitude. Distinguished from A. rillosum, Sw., by 
the narrower, thicker, more hairy, barren fi-ond, and difform, 
spoon-shaped, pod-like, fertile frond, and a peculiar astringent 
smell. Considered by Mr. Baker a variety of .-1. cillosum; I, on the 
other hand, look upon it as a peculiar and particularly well marked 
plant. 

A. [(Tijvinojitcris) aliennw, Sw., Ynv. jlai/eJlum. — Frond large, with 
a long-winged sinuato-repand tail, having one or more scaly buds 
along it in the axils of the undeveloped pinnae ; fertile frond some- 
times, but not always, conform (No. 26, Herb. Kew, 1879). Com- 
mon near the Botanic Gardens, St. Mary, 500 feet altitude. 



SHOET NOTES. 



PoTAMOGETON LANCEOLATUs, Sm. (see p. 11). — I have received 
the following fi'om Prof. T. M. Fi'ies, of Upsala, concerning a 
specimen of this plant which I sent to him recently : — " I can 
inform you that this interesting plant is quite different from 
P. nbjrescens, Fr. The latter is near to, and probably not distinct 
from, P. rufescens, Schrad. ; while the former {F. lanceolatus) seems 
to be next to P. nitens, Web." This shows therefore that the late 
Prof. E. Fries's remark (' Summa,' 214) is not correct; and we 
are left in the same difficulty as before concerning Smith's plant. 
I cannot think that it has any especial relationship to I'. 7iite7is, 
which has the bases of its leaves broad, rounded below and semi- 
amplexicaul. In P. lanceolatus they are all narrowed to the base 
or even stalked. — C. C. Babington. 



OsiiUNDA REGALis, L., IN CAMBRIDGESHIRE. — Osmuuda re//alis has 
been excluded by Professor Babington from the Cambridgeshire 
Flora, on the ground that, although inserted by Dent in the second 
Appendix to the Cambridge Catalogue as growing at Gamliiigay, 
it had been found there by no other botanist, and that " Piay does 
not give the locality in his Synopsis nor elsewhere." But Dent's 
statement is confirmed indirectly in the second edition of the 
Synopsis, p. 18, wliere the " Fiou/tts funtanus j/urpurcus ehyans, 
D. Vernon," is localised " at Gamlingay, in Cambridgeshire, where 
the Filix jlurida grows." The Osmunda is therefore entitled to a 
place among the extinct plants of the county. — Pi. A. Pkyor. 



SHOET NOTES. 55 

Eryngium campestre in Suffolk. — The discovery by Mr. Han- 
bury of Erijnijlum campestre iu Kent, aud Mr. Briggs's notice in his 
lately published ' Flora of Plymouth,' will have called attention to 
the earlier records of its occurrence in our island, especially now 
that its position as a native has in these instances been generally 
conceded. It is true that Mr. Baker had previously disposed of 
its claims as a Northumbrian plant with a bare mention of its 
name in a list of ballast-hill introductions, but its endurance for 
nearly two hundred years in the same locality at Friar's Goose 
might have given it a right to a less unceremonious dismissal. 
Every fresh locality along our shores will add a link to the chain 
of confirmatory evidence, nor is it a solitary instance of a plant of 
general continental distribution that is restricted, or nearly so, to 
the coast line in Britain. Enjwjium, campestre was collected about 
five-and-twenty years back, and on more than one occasion, by the 
Eev. E. N. Blomfield, at Dunwich, in Suffolk, where it is now said 
to be extinct, but there is a much earlier notice of its occurrence in 
the county. In the herbarium of Buddie there is a specimen with 
the following note: — -'■'■ KryiKj'nun medlterraneum sea campestre, 
p. 986," Lob. 22. I found it on ye coast of Suffolk, in ye isle of 
Lovingland, but very sparingly." It was probably collected during 
his residence at Henley, circ. 1697. Loving or Lothing land, the 
Ludinga laud of Domesday, is that northernmost portion of Suffolk 
which is included between the estuaries of the Yare and (Lake 
Lothmg) the Waveney ; much probably remains there to reward 
the explorer. — E. A. Pryoe. 

SciEPUs MAEiTiMus, L., IN Beekshiee. — I find that I have 
omitted to place on record that a specimen of the above-named 
plant was brought to me in 1873 by Mr. F. Walker, who had col- 
lected it in August of that year at Marcham, near Abingdon. My 
attention has now been di-awn to it in consequence of my having 
found a specimen in Puudge's herbarium labelled " Sonning, Berks." 
These localities are, of course, quite distinct ; and as the plant is 
not recorded for the West Thames subprovince in ' Topographical 
Botany,' or, so far as I can ascertain, elsewhere, its occurrence in 
these inland stations seems worth noting. — James Beitten. 



Plants of East Coenwall. — On looking over my botanical 
work for the last year or two I find the following species, for which 
there is no record as growing in this district either in 'Topo- 
graphical Botany ' or in the ' Journal of Botany.' Ranunculus 
Linijua, L. ; Merc Lake, Bude. Cardnus jntdensis, L; plentiful in 
a marshy spot at Dubson, one mile and a half from Launceston, 
June, 1879 (also a few plants by the roadside from Broadwood to 
Bratton-Clovelly, North Devon, June, 1875). Neottia Xidus-avis ; 
a few plants ; Week S. Mary, June, 1880.— W. Wise. 

* This is ft referoDce to his MS. Flora, now unfortunately sc'iiaratuJ from the 
herbarium to which it is the koy by Uio removal of the latter from tlie liritish 
Museum to tlie new Nutuial History Museum at South Kensington. 



56 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

What is the Dunwich Kose ? — Among the traditions of tlio 
ancient city of Bt. Felix, whose crnmbhng rnins liave for centuries 
been yielding to the " rage and surges of the sea," the " Dunwich 
Rose " has held no inconsiderable place in i^opular esteem, and 
renkcd high among the established wonders of the guide-book. 
But it has not, so far as I am aware, attracted the attention of any 
botanical writer, and yet, from an account that recently appeared in 
a number of ' Eraser's Magazine,' it would seem not unworthy of 
further inquiry. The rose is there described as springing from the 
clefts of the ruined fragments of the Grey Friars' wall, and 
" throwing long sprays and wreaths of blossom over the crumbling 
stone. ... It })artakes of the nature of the Scotch rose, hardy 
and spreading rapidly. It grows all over the sand cliffs and pent- 
lands aboiit there, creeeping along the ground where it can find 
nothing to cling. The flower has a powerful scent ; it is a single 
blossom of purest white velvet, with anthers of black or brown, a 
smooth brown stem, with long sharp thorns and smooth pointed 
dark green leaves, growing like the blackberry leaves, for which at 
first we mistook them." (E. L. Cornish in 'Eraser's Magazine,' 
n. s. vol. xvii. p. 528.) This is suggestive rather of Uosa spinossisima 
or It. arienni.'i among British roses, both of which would be likely 
to occur in the neighbourhood, but there are points of detail that 
are irreconcileable with the characteristics of either. As in other 
instances, it is rej)orted to have been introduced by the " monks," 
and to grow now^here else ; according to other authorities, it is 
found with pink flowers at Framlingliam, once the stronghold of 
the Bigods, but this is hardly consistent with the account in 
Fraser. — R. A. Pryor. 



iExtvacts autJ Xottccs of Boolts antr iiUmotvs. 



REPORT OF THE HERBARIUM OF THE ROYAL GARDENS, 

KEW, FOR 1879. 

By Sir J. D. Hooker, K.C.S.I., &c.* 

Herbarium. — The most important accessions to this depart- 
ment consist of :— A very complete set of the plants collected in 
Sumatra by Prof. Beccari, of Florence, presented by himself. 

An almost complete herbarium of the Canadian Flora, formed 
by Prof. Macoun, of Belleville, the joint property of that gentle- 
man and of the Canadian Commissioners of the Paris Exhibition. 

A herbarium of upwards of 1500 Fijian j^lants, collected by 
Mr. Home, E.L.S., Director of the Mauritius Botanical Gardens, 
when on a mission to the Pacific Islands to j^rocure sugar-canes. 

* [It seems necessary to state, as accounting for the appearance of this 
abstract so Ion?: after dntc, that the Report, nltliough dated Jan. 1st. issiO. did 
not actually appear uutil the latter end ol October of that year. — Ed. Jouex. Bot.J 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MKMOlRS^. 57 

A very large collection of Mexican and South U.S. plants, 
collected by Dr. Parry when on a botanical expedition from Cen- 
tral Mexico to the United States. 

A continuation of M. Glaziou's Brazilian collections (nearly 
1500 species) ; also of Welwitsch's West African ones, presented 
by the Government of Portugal ; and the completion of Brown's 
Australian Herbarium ; the British Herbarium of the Botanical 
Exchange [Kecord] Club ; a very fine collection of European 
Eoses and Eubi from G. C. Joad, Esq., of Wimbledon. 

The principal contributors have been :— 

Europe. — Bennett, A. W. ; PohigalecF, (9). Botanical Eecord 
Club; Herbarium of. Cooke, M. C. ; British and miscellaneous 
Fungi (purchased, 125). Danford, Mrs. ; Levant (18). Fitch, W. H. ; 
Servian (45). Gandoger, — ; J^osrt' (purchased, 411). Joad, G. C; 
Fiosic. and Piuhi (420). Henriques, J. ; Portugal (107, and drawings). 
Heldreich, Prof. ; Greece (purchased, 177). Kunze; Fumji exsiccati 
(purchased, 200). Larbalestier ; Lichens (purchased). Sanio, Dr. 
C. ; German (42). Societe Dauphinoise pour rEchauge ; (pur- 
chased, 471). University College, London ; a miscellaneous col- 
lection. Van Thuemen, F.; ilf^cof/;ecfti«itV<?^-sa/is (purchased, 300). 
Westendor., — ; Belgian Cryptogams (100), Wittrock, V., and 
Nordstedt, 0, ; Algfr (purchased, 100). Vise, Eev. J. E. ; Micro- 
fungi (purchased, lOOj. Various European plants have been re- 
ceived from Dr. Archangeli, Dr. Huntingdon (Italy), J. A. Jenner, 
J. C. ManseU Pleydell, H. T. Mennell, Prof. Ohver, Eev. W. H. 
Painter, Eev. W. Eogers, J. Sanders, C. E. Broome, Eev. W. A. 
Leighton, J. E. Williams. 

North and Temperate Asia. — Aitchison, Dr. ; collections made 
as botanist to the Kuram field force in Afghanistan (about 1000). 
Collett, Major H. ; Afghan (81). Ford, Chas. S. ; China and 
Kong (108). Markham, Capt. A. H. ; Nova Zembla (80). Perry, 
W, Wykeham ; Scind and Persian Gulf, &c. (95). Post, Prof. ; 
Syria (137). Preston, Eev. T. A.; China (22). A few Japanese 
plants laave been received from J. Bissett ; Chinese, from E. Brad- 
ford, A. Davenport, and Dr. Hance. 

Tropical Asia. — Beccari, Prof. ; Sumatra (900). Beddome, 
Col. ; Madras Presidency (200). Duthie, J. F. ; N.W. India (10, 
and drawings). Meyer, Dr. A. B. ; Eiedel's Timor plants (17). 
Murton, H. J.; Singapore (94). Small contributions have been 
received of Himalayan plants from Eobt. Ellis and J. Gamble ; 
and of Bornean orchids, collected by F. W. Burbidge, from Messrs. 
Veitch. 

Africa and African Islands. — Barber, Mrs. M. E. ; Gold 
Fields (44). Bolus, H. ; Cape Eestiacese and Ericetr; (115). 
Cosson, Mons. ; Letourneux's Egyptian (138). Kirk, Dr. J. ; 
Zanzibar and Comoro (43). Perry, W. Wykeham ; Madagascar 
and Comoro (15). Schweinfurth, Dr. ; Egypt, &c. (76). Por- 
tugal, Government of; Welwitsch's African (005). Stone, General; 
Purdy's Darfur (132). Wood, J. M. ; Natal (057). Smaller con- 
tributions have been received of S. African plants from Sir 11. 



68 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

Barkly and T. T. Cliamberlaiu ; of Maclagascarian, from Miss 
Gilpin; and of Liberian, from E. H. Holmes. 

North America. — Curtiss, A. H. ; Florida (purchased, 250). 
Farlow, Anderson, and Eaton ; Alf/m (30). Macoun, J, ; British 
N. America (partly purchased, 2805). Parry, C. C. ; Mexican 
and New Mexican (1250). Ravenel ; American Fimgi (purchased, 
200). Smaller contributions have been received fi'om ])rs. Eaton 
and Engelmann, Messrs. Hemsley, Lemmon, Mohr, Townshend, 
Sereno Watson, and Miss Frances J. Myers, and (Bermuda plants) 
from Sir J. H. Lefroy. 

West Indies. — Brace, L. J. K., communicated by H.E. Gov. 
Kobinsou; Bahamas (150). Holme. Piev. H. K. ; Montserrat (60). 
Meyer, G. L.; Tobago (33). Murray, H. B.; St. Lucia (39). 
Prestoe, H.; Trinidad (10). 

Central and South America. — Coppinger, Dr.; Patagonia (17). 
Ernst, Dr.; Caraccas (8). Glaziou, A.; Brazils (14-17). Kal- 
breyer; New Grenada (298). Lorentz, Dr.; Ai-gentioie Provinces 
(purchased, 51). Thuru, E. F. im; British Guyana. Tilrckheim, 
Mons.; Guatemala (purchased, 108). 

Australasia, Polynesia, and Antarctic Islands. — Bennett, the 
late J. J.; completion of Brown's Australian Herbarium (1056). 
Berggren, Dr.; New Zealand (30). Buchanan, Pvev. ; New 
Caledonia (61). Carson, D.; Australia (9). Cheeseman, T. F.; 
New Zealand (10). Gray, Dr. A. ; Kerguelen's Land (55). Hill, 
Walter; Frazer's Island (5). Home, John; Fiji Islands (1530). 
Kirk, Thos.; New Zealand (7). Mueller, Baron von; AustraUa(6). 



Familiar (ranlen Fluwcrs ; figured by F. E. Hulme, F.L.S., and 
described by Shirley Hibberd. First Series. London : 
Cassell, Better, Galpin, and Co. 1880. 

This is a pretty-looking volume, owing its attractiveness to the 
coloured figures of some of our best known garden favourites. 
Some of these are very well executed, others — e. g., Lilinm jio)ii- 
poniaui — unsatisfactory ; but there is a scrappiness about most of 
them which prevents justice being done to the plants selected ; the 
vignettes and initial letters are especially pretty. The letterpress, 
however, is poor ; and this is the more to be regretted, inasmuch 
as a good deal of interesting information might have been given 
about some, at any rate, of the plants figured. But instead of 
this, Mr. Hibberd gives his personal reminiscences, which are " of 
no value to anyone but the owner," as advertisements say ; and 
the little information he attempts to bestow is not always trust- 
worthy. For instance, FriimtJa elatior is not the scientific equi- 
valent of the Polyanthus (p. 25) ; "the common yellow crocus of 
gardens " is not " the Crocus hiteus of the botanist " (p. 98) ; we 
fail to see why Convolrulna minor is a " j)referable name " to that 
of C. tricolor, or why the latter is "appropriate but indefinite" 
(p. 81) ; and so on. At first sight one is inclined to criticise Mr. 
Hibberd's spelling of Mathiola and Malcomia, but this spelhng is 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 59 

in each case that employed by Eobert Brown when (in Aiton's 
'Hortus Kewensis,' 2nd ed., vol. iv., pp. 119 and 121) he first 
established these genera. Mr. Hibberd is severe when he finds 
what he terras (p. 105) "a showy but most egregious blunder" 
in some unnamed popular work ; but he would do well to re- 
member a proverb about the dwellers in glass houses, for he states 
(p. 46) that "London Pride" is a modern name for Sa.vifmga 
tunbro^d, and quotes Dr. Prior's derivation of it (from " Mr. London, 
of the firm of Loudon and Wise ") Avith approval, even suggesting 
that " it should therefore be designated London's Pride " — the fact 
being that S. umbrosa was called London Pride at least as long ago 
as 1727 by Threlkeld. Mr. Hibberd has had a good opportunity 
of producing a useful and interesting book, but he has not fully 
availed himself of it. J. B. 

Under the title of " The Kew Arboretum," Mr. George Nicholson 
has begun, in the ' Gardeners' Chronicle,' a series of papers descrip- 
tive of the hardy trees and shrubs, in which not only those in actual 
cultivation at Kew, but others will be included. This series, which 
we believe will be reprinted in book form, will go far to supply a 
want, nothing of the kind having been published in England since 
Loudon's ' Arboretum,' which is now somewhat out of date. 

We note that our contemporary, the ' Garden,' has reduced its 
price, while its attractive features have increased. A coloured plate 
is given with each number ; and although the subjects represented 
are naturally selected for their horticultural value, some of them are 
of botanical interest. This is shown by the fact that two of the 
plants lately figured — Hibiscus schizopetalus, Hook, f., and Disa 
macrantha, Hort. (= Z). megaceras. Hook, f.) — have also been recently 
figured in the ' Botanical Magazine ' (tt. 6524, 6529). Mr. Eobinson 
has also started another periodical, entitled ' Gardening,' at the 
price of a penny weekly, which contains a vast amount of horticul- 
tural information, and is attractively illustrated. 



New Books. — B. H. van Nooten, ' Fleurs Fruits et Feuillages 
de rile de Java ' (Brussels, Muquardt). — H. Muller, ' Alpen- 
blumen, ihre Befruchtung durch Insekten und hire Anpassungen 
an dieselben ' (Leipzig, Engelmann). — 'London Catalogue of 
British Mosses and Hepatics' (London, Bogue, 9^^. ; printed on one 
side only, Is.) — 0. Heer, ' Flora Fossilis Ai'ctica ' (band 6), Zurich, 
Wureter. — C. Roumegukke, 'Flore Mycologique du Dopartcmeut de 
Tarn-et-Garonne' (Montauban, Forestia). — H. Baillon, ' Natural 
History of Plants,' vol. vi. (L. Reeve & Co.) 



Articles in Journals. 

December. 

Journal of the TAnnrmi Society (Botany, vol. xviii., no. 109). — 
J. G. Baker, ' Synopsis of Aininca: and Viiccoideie ' (concluded). — 
N. E. Brown, ' Un some new Aividecc ' (pt. i. tt. b). 



^ NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

Scottish XaturaU.st. — J. Cameron, ' Tlie Gaelic Names of Plants,' 
— J. Stevenson, ' Mycologia Scotica.' — F. Ji. White, ' Fungi of 
Perthshire.' — Id., ' Eemarks on Polypodiiim Jlexiie and its relation 
to P. al.pestre.' 

Xhov. Giorn. Pot. Ital. (Nov. 25). — L. Caklesi, 'Florae Faventin® 
Tentamen' (concluded). — A. Borzi, 'Hauckia, a new Palmellacea 
from the Island of Favignana' (1 tab.) — C. Massalongo and A. 
Carestia, ' The Hepatice^e of the Pennine Alps ' (tt. 4 : Scfipania 
Piroliana, Anthella (/) plnjUacantha, spp. nov.) — L. Nicotra, ' Vege- 
tation of Salvatesta ' [Hyoseris plelophi/lla, n. sp.) — A. Mori, 
' Parthenogenesis in Datisca cannnbina.' 

Science- Gossip. — G. Massee, 'Notes on some of our smaller 
Fungi.' 

Bot. Xotiser. — S. Almquist, ' On polymorphic groups of i)lants.' 
— E. Adlerz, ' On the anatomy of bud-scales.' — A. P. Winslow, 
' Eost'B Scandinavicie.' 

Ma;ii/ar Xov. Lapok. — C. Mika, ' On the vegetative progermina- 
tion of Pistilhiria pusiUa.' — (Suppl.) A. Kanitz, ' Plantas Romanise 
hucusque cognitfe ' (continued). 

[Coulter s) Botanical Gazette. — J. W. Chickering, ' Plants of 
Roan Mountain.' — Id., ' Xabalus Poanensis, n. sp.' — W. K. Higley, 
' Carnivorous Plants.' 

American Xaturalist. — C. E. Bessey, ' Sketch of Progress of 
Botany in U. S. during 1879.' — L. P. Gratacap, ' Botany of a City 
Square.' — W. W. Bailey, ' A dispermous acorn.' 

PnJl. Torrey Bot. Club. — A. Brown, ' BaUast plants in and near 
New York City.' 

Xaturalist (Huddersfield). — J, Cash, ' Orthodordium gracile.' — 
W. West, ' Buckinghamshire Lichens.' 

(Esterr. Bot. Zeitschrift. — L. v. Vukotinovic, ' Silene Schlosseri, 
n. sp.' — C. Dufft, ' A new form of Posa vcnusta.'' — A. Oborny, 
'Vegetation of Thaia (Iglau).' — V. v. Borbas, ' Galium sylvaticiun in 
Hungary.' — F. Krasan, ' Vegetation of Gorz and Gradisca ' (con- 
cluded). — W. Voss, ' Pcronospora viticolu.' — A. Hausgirg, ' Botany 
of Kouiggriitz.' — M. Gandoger, ' Pugdlus Plantarum ' (coutd. ; 
forms of Poll/podium vulgare and P. Dryopteris). — S. S. von Miiggen- 
burg, ' Mycological Notes,' — P. G. Strubl, ' Flora of Etna ' (contd.) 

Hedaiyia. — F. v. Thiimen, ' Eeliquiie Libcrtiaua;.' — P. Richter, 
' On the question of the possible genetic relationship of several 
unicellular Phycochromacem.' 

Flora. — A. Minks, 'Morphological lichenohcal studies' (con- 
cluded.) — F. Arnold, ' Lichenological Fragments.' — P. G. Strobl, 
'Flora of the Nebrodes' (contd.) 

Botanische Zeituvy. — K. Goebel, ' On the Morphology and 
Physiology of Leaves.' — E. Strasbm-ger, ' On multinucleate cells 
and embryogeny of Lupinns ' (1 tab.) — E. Stahl, ' On the intiuencc 



LINNEAN SOCIETY. 



61 



of the intensity of light on the structure and arrangement 
of assimihxtory parenchym.'— A. F. W. Schimper, ' Eesearches on 



the origin of Starch-granules.' 



^Jvoctctrings of Societies. 



LiNNEAN Society or London. 

December 2nd, 1880.— Prof. Alhnan, F.E.S., President, in the 
chair. — The following gentlemen were elected Fellows of the 
Society : — Messrs. F. A. Canton, C. B. Cory, Charles Fawcett, 
Charles L, Jackson, Paul H. M'Gillivray, E. W. Emerson M'lvor, 
and Ernest L. Sellon. — Mr. Thomas Christy drew attention to a 
series of Agarics from Brisbane, Queensland, forwarded him hy Dr. 
Bancroft ; and afterwards showed and made remarks on some 
fi-uits of a species of Capsicum from Southern Europe, distinguished 
by their short ovate shape and their total absence of pungency.— 
The Eev. G. Henslow demonstrated the peculiarities of a malformed 
flower spike of Verbasciim nujram. — The Secretary read a paper 
" On an Erythraa new to England," by Mr, Frederick Townsend. 
This plant, obtained in the Isle of AVight, has been already noticed 
in this Journal for 1879 (p. 327) ; and Mr. Townsend has kindly 
forwarded us an abstract of his paper, Avhich will appear in our next 
number. — An important lengthy communication, " On the Conifers 
of Japan," by Dr. Maxwell Masters, was read in abstract ; it deals 
with their structure, affinities, synonymy, and geographical distri- 
bution. There are thkteen genera recorded in Japan, whereof one 
only is peculiar to the country, and they comprise forty-one species, 
exclusive of varieties and doubtful natives ; twenty-two are endemic. 
Nine or ten species are common to Japan and the mainland of 
N.E. Asia, and other facts point to a wide distribution. Neverthe- 
less the large number of endemic species and one endemic genus 
lead Dr. Masters to the inference that Japan may have formed a 
special centre whence Conifers have migrated elsewhere. Numeri- 
cally the coniferous alliance is greatest between Japan and China. 
The approximation to the American flora of the east side is numeri- 
cally extremely small, but when representative species of Conifers 
are taken into account the relation is closer, though less than that 
illustrated by other orders of flowering plants. Dr. Asa Crray 
supported by Prc^f. Oliver believe an analogy exists between 
the floras of Tertiary Central Europe and the recent floras of the 
Eastern American States and Japan. liowever this may be, Dr. 
Masters lays some stress on the probability of a dispersal from a 
Japanese centre, and, among other subsidiary reasons, adds the 
migration southwards from the polar regions, now admitted by 
botanists on all sides. The paper concludes with an enumeration 
of all the known and rare species of Conifers of Japan, and much 
interesting matter connected therewith. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Decemhcr IQith. — Prof, AUman, F.E.S., President, in tlic chair. 
— Messrs. Edward Brown, H. E. Dresser, J. A. Canton, H. 0. 
Huskisson, and Lieut. -Col. Godwin Austen were elected Fellows of 
the Society. — The President announced that the meeting should he 
made special for the purpose of electing a Councilhjr to take the 
place of Mr. Bcntham retired. — Dr. Thomas Boycott exhibited a 
series of microscopical specimens and sections illustrative of the 
growth of the fruit of the Orange, and read a short note thereon. 
— Dr. Maxwell Masters exhibited an example of the so-called 
" Kohl Eabbi,'' in which development of side shoots took place 
in consequence of injury to the terminal bud. — Some Syrian Figs 
were shown by Mr. Percival D'Castro, and inquiry made of the 
Fellows as to their species or other information ; it being intended 
to introduce their cultivation into the South of France, but authentic 
published data concerning this very excellent variety was scanty. 
— Two most interesting physiological papers were read by Mr. 
Francis Darwin : (1) The theory of the growth of cuttings, illus- 
trated by observations on the Bramble [Bnhm fruticoam) ; and (2) 
On the means by which leaves place themselves at right angles to 
the direction of incident light. 

January 20th, 1881.— The Eev. J. M. Crombie, F.L.S., in the 
chair. — Several portfolios of British Sea-weeds, elegantly prepared 
by Mr. F. W. Smith, of 5, Clifton Villas, Falmouth, were exhibited 
by the Rev. J. Gould. — A new form of microscopical cabinet, 
designed by Mr. W. Hillhouse, F.L.S,, of Cambridge, was 
explained by him, its compactness and portability, Sec, rendering 
it advantageous to teachers. — Mr. T. Christy exhibited some 
horn-shaped galls growing on a branch of Pistacia atUmtica, and 
somewhat similar in appearance to those known in India under 
the name of " Kalera-singhi " galls. From the galls a substance 
exuded which was not unlike Chian turpentine. Mr. Christy also 
di-ew attention to a good example of the fruit of the White 
Quibrachio. — The first botanical paper read was " Notes on the 
OrcJiidecE," by Mr. George Bentham, F.R.S. This important 
contribution is prefaced by a short historical sketch of the more 
prominent workers in this group from the end of last century. 
The wonderful variety of tropical forms of Orchids early attracted 
attention among botanists, and in later years Loddiges' col- 
lections were noteworthy ; and having become fashionable and 
popular objects of cultivation, through the examjjle set by the 
Duke of Devonshire in his Chatsworth collection, a still more 
marked incentive to their production arose from the studies of 
Charles Darwin on their singular modifications of fertilising 
apparatus and its protecting perianth. In their systematic arrange- 
ment Swartz's labom's (1800), and afterwards the observations of 
the Richards, Dupetit-Thouars, and others, have become obsolete 
from the vast influx of forms then unknown. Robert Brown first 
established the principles of theii- classification on a solid basis, 
and Lindley afterwards, in his genera and species of Orchids, 
further summarised and grouped in such a way as were to remain 
true till the present day. Blume's labom-s must always take a high 



LINNEAN SOCIETY. 



63 



rank ; excellent analysis of generic characters are to be found 
in Sir W. Hooker's writings ; and the illustrations of Wight, 
Griffith, Fitzgerald, and others are invaluable. The younger 
Eeichenbach has devoted great attention to this group, and 
especially those in cultivation, but from him we still lack a synopsis 
of contrasted characters adaptive to the limitation of tribes and 
genera. Dr. Pfester, of Heidelberg, has studied Orchidcw accord- 
ing to their vegetative characters, and thus has made an important 
advance. J. G. Beer, of Vienna, in strongly criticising Lindley's 
classification, proposes a division of the order into six tribes, 
founded solely on modifications of the labellum, but to the total 
neglect of all other characters structural or vegetative. In review- 
ing the Lindleyan system Mr. Bentham observes that the primary 
division founded on the consistence of the pollen has not been 
replaced by any other equally good, although it is by no means 
absolute. He admits that the distinctions founded upon the 
so-called caudicles and gland can scarcely be maintained, inde- 
pendent of the confusion occasioned by the term " caudicle " having 
been applied to three difi:'erent parts of the pollinary system. In 
the case of Vamhur, Darwin, distinguishing it from the caudicle, 
proposes to call it "pedicel"; but as this word has already a special 
designation in some flowers, Mr. Bentham thinks " stipes " a more 
appropriate term. The resiilts of his detailed examination of all 
the genera proposed or established, of which he could prociu-e 
specimens living or dry, checked by published descriptions and 
illustrations, has been their distribution into five tribes and some 
twenty- seven subtribes, as tabulated below. Mr , Bentham thereafter 
enters into lengthened explanations of the several tribes, subtribes, 
and more remarkable genera in the order, in his usual critical and 
careful manner. 



OKCHIDEiE. 



Tribe I. Epidendre^. 
Subtribe 1. Pleurothalleje. 
,, 2. Microstylete. 
,, 3. Liparieee. 
,, 4. Dendrobica). 
,, 5. EriesB. 

,, 6. Bletiete. 
,, 7. Coelogyneas. 
,, 8. Stenoglosse^e. 
,, 9. Lailiete. 

Tribe III. NEOTTiEiE. 
Subtribe 1. Vanilleaa. 
,, 2. CorymbiefE. 
,, 3. SpirantheiE. 
,, 4. Diuridcaj. 
5. Arethusea). 



Tribe II. Vande.e. 
Subtribe 1. Eulophieae. 

,, 2. Cymbidiere, 

,, 3. Cyrtopodiere. 

,, 4. Stanhopieffi. 

,, 5. Maxillarieaa. 

,, 6. Oncidiese. 

,, 7. Sarcantheae. 

,, 8. NotyiletE. 

Tribe IV. Ophryde^. 
Subtribe 1. Serapiadere. 
,, 2. Habenarieae. 
„ 3. Disea). 
,, 4. Corycica?. 



0. Limodoreic. 

Tribe V. Cypripedie.e. 



64 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

— The Secretary read a short paper " On some Hybrid British 
Ferns," by Mr. Edward J. Lowe. The author records experiments 
winch' induce liira to bcheve that it is possible to cross different 
species, as well as varieties of the same species. — " A Revision of 
the genus Vibrissea" was the title of a communication by Mr. 
William Phillips, which was taken as read. 



Botiauical NcbJS. 



The Botanical Department of the British Museum has lately 
acquired a series of five quarto volumes of original di-awings by 
John Miller, entitled "Drawings of the leaves, stalks, and rami- 
fications of plants, executed for the Right Honourable the Earl of 
Bute for the years 1783 and 1784." 

The University of Aberdeen has lately been presented with an 
interesting herbarium of British plants, numbering 1131 species, 
collected and named by John Duncan, an aged country weaver 
living near Alford, in Aberdeenshire. An interesting sketch of this 
remarkable man, who was born in 1794, will be found in ' Nature' 
for January 20. The plants are for the most part those of his own 
neighbourhood. 

The herbarium of the late Robert Dick has been presented to 
the Free Library at Thurso ; it is to be regretted that it has not 
fallen into the hands of some scientific institution. 

Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay, the hchenologist, died at the end of 
last November at the age of 52, after an illness of many years' 
standing. His papers on Lichens, many of them carefully 
illustrated by the author, are w^cll known ; he was also the writer 
of others upon various points connected with the botany of New- 
Zealand, some of which appeared in the earher volumes of this 
Journal ; his ' Popular History of British Lichens ' is a useful 
little work. 

We have also to record the death of Isaac Carroll, of Cork, of 
whom we hope to give further particulars shortly. 

We are glad to learn that Prof. P. INIacOwan, late of Gill 
College, Somerset East, has been appointed by the Cape Govern- 
ment'^to the directorship of the Botanic Garden, Cape Town. 

Dr. S. B. Mead, an American botanist, died at Augusta, 
Illinois, on the 11th of last November, in his 82nd year, 

Mr. Arthur Bennett, of 107, High Street, Croydon, is engaged 
upon a critical investigation of the species of PoUnnof/eton, and 
will be glad to receive specimens, either British or foreign, for 
examination. 

The Messrs. H. d J. Groves will be glad to receive specimens 
of CharacccB, more especially such as are extra-British ; their 
addi-ess is 13, Richmond Terrace, Clapham Road, London, S.W. 



Tab. 217. 




d R *^ J.I ^J 1 



Potatmogeton la.Ticeola,fcus. SrrvitK 



W.cf M,-™^^ * i", ,» 



65 



<!^iHStnal ilvticlcs* 



ON POTAMOGETON LANCEOLATUS OF SMITH. 

By Arthur Bennett. 

(Tab. 217). 

Considerable interest lias always attached to this plant from the 
fact that it is not certamly known to occur elsewhere than in 
Britain. It is a species which has been much misunderstood by 
continental botanists, — partly, I am inclined to believe, on account 
of the scarcely satisfactory figure of the Welsh plant in ' English 
Botany.' The specimens which I obtained in the Fens last year 
(see Journ. Bot. 1880, p. 276), have enabled me to add a few details 
to Smith's original description ; and I have thought that a figure 
prepared from the abundant material collected might serve to 
render the plant better understood, and at the same time afford an 
opportunity for publishing the following description of it, drawn up 
from living specimens : — 

PoTAMOGETON LANCEOLATUS, Smith. '^- — 'English Botany,' vol. 
xxviii., t. 1985; ' Enghsh Flora,' ed. 2, vol. i., p. 233. Hooker 
and Arnott's ' British Flora,' ed. 6, p. 469, 470. Bentham ' Hand- 
book,' ed. 1, p. 493 [lucens, var.) Syme ' English Botany,' vol. ix., 
p. 34, t. 1405. Babington ' Manual,' ed. 7, p. 372. J. D. Hooker 
' Student's Flora,' ed. 2, p. 394. 

Non P. lanceolatus, Davall ! Wolfgang ! Eeich. ! 

Nee P. nigrescens, Fries ! 
,, P. variifolius, Thore ! 
,, P. j^a'iormitanus, Bivoni ! 

Eootstock slightly creeping. Stem slender (usually naked below 
in the Fen plant), much branched. Submerged leaves mostly 
alternate, varying in length (1^ to 3 inches), linear-lanceolate, 
tapered gradually to the stem, less so to the apex, rather blunt, 
translucent, euthe on the margin, with 3 to 6 ribs, connected by 
transverse, sometimes branched veins, and with chain-like network 
which is elongated along the midrib. Upper leaves oblong-lanceo- 
late (variable), opposite, tapered into a slight petiole (especially in 
the Fen plant), subcoriaceous or translucent, with 7-9 ribs, and 
numerous cross veins, which are often branched ; the whole leaf 
with chain-like network (areolation), more conspicuous towards the 
midi'ib. Stipules free, small subulate to linear, upper larger, 
lanceolate, not winged on the back, but with two strong ribs. 

[* It seems right to point outtliat althougli this form of the name is that 
usually adojited, it was originally published by Smith as lanceolatum. — Ed. 
Journ. Bot.J 

N. s. VOL. 10. [March, Ibbl.] k 



C)i) ON POTAMOGETON LANCKOLATUS Ol-' SMITU. 

Peduncles -^- to 2]- inches in length, not thickened towards the 
spike, sometimes slightly stouter in the middle. Spike short, 
^ to J inch, ovoid. Lamina of the sepals rhombic-orbicular. 
Ovary (very young) small, oblong-elliptical, rounded at the base 
with a slight neck at the base of the stigma. 

liipo fruit unknown. 

The Fen plants give off stolons from the axils of the upper 
leaves, the leaves of Avhich are very narrow, bright green, and 
translucent. 

Loc. — Wales : in the Eiver Lligwy, Anglesea. England : 
Burwell Fen, Cambridgeshire. 

Mr. C. Bailey, of Manchester, gathered it in its Welsh habitat 
in August, 1875, and writes as follows : — " The plant grows in 
longish patches to the exclusion of anything else near it. In a few 
places where the stream is slower, and more w^ater in, it simply fills 
it up, from the bed to the surface, so that the ducks cannot 
comfortably paddle in it ; in the swifter places it is in the middle 
of the brook, forming patches of two to three yards long by six to 
twelve inches broad." Mr. Griffith again gathered it last 
November, and sent me fi'esh specimens ; he added that he had 
detected a partly-formed fruit, and gave a sketch of it. I could 
only find a very young ovary, but certainly in a more advanced 
state than any I had before seen, although I have it from 
the Welsh station, gathered in August, September, October, and 
November. As I have it from the Feus growing I hope to get it to 
fruit ; at this time the leaves are very narrow, very translucent, 
and of a beautiful bright green. As stated by Prof. Babington at 
p. 64, it is most certainly not the P. nigrescens of Fries Herb. Norm, 
or Mantissa. I sent specimens of our Janceolatus to M. Otto 
Nordstedt, of Lund, and he compared it with a specimen of Fries' 
plant, from the original station, and given to him by Fries himself; 
and he writes — ^" I do not think this is the same (identical) as 
P. nu/resce)is, Fries." He also kindly sent me a portion of that 
specimen, and fi-om the structure of the leaf I have no doubt the 
original finder of the plant, LiBstadius,* referred it to the species it 
is nearest, P. rufi'scena, Schrader. 

I cannot help thinking that the ' English Botany ' plate of 
P. lanceolatus has misled continental authors, being without ths 
floating leaves, and not representing the areolation of the leaves 
(which is regretted by Smith, Eng. Flor., vol. i., p. 233), which is 
well shown on some of the old specimens in the Herbaria of Kew and 
the British Museum. Placing that plate by the side of a specimen 
of P. Uthuanicus, Gorski,f referred to his lanceolatus by Keichenbach, 
there is a general appearance of our plant on a large scale. In 
Nolte's collection at the British Museum are two incomplete speci- 
mens which so miich resemble our lanceulatm, that it would be very 
desirable to obtain more complete specimens whence these came, 
i. e., Holstein and Lauenberg. 

* See Fries, Nov. Flor. Suec, p. 41. 

f See Ascheroou, 'Flora ol' JBraudeuburg' (Prussia), 18C1, p. COG. 



NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 67 

To tlie P. vanifolius of Tliore the British laitceolatm bears only a 
very superficial resemblance. 

P. jxinonnitanus of Bivoni, mentioned by Prof. Babington 
(Journ. Bot., 1881, p. 11), is a variety of ;v(/.s///;(s with longer flaccid 
leaves than the type, the upper leaves spathulate, and having nearly 
the same chain-like network as lanceolatus. I possess British 
specimens (Westmoreland, Mr. C. Bailey), which match Bivoui's 
plant exactly. 

I have specimens from the United States (which I owe to the 
kindness of the j)ossessor of Dr. Eobbins's Herbarium, the Eev. 
T. Morong, of Mass., U.S.A.), very like our plant at first sight, 
gathered by the late Dr. Bobbins (who monographed the genus for 
Dr. Asa Gray's 'Manual'), and marked by him '^ (/ramineus ?'' 
These are very like Fries's ni<irescens, not only in the structure of the 
leaves, but in the pedunculcs and spikes ; curiously enough no 
fruit has been found. Fries says*: — " Pedunculi elongata, sat 
tenues, jequales. Spica densiflora, elongata, cylindrica (nee ellip- 
tica ; ut in P. lanccolato, AVils.)," and these American species agree 
well (some of the spikes are very slightly thickened in the middle) ; 
a leaf placed by the side of one of Fries's plants was undis- 
tinguishable under a low power, our British plant differing from 
both by the beautiful structure of its leaves. On one of the sheets 
of specimens at Kew is written in pencil " P. diversifoUus non 
differt." I am unable to recognise the handwriting, and know of 
but one divcrsifolius, i. e., that of Barton (= P. hybridus, Michx.) I 
should be glad of information on this point, especially as to 
"P. diversifoUus, Schl." which I am unable to trace. Chamisso, 
in ' Linnea,' vol. ii. (1827), p. 233, says of our plant : — " P. lanceo- 
lahvm, E. B., t. 1985, est P. lanceolatus, species recognoscenda." 



Description of Plate 217. — 1. Specimen from Burwell Feu (ad nat. del.) 
a. Upper leaf. h. Portion of a to show the structure. c. Submerged leaf. 
d. Section of stem. e. Ovary (very young). /. Sejml (d, b, f, e. magnified). 
2. Specimen from Wales. 



NOTES ON THE HEEBAEIUM OF ABBOT, 

WITH KEMARKS ON THE SYNONYMY OF SOME OF THE SPECIES 

By E. a. Pryor, B.A., F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 40.) 

Geranium saiujuineum. Correctly named (see p. 8-19 of Flora). 
There is a specimen of G. rotund ifolinm, whicli has since been 
found in the county ; another (unnamed) of G. nodosum is possibly 
from Abbot's original locality at Welwyn. 

G. pusilluut. And not as in the Flora, parctjlurujn, correctly 
named. 

PohfjaJa vulgaris. The genuine plant. 

There are un-named examples of both species of Ononis 



Mantissa iii., p. 17. 181 ; Suuiina. p. 214, 



68 NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 

fastened to the same sheet, and apparently representing the 
'^ arvnisis '' and "spinosa" of the Flora. A question may be 
raised ns to the pro]ier names of these two plants. In the 
third edition of the ' Species Plantarum' (p. lOOG) Linnfeus has 
defined two species, the second of which, O. repem, is foiinded 
upon a maritime plant of Plukeuet's, which is doubtless the 
same as the prostrate form of the sandy coasts of Norfolk and 
Suffolk, and is perhaps O. maritma of Dumortier. Omitting the 
somewhat vague habitat of the Orient, it is localised solely " in 
Anglicc litoribiis maris,'' and it is quite clear that it could never have 
been intended to include the " arroisis" so general in inland 
situations. The other species, 0. spinosa, with its primary variety 
mitis, is characterised, strangely enough considering the specific 
name, by " ramis iiiermibus." This has been almost universally 
identified with 0. hircina of Jacquin, and is therefore beside the 
present enquiry. The second variety, /3. spinosa, is distinguished 
" caule spinoso,'' a description which is curiously incorrect, as the 
spines can hardly be said to spring immediately from the stem, 
and is suggestive rather of the figure of Blackwell. It seems clear, 
then, that either Linnseus was unacquainted with the characteristics 
of the two species as now generally understood, or that he has con- 
fused them both under the last-mentioned variety. In the 12th 
edition of the ' Systema Nature' (vol. xii., p. 478j, he has again 
described two species in terms verbally identical with those pre- 
viously employed: the name "spinosa" only has been altered to 
'' arvensis.'" What then is this last ? Mr. Bentham has deemed, 
and there is every probability in favour of his opinion, that 
Linnseus simply changed the name "spinosa" to " arvensis," and 
that it was a mistake of Murray's to insert both as species in the 
14th edition of the ' Syst. Veg.' It is sufficiently evident that the 
Linnean names cannot justly be applied to either of our plants. 
Hudson, in the 2ud edition of his ' Flora Anghca ' (p. 31 2_, 1778), 
appears to have been the first to have clear views of the distinctions 
now universally accepted. His first species, the Anonis spinosa flore 
purpureo of Kay's ' Synopsis,' he unfortunately referred to the 
Linnean spinosa ; Mr. Bentham at one time considered it to be the 
0. antiquorum of Jacquin, a view that has since been given up, and 
0. campestris, Koch. & Ziz., correctly and generally adopted. His 
second species, 0. inennis, includes two varieties, the first being the 
Anonis noyi spinosa purpurea of the ' Synopsis,' and the second the 
maritime plant above-mentioned. It will hardly be objected that 
O. incrmis is occasionally spinous, and, with the exception of the 
Linnean, which I have endeavoured to show to be inapplicable, 
Hudson's is much the earliest name. 

Lathjrus latifuJius. Certainly L. syhestris, L. The only speci- 
men of L. "latifoUiis" in Sowerby's Herbarium is also, I think, 
undoubtedly sijlvestris. The very narrowly-winged petioles and small 
stipules, and general appearance of the flowers, is quite unlike those 
of latif alius. The label " Hawnes and Bromham, Bedford, Sowerby 
MS.," is copied fi-om Sowerby's note on the original di-awing for 
E. B, 1108, which is of course Jatifolius, and does not in the least 



NOTES ON abbot's HERBAKIUM. 69 

resemble the specimen iu question. This, however, agrees exactly 
with an unpublished drawing on which Sowerby has pencilled 
" Lathy rns sylrestris, by Eev. Mr. Sutton, Lord Eliot's wood, 
Sydenham in Essex, July 7th, 1792," a date earlier than that of 
either of the published drawings. There is no specimen from 
Bedfordshire in the Smithian herbarium. 

Vicia lath ij mid es. Exactly Dickson's Hyde Park plant (Hort. 
Sice. Brit. No. 12), and therefore T'. angustifulia, Reich.''' 

Ervum tetraspennum. Vicia hirsiita, Gray. 

Trifolium Melilotiis-officinalis. Melilotus aJtissima, Thuill. (Fl. 
Par. 378). M. ol/icinalis, Willd. (En. h. Berol. ii. 789). 

Thuillier's name (1799j is ten years earlier than that of Will- 
denow, and besides Desrousseauxf had already (Lam. Enc. iv. p. 63) 
established a Melilotus ojftcinalis, which has far more claim to 
represent the Linneau plant, although it has been usually called 
M. arvensis by British authors. This is the plant figured by 
Martyn (Fl. Rust. 72), and is not improbably that mentioned by 
Gerard as an abundant weed on the borders of Essex and Suffolk. 

There is an unnamed specimen of Trifolium medium, Huds. 
Hudson (Fl. Angl. ed. 1, 289, 1762) is undoubtedly the authority 
for this specific name. It is true that it wili be found in the 
' Novitiae Florae Suecife,' in the Appendix to the second edition of 
the ' Fauna Suecica' (1761) ; but " Trifolium medium, Linn. Faun. 
Suec. II. app. p. 558 (solum nomen) manifesto a Linnaeo in Sp. ii. 
ad T. alpestre (specie tamen diversum et in Succia non obvium) 
ducebatur, et propterea alibi apud L. non occurrit." (Richter, Codex 
Linn^anus, 744). I do not see, then, how we can call our clover 
T. medium, unless on Hudson's authority. 

T. ochroleucum. T. ochroleucon, Huds. 

In 1762, in the first edition of the ' Flora Anglica,' Hiidson 
described and named for the first time Trifolium ochroleucon, 
founding his species upon the " Trifolium pratense hirsutum majus, 
flore albo^sulphureo, sen wyj^^'KiWu " of Ray (Syn. ii. 193), and 
characterising it as " Trifolium spicis globosis, corollis monopetalis, 
calycum infimo dentc longissimo erecto,iyfoliis cauleque hirsutis." 
There can be no possible doubt as to the plant intended by either 
writer. In 1768, in the ' Appendix Vegetabilium,' half a dozen 
pages of botanical matter inserted at the end of the third volume, 
on the Mineral Kingdom, of the ' Systema Naturte ' (ed. 12), Lin- 

* It seems not improbable that this Vicia may never really have been 
gathered in Hyclt; Park (Fl. of Middx. 86), but that the admission of this station 
in the ' English Flora' was owing to some inadvertence or confusion of memory 
on the part of Smith. The lirst notice of Dickson's j)lant is to be found in JMig. 
Bot. i. Go, but the specimen was not puiilished in the fourth fasciculus of the 
' Hortus Siccus Uritannicus ' until some years later. Tlie doubt as to the cor- 
rectness of the name Wiis perhaps first suggested in the third edition of Witiiering's 
'Arrangement,' and in the 'Flora Britannica' Smith tacitly transferred Dickson's 
synonym to V. saliva L., without the mention of any locality. In the ' English 
Flora,' "Hyde Turk, Dickson," is correctly given under the newly introduced 
V . avfittstifolia, and I cannot help thinking that the station wns erroneously 
rcjuatcd under J', lathy roidets, more especially as Smith does not refer to any 
authority. 

f To say nothing of Lamarck himscll (Fl. Fr. cd. 1, 5'.);")). 



70 NOTES ON abbot's HERBAniUM. 

naeus has also described a trefoil uuder the same name as, but 
without auy reference to, Hudson, and based upon a plant intro- 
duced by Uillenius into his edition of the ' Synopsis,' as " observed 
by Mr. Rand between Peckham and Camberwell," and defined as 
" T. pratcnse purpurcum minus, foliis cordatis. Priori [T. pmtense] 
minus est, foliis parvis cordatis, leviter pilosis, floribus pro plantulae 
magnitudine majusculis, capitulo nudo, petiolo modice longo insi- 
dente. Folia ad superiorom caulis partem plerumque ex adverse 
nascuntur, quod singulare in hae specie " (Syn. iii., p. 328). In 
all this what hint is there of any possible reference to T. ochro- 
leucuni.^ Nor will the figure (tab. xiii. f. 1) help out the resem- 
blance, the stipules being especially unlike those of our plant. It 
is difficult to understand that any very definite meaning was 
attached by Linnseus to his own character — " T. spicis villosis, 
caule erecto pubesceute, foliolis infimis obcordatis ;" indeed, that of 
T. sqiiarrosiim (Sp. PI. 1082) comes, as suggested by Smith, far 
nearer to the present species. Haller, indeed, refers Eand's plant 
to his ochroleucum as a variety, guided principally, it would seem, 
^^ pare foliorum oppositorum,'' but Linnseus, though he has copied 
some details from the description of the genuine Swiss plant, still 
quotes only the so-called purj^le variety, and, under any circum- 
stances, Hudson's name has a clear five years' priority. It is 
characteristic that Smith has no reference to Hudson at all in the 
English Flora under this plant. 

T. scabrum. Too immature to determine with certainty. 

T. prociimbens. No specimen. 

T. dubium, Sibth. T. minus, Sm. 

This last name is often quoted, especially by continental 
botanists, as if Eelhan were the authority. The language of 
Smith, both in ' English Botany' and the 'Addenda' to the 'Flora 
Britannica,' is doubtless the origin of the mistake ; but a reference 
to lielhan's own note in the second edition of his ' Flora ' (p. 200) 
will not leave much room for hesitation, as it is only reasonable to 
suppose that Smith furnished the name as well as the character of 
the plant in question. After giving the description from ' eel 
auct. Flor. Brit. MSS.,' he adds, " Characteres trium ultimarum 
specierum, a eel. auct. Flor. Brit, ex observationibus D. Beeke, 
S. T. P. emendati fueruut ; et mihi benevole communicati." Sir J. D. 
Hooker'sunqualified statement that T. niiuus, Sm., "is the T.Jilifurme 
of foreign authors " (Stud. Flora, p. 99) is in strange contrast with 
the opinion of Grenier, " Tout le monde etant maintenant d'accord 
sur la plante a laquelle Linne a douue le nom de T. Jilifoniie, ainsi 
que sur I'identite de cette espece avec le T. vncranthum, Viv., je 
pourrais borner la le resume de la discussion " ('Flore de la Chaine 
Jurassique,' p. 176). But the question as to T. minus is not yet 
finally settled. There is another claim that cannot in strict justice 
be overlooked. Sibthorp appears to have been the first %mter in 
our own country to identify the T. aijrarium of English authors 
with T. ]ir(jcuwhens, L. As the plant formerly called procumbens 
was thus left without a name, he created for it that of T. dubium, 
and it so stands as a distinct species in his ' Flora,' p. 231 (1794). 



NOTES ON ABBOt'b HERBAKIUM, 71 

Two years later Withering, in the third edition of the ' Botanical 
Arrangement ' (1796), altered the T. aijrariiDn of his earlier writings 
into T. procunibens, on the expressed authority of Afzelius, but 
without any reference to Sihthorp, his former 2\ procuDibms ranking, 
on the same groimds, as T.fdijunne (see p. 654). The same course 
was adopted by Smith in the 'Flora Britannica,' p. 792 (1800), 
and it was not until the second edition of ' Eelhan ' (1802) that he 
definitely introduced the three species with T. minus as a siibstitute 
for the six years earlier duhiuin of Sibthorp. There can be no 
doubt that both authors distinguished precisely the same plant, 
and Sibthorp's name, as the earliest and most expressive, has 
every claim to precedence, subject to the ultimate determination of 
the Linnean procumhens. 

T. filiforme. Correctly named; but another specimen is 
MediciKjo liqndina, L. 

Sunchus oleraceus. 1. S. asper, All. (Fl. Fed. no. 814). 
2. S. oleraceus, L. 

Hieracuim murorum. H. vuhjatiDn, Fr. 

H. sahandum. H. borecde, Fr. 

H. umhellatuin. No specimen. 

Arctium Lappa. No specimen. 

Viola canina. V. liiviniana, Echb. 

Orchis latifolia. 0. hicarnata , L. 

Serapias latifolia. Epipactis latifolia, Bab. Man. I am able to 
recognise three woodland s^Jecies of Epipactis in south-eastern 
England : — 

i. E. latifolia, Bab. Man. 

ii. E. latifulia. Hook. Student's Flora. 

iii. E. violacea, Boreau, Fl. du Centre, p. 661. Durand 
Duquesney Cat. PI. de Lisieux, p. 102, sub latifolia. This "plante 
remarquable par sa souche epaisse, donnant naissance a una 
touffe de tiges, et par la teinte rougeatre-violacee repandue sur 
toutes ses parties" (Brebisson, Fl. de laNormandie, ed. v. p. 396-7) 
can never be confounded when growing with either of the other 
species. " What botanist," remarks Mr. Oxenden in a communi- 
cation addressed by Dr. Masters to the ' Phytologist ' (n.s., v. iii. 
p. 268), " ever yet knew E. latifolia to throw up ten or a dozen 
flowering stems from the same root, each stem very close to the 
rest like ears of corn ? but every one of these contingencies occurs 
with /'.'. jiurj/itrata" [violacea). It is doubtless the E. violacea with 
" tufted not creeping " rootstock of ' Topographical Botany '; and I 
believe it to be the plant of Forbes, badly figured, and with a very 
insufiicicnt description in E. B. S. 2775. It has of course nothing 
to do with the E. purjmrata of Smith, which, as is sufficiently 
evident from the original specimen, was founded on a deformation 
in an immature state. I do not know how far it corresponds with 
the E. media jj. pnrjixrata of the ' Manual.' Specimens thus named 
many years back from Hertfordshire, under Mr. Babiugton's 
inspection, are ccrtauily not this plant. E. violacea occurs in 
Bucks (Britten), and I have seen specimens from Hertfordshire, 
Hampshire and Northamptonshire. To these Bedfordshire may 



72 NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 

be added on the f.aith of the E. B. S. plant, and probably Kent 
on that of Mr. Oxendcn. I do not venture to quote any 
counties from ' Topographical Botany,' as Mr. Watson has 
referred to I'J. media, J3ab., a most distinct jilant as a synonym 
of his riolacca. There is an excellent descrii^tiou of E, violacea 
in the third edition of Boreau's ' Flore du Centre,'* but I 
am unable to refer to any very satisfactory account of it in any 
British author, although the characters of the other two species 
arc sufficiently clearly given in the ' Manual.' Dr. Boswell indeed 
has observed that " specimens of E. violacea, Durand-Duqucsnay, 
from Lisieux, agree weU with E. purpurata, Sm." (I presume the 
E. B. S. plant, and not that of Smith is intended), " but the 
French plant is said to have a thickened rhizome, producing tufts 
of stems, which I cannot verify from my specimens, which are 
only detached stems. The Keigate plant grows in dense tufts, 
but each stem, or at most each pair of stems, comes from a 
separate branch of the rootstock " (Syme, E, B. vol, ix., p. 124) ; 
and again, just above, " The Beigate and Claygate plants are the 
only ones I have seen in a living state. These are not at all 
tinged with purple, and have the flowers pale yellowish green, 
with the labellum sometimes as long as the calyx segments, but 
generally a little shorter." Mr. Watson, however, has taken a 
different view, and remarks that " Dr. Boswell Syme is under 
some error in recording that the Claygate plants of E. media ' are 
not at all tinged with purple.' On a label with a specimen di'ied 
in 1849, I wrote 'Whole plant with a lilac purple bloom over the 
green ; ' and indeed it was the purple tint which first drew my 
attention to the plant"! (Comp. Cyb. Brit. p. 577). But our 
plant was not unknown to the earlier botanists. In the herbarium of 
Buddie (Herb. Sloan. 124, fol. 43), are two unmistakable specimens 
of E. violacea, without locality, labelled " A}i Hellehorine montana 
angiistifolia pur/ii(rasce>is, C. B. 187." The original plant of 
Bauhin, and that of Bay's ' Historia,' was doubtless the Cephal- 
anthera to which it has usually been assigned ; but it is far from 
improbable that Plukenet's Irish specimen (Aim. p. 132) was the 
same as Buddie's. Hudson, in the first edition of his ' Flora,' 
p. 342, quotes Bauhin's synonym for his Serapias loyigifolia ^, which 
he localises " circa Clapham et Ingieton in coviitatu Eboracetisi." 

* " E. violacea . . . Souche epaisse produisant des touffes de tiges 
soci6taires de 2 a 7 decim. cjiindracees, sans angles ni stries, excepte au 
soinmet, robustes, couvertes surtout dans le baut d'une pubescence papilleuse, 
pulverulente brillante; gaines des feuilles inferieiires etroitement embrassautes; 
i'euilles lanceolees aigues, souvent jilus courtes que les entre-nceuds, passant 
insfUsibleuient a I'etat de bractees lineaires lanceolees plus longues que la Heur; 
pedicelle tordu plus court que I'ovaire ; ovaire turliiue a 6 fortes uervures ; lobes 
du jDeriauthe plus longs et plus ouverts que dans E. latifoUa, les ext6rieur.s 
verdatres, les 2 interieurs d'un blanc jaunatre, lave de rose; label tr^s excave a 
appendice cordiforme acumine, un peu crenele, recourbe a la pointe, offrant a sa 
base verdatre des gibbosites plissees creiJues, blanc sur les bords d'abord, puis 
rose et entin brun. Toute la plante est d'un rouge violace, a la tin brouz6e, 
jamais verte." — Boreau, vol. ii. jip. 651, 052. 

+ T have myself gathered undoubted siieciniens of E. media, Bab., that were 
entirely of a bright lilac tint, in one instance varied with a in-imrose colour. 



NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 73 

This could hardly have heen Cephalanthera rubra. Stokes, in the 
second edition of Withering's Arrangement, similarly places 
Plukenet's and Hudson's plants as a variety with purplish flowers 
of his Serapias yrandijiora (With. Arr, ed. ii. p. 1001), and as quite 
distinct from S. rubra. The variety as of S. grandijiora seems to 
be altogether imaginary, but the specimen of Buddie may go far 
tow^ards clearing up this obscure plant. 

Carex distans. C. binervis, Sm. 

C. montana. This seems to be C. piluUfera, L. 

C. panicea. C. rcmota, L. 

There were also specimens, correctly named, of the following: — 
C. pulicaris, C. sylvatica, 

C. pilulifera, C. strigosa, 

C. pallescens, C. riparia, 

C. prcBCox, C. hirta, 

And of some others which are not in the Flora. 

C. cccspitosa. C. vulgaris, Fr. 

C. recurva. C. fiacca, Schreb., Spic. Fl. Lips. app. n. 699. C. 
glauca, Scop. 

C. rostrata. C. rostrata, Stokes (With. Arr. ed. ii. 1059). C. 
ampulUtcca, Good. 1 cannot see why Stokes' name should be 
neglected in favour of the later one of Goodenough. The same 
locality is referred to by both authors, and the earlier description 
is unmistakable. 

The other Carices mentioned in the ' Flora Bedfordiensis ' are 
either not represented in the herbarium or are in quite an indeter- 
minable condition. The same remark will apply to the Sulices. 

Atriplex patuht. A stunted example of A. erecta, Huds. 

It will be noticed that one or two of the specific names in the 
foregoing list, which are usually attributed to Linnaeus, have been 
ascribed to the authority of Hudson. While engaged in the colla- 
tion of synonyms for the Flora which I have in preparation, my 
attention has been forcibly drawn to the unmerited neglect w^hich 
has befallen so many of Hudson's determinations. His first 
edition, indeed, with some honourable exceptions, seems to be 
entirely unknown upon the Continent, and has apparently been 
consulted by very few among British botanists, while we not 
unseldom find that even the second has for purposes of reference 
been superseded by the reprint of 1798. The ' Flora Anghca ' was 
originally published in 1762 ; I have not been able to ascertain the 
exact date, but from a MS. note of Pulteney's he seems to have 
received his copy " exdono authoris " on October 8th of that year. 
The preface to the first volume of the second edition of the ' Species 
Plantarum ' is dated September 1st, 1762, but from a reference to 
Hudson at page 680, under Prunus avium and insititia, it is quite 
evident that at least the latter part of the volume could not have 
been printed off until after the publication of the ' Flora Anglica.' 
The second volume is dated 1763, and is clearly posterior to the 
work of Hudson, which indeed is quoted on several occasions. In 
addition to the names given above, and omitting those which are 
generally accepted, at least in this country, and a few others such 



74 NOTES ON abbot's HERBARIUM. 

iis Blackstonia and lirovius ramostis, whose claims have been 
recently brought under notice, and which are in the way to l)e 
generally conceded, there remain a dozen for which Hudson's 
nomenclature has the priority over that of Linnaeus, who has 
indeed, in some cases, simjily transferred the names of the ' Flora 
Anglica,' with a due acknowledgment, to his own pages, and can 
hardly be supposed to have intended that they should be quoted on 
his own authority. 

Tlie list is not an uninteresting one : — 

Alupccurus mijostiroiiles, Huds. 23. A. (u/rcstia, L. Sp. ed. 2, 89. 
This can at most claim to be contemporary with Hudson's name. 

A. bulhosiis, Huds. 24. A. bidbosus, L. Sp. ed. 2, ii. app. 1665. 
With reference to Hudson. 

Agrostis pahistris, Huds. 27. A. alba, L. Sp. ed. 2, 93. Both 
names should perhaps give way to A. stolonifera, L. Sp. ed. 1, 62. 

Arena puhesrens, Huds. 42. A. piibescens, L. Sp. ed. 2. ii. 
app. 1665. "With reference to Hudson. 

Dipsacus sijlvestris, Huds. 49. D. sylvestris, ' L.' Syst. Veg. 
ed. 14, 143 (1774). TJ.fuUnnum, L. Sp. ed. 1, 97, is perhaps more 
correctly the name of this plant. 

Sinm erectum, Huds. 103. S. anciustifolmm , L. Sp. ed. 2. ii. 
app. 1672. With reference to, and character copied verbatim from, 
Hudson. 

Mentha longifulia, Huds. 221. 2L. sylvestris, L. Sp. ed. 2, 804. 
With reference to Hudson. 

M. rotundifolia, Huds. 221. M. rotnndifoUa, L. Sp. ed. 2, 805. 
With reference to Hudson. These are the varieties /3. and y. of 
M. spicata in the first edition of the ' Si^ecies Plantarum ' 
respectively. 

Al. Jursnta, Huds. 223. 21. hirsuta, L. Mant. 81 (1767). With 
reference to Hudson, and a slight alteration in his character. 
Fries says (Summ. Veg. Scand. 197) that this is M. nepetoides of 
later writers. If this determination be correct, Hudson's two 
Middlesex stations must be transferred from M. ''hirsuta " to M. 
" pubescens " of Trimen and Dyer's Flora, and will probably turn 
out to be the same as those of Eand and Buddie given under the 
latter plant. 

Scutellaria minor, Huds. 232. -^. minor, L. Sp. ed. 2, 835. 
With reference to Hudson, and his character given verbatim. 

Geranium peremie, Huds. 265. G. pyrenaicum, L. Mant. 97 
(1767). 

Hypericum elodes, Huds. 292. H. elodes, L. Sp. ed. 2, 1106. 
This last, however, is to be found as a solum nomen, together with 
several others that were previously unpublished in the catalogue of 
the Flora Anglica put forth in Grufberg's name in the fourth 
volume of the ' Amoenitates Academicae." These names, though 
referred throughout to the numbers of the Dillenian edition of the 
Synopsis, have never been taken up, and only one of them, 
Veronica montana, has been noticed in this relation by Kichter in 
the ' Codex Linua;anus ;' but as the volume in which they, as well 
as the two ' Centm-iae Plantarum ' (where formal descriptions of 



BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 75 

many of them will be found), occur, was not imblislied until 
some months after the appearance of the tenth edition of the 
' Systema Naturae ' (1759), in which they are mostly inserted, the 
l^oint is, with respect to the greater number, of no particular im- 
portance. The Hypericum, however, is not so circumstanced, and 
the question may arise whether it ought not, strictly speaking, to 
be quoted as H. eludes, Grufberg. 

The following are also in a similar position ; they have been 
determined from the references to the Synopsis : — 

Primula acaulis ; seemingly as a species. 

Vicia anyustifoUa : the plant of Bobart. 

Trifulium squamosum: T. maritimum, Huds. 

Medicayo minima: and of Desrousseaux. 

Ophrys arachnites: 0. aranifera, Huds. 



ON SOME EECENT TENDENCIES IN BOTANICAL 
NOMENCLATURE. 

By B. Daydon Jackson, Sec. L.S. 

From time to time it is good to compare our present methods 
of working, with those of earlier epochs, in the same way that a 
mechanic will occasionally test the truth of his operations, by 
reference to the original design or model, and so escape the errors 
which invariably attend the repetition of copies. The matters 
which are immediately before us should not be suffered to entirely 
engross our attention, and prevent comparison of our methods 
witli those of our predecessors. The absence of proper retro- 
spection has led to many regretable departures from established 
usages, often resulting in great inconvenience to methodical and 
conscientious investigators. 

The chaos which threatened botanical nomenclature previous 
to the Paris Congress of 1867 was averted by the adoption of the 
code there promulgated; some botanists, however, remained uncon- 
vinced of the soundness of the decisions, and certain irregularities 
since then are traceable mainly to that feeling ; but I think it will 
be readily granted that a recognition of the moderation and just- 
ness of the rules laid down prevailed almost unanimously upon 
their adoption. It was hardly to be expected that every possibly- 
occurring case could be foreseen and provided for ; therefore, now 
and then, debateable points have come up for discussion and 
amicable arrangement. There are still other cases, where an 
author has started on his own track without raising the question 
pi-eviously, and hence has laid himself open to the charge of 
innovation ; it is more particularly with this class of writers that 
the following remarks have to do. 

It must be admitted at the outset, that the earliest correct name 
is to be used in connection with any given species. Anytliing 
short of an absolute rule on this head can only result in individual 
preference for certain names, and once admit the pica of 



76 BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

favouritism, and we at tlio same moment abandon firm ground for 
quick-sands. The only proviso is, that the pi'ior name must be 
published in some work wliich either came into the market as an 
independent book or pamplilet, or as part of a serial publication. 
It matters not how obscure the publication may be, or how small 
the issue, provided that bond fide publicity was given to it ; Lin- 
naeus's ' Ilortus Cliffortianus ' was a privately printed work, yet no 
one scruples to refer to it, if necessary ; Sibthorp's ' Flora Grteca ' 
in its original form consisted only of twenty-three perfect copies, 
but its limited number does not shut it out from quotation. I 
refer to this, because the charge of pedantry is sometimes levelled 
at those who have honestly, and often laboriously, worked through 
the later incrustations, and arrived at the original and genuine 
name. The restitution of the name Potcntilla Sibbaldi, Haller hi., 
in the ' Mora of British India,' as mentioned on p. 277 of this 
Journal for 1880, is a case in point ; it would be captious criticism 
to complain that this name was published in an obscure i)ublication, 
and therefore should be disregarded. It is the period of transition 
that is trying ; let the original and true name be set forth once 
for all, and difficulties will vanish, but the attempt to uphold 
certain names because we are used to them must result in ultimate 
failure ; it is an attempt to compromise with truth, a course that 
can end only in a heavier penalty at some future time. 

I am pleased to see the critical article by Mr. E. A. Pryor 
(whose recent death we have to deplore) in the current number of 
this Journal (February, 1881) ; and if, as he says, the Ranunculus 
snrdoua of Crantz is the same as our British plant, the later names 
of Curtis and Ehrhart must fall, — there is no help for it. 

No plant can be considered as fully named, unless, in addition 
to the generic and specific names, is given that of the author of 
the name as quoted. M. Alph. DeCandolle goes straight to the 
heart of the matter, when he lays down the rule, never to make 

AN AUTHOR SAY WHAT HE HAS NOT SAID (BuU. Belg. XV., 1877, p. 482). 

This is a golden rule, although often disregarded. Acting upon 
this common sense dictum, such a citation as " MatJdula incana, 
Linn., sub Cheircmtho," is preposterous and inadmissible; if given 
in full it is cumbrous, and includes a misstatement; if shortened, 
by omitting the last two words, it is absolutely false, because Lin- 
naeus designated that species Chciianthus incanus, and could know 
nothing of Brown's genus Mathiola. This is now generally allowed, 
and some who followed M. Boissicr in attaching greater importance 
to the specific name rather than to the generic, are now convinced of 
the soundness of the decision given as above by M. DeCandolle. 
The notion that due honour must be given to the original author 
of the species, by attaching his name to it, however changed it 
may in time become, is sheer nonsense; we do not write L. or 
R. Br. as a tribute of respect to the memory of those authors at 
all, but for our own sake in making clear our meaning. This 
brings me to the case of those authors who admit quite frankly the 
cogency of the reasons for following the procedure above-mentioned, 
but, nevertheless, in their practice go very far astray. " Biscutella 



BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 77 

californica, Bentb. & Hook. Gen. i, 91," and " Braya Eschscholtziana, 
Benth. & Hook. Gen. i. 83,'' as quoted by Sereno Watson in bis 
splendid ' Bibliograpbical Index,' are simply examples of mistakes ; 
tbe genera Dithi/rea of Harvey and Aplirai/mus of Andrzejowski 
baving been sunk by tbe autbors of tbe ' Genera Plantarum,' does 
not qualify tbem for citation as tbe autbority for tbe species, 
because tbey bave not spoken of tbese plants by tbe names under 
wbicb tbey are bere ranged. 

To sbow bow readily errors accumulate, wben sufficient 
care as to accurate citation is not fortbcoming, I tbink tbe fol- 
lowing cbain of instances, wbicb Mr. Britten first pointed out to 
me, remarkably instructive. In tbe ' Student's Flora of tbe 
Britisb Islands,' ed. 2, at page 63, under tbe beading Arcnaria Avill 
be found tbis statement: — -".J. Chcderia, Fenzl (sub Alsiiie) ;" 
tbis sentence also occuring in tbe first edition at page 60. Tbis 
work is usually regarded as a digest of Syme's * edition of ' Englisb 
Botany,' and Sir J. D. Hooker readily acknowledges bis indebtedness 
to it. But it would seem tbat too great reliance bas been placed 
on Syme's synonymy, a point on wbicb tbat work is particularly 
open to criticism. Tracing back, we find in vol. ii. of tbat booli, 
p. 108, '' Alsi'iie Cherleria, Fenzl." In Grenier and Godron's 'Flore 
de France,' vol. i., p. 283, Grenier, wbo alone is responsible for 
tbat portion of tbe book, says: — '■'■A. Cheiieri, Fenzl," giving 
Endlicber's ' Genera ' as tbe autbority for tbat name ; referring to 
tbe ' Genera,' p. 965, we find tbat Fenzl establisbed tbe section 
Cherlerice, but named no species. Summing up, and sweeping away 
tbe accumulated blunders, tbe case stands tbus : — 
§ ClwrlericB, Fenzl, iii Endl. Gen. 965. 

Alsine Cherleri, Grenier, in Gren. & Godr. i. 283 (1848). 
A. Cherleria, Syme, Eng. Bot. ii. 108 (1863). 
Arenaria Chederia, Hook, fib, Stud. Fl. 60 (1870). 

It is natural tbat an autbor, wben describing a new species of 
a large genus, sbould indicate tbe section to wbicb it is most akin, 
for instance, Astragalus (§ Hypixjluttis) wimersus, Baker, but tbese 
tbree names are never meant for constant use, unless tbe mycol- 
ogists will bave tlieir own peculiar way in tbe unwieldy genus 
Ayaricus. Tbe following, tberefore, is open to rej)roach on tbis 
account alone: — '■'■ Gnniwra (Panhca) insiynis, Oerst.;" but tbat 
is not tbe worst of it. At first glance it bas a similar aspect 
to tbe example just above it, and tbat tbe autbor means to 
say tbe Gunnera insiynis of Oersted belongs to tbe section Pankeu, 
but somebow bas missed inserting tbe section sign §. Tbo 
use of parentbcses is to tumporarily exclude from tbe main 

* It is manifestly wrong to speak of " I'oswcU's cilition of ' English 
Botany'" {op. cit. Piefai-e), since tlio surname Syme wiis not iibandoneil until 
after that work was finished. The title page of tiie first volume must be lulj 
as the true authority in such cases ; we constantly speak of Sowerby's ' Botany, 
and rightly so, for Smith's name did not displace Sowerby's on the title page 
until the fourth vohiiiiu was coniplctcd. Smith was very angry with those " who 
flippantly quoted Sowerby's 'Botany,'" but they were right and Smith was 
wrong; he had only himself to blame in the matter. 



78 BOTANICAX. NOMENCLATURE. 

sentence all the words within their boundaries ; the general 
sentence should be comj)lete in significance and intention without 
reading the parenthetical portion ; this is the literary, the 
universal, acceptation ofparentlieses. Tried by this standard, tlie last 
example is wofully erroneous ; Oersted, in the ' Videnskabelige Med- 
delelser ' for 1857, described Pankcainsvjnis, which miiiht be inferred 
from the quoted statement, but is by no means clearly set forth. 

When quoting names, I consider it wholly unnecessary to point 
out also tlie author who first discriminated the species ; thus, if 
treating of Andrcaa, I object to a citation like this — "^-1. aljnna 
(Dill.j, Sm." It is the A. alpina of Smith; Dillenius gave as 
its names — " Lichenastrum alpinum atro-rubens teres calycibus 
squamosis." The history of the naming of the species can be 
clearly shown in the synonymy, and if the student is too lazy to 
glance even over the synonyms, a fortiori he will not burden his 
memory with two authorities. 

Another very objectionable practice, which has only recently 
assumed prominence, and should be discountenanced at once, is 
that of altering, under the guise of amending, a name given by a 
previous author, and then quoting that author as the father of the 
changeling. This seems like the pedantic spirit breaking out in a 
new form ; it is clearly a violation of good faith, so to change a 
name that even its parent would disown it. Cases may occur 
where a misprint in the original may be palpable ; Juncus lampo- 
carpus, Ehrh., is usually written J. lamprocarpus on this account, 
but any such practices must be jealously watched. To propose 
the alteration of Weisda to Weisia, because sometimes P. W. Weiss 
omitted the second s from his name, is mere pedantry. But as 
an instance of the habit I am reprobating, take " Andre(Ba cras- 
sinervis, Bruch." Here-we have a specific name which Bruch did 
not coin, for on turning to his original memoir in the ' Abhand- 
lungen der math.-phys.-Classe,' Miinchen, i. (1832), p. 279,''' we 
find the adjective crassinervia. I know that this alteration is 
ostensibly defended by the plea that no such adjective as " cras- 
sinervius, a, um," can be found in the Latin dictionary. Truly, 
not even the great works of Forcelhni, Freund, or Ducange con- 
tain it; therefore, as it is neither classical nor even mediaeval 
Latin, the precise shape given to it can matter very little, and the 
originator of the word was quite free to please himself therein. 
The strength of the argument for altering is still further 
attenuated by the fact that Carl Mueller has used the term 
" Enervia " as a sectional distinction (Synopsis Muse, i, j). 22), so 
this ending, having been in use altogether unchallenged for half 
a century, it is matter for regret that any attempt should have 
been made to supersede it. Smith was also guilty on this count, 
as the following will testify: — '^ Arenaria tiinenis, Linn.," is a 
name which may be seen in nearly all British Floras — Babiugton, 
Bentham, both the Hookers, and Syme. The simple fact is that 
Linnaeus in both editions of his ' Species plautarum ' wrote 

* Lindberg, in ' Journ. Linn. Soc. (Botany),' xi, (1870), p. 400, quotes the 
' Denkschrifien ' in error; they ceased in 1824. 



BOTANICAL NOMENCLATUEE. 79 

trinervia, and not until the time when Smith published the first 
volumes of his ' Flora Britannica,' do we find any variation. 
Smith cites the following botanists as using his name, but they all 
witness against him ; Linnteus, Hudson, Withering, Eelhan, 
Sibthorp, Abbot, Curtis, Willdenow, AUioni, and Oeder. Smith 
gave no hint of his tampering with the Linnean name, and 
so Withering was led astray in his subsequent editions, then 
Hooker in the ' Flora Scotica,' and a host of followers. 

An error of still greater proportion occurs as " Georgia 
Broivnii (Dicks.), C. Muell.," Briefly, the history of the species is 
thus : — Dickson first figured and described the plant as Bryum 
Brownianuni ; it has successively been I'auked under the generic 
names of Orthotrichum, Grimmia, Tetraplds, Tetrodontium, and 
Georgia. Hitherto the specific name used fii'st by Dickson had 
been preserved, but the author of a recent work, wholly misap- 
I)lying some remarks of Lindley, which were directed to giving, not 
altering, commemorative names, has chosen to transmute the 
specific name into Broivnii as above. This act is hard to reconcile 
with the same writer's protest a few pages previous: — " An author 
is not at liberty to change a specific name, on transferring it to a 
new genus, nor to supersede by a new name, one previously pub- 
lished, even by himself." To ascribe the genitive of the noun, 
Brownii to any antecedent writer is positively misleading ; the 
name should stand as Georgia Brmvniana, C. Mu.ell., or G. Broumii, 
Braithw., if it must be altered, although I cannot see the slightest 
necessity for any such meddling with it. 

I have not done with the cryptogamists yet. For instance, 
Bartramia crispa, Bridel, was so named in 1798 (Muse, rec, ii., 
pars, iii., tab. 1, fig. 4), and B. pomi/ormis by Hedwig in 1801 
in the ' Hanover Magazine.' The former has been for some time 
considered a variety not meriting specific distinction apart from B. 
pomiformis. Prof. Lindberg, I understand, now considering B. 
crispa the more highly developed form, would constitute that the 
type, and sink B. potniformis as a variety. If acute discrimination 
achieve no better result than this, I should lament its mischievous 
tendencies ; who is to decide with indisputable authority the relative 
higher or lower rank which each species is henceforth to hold ? By 
alloAving fancy and inclination a voice in deciding such questions 
as these, we should be placing power in the hands of any 
Eafinesque or Salisbury to upset the labours of their less flighty 
fellows. I do not condemn the supercession of the latter name ; 
the fact is right, but the reason given is wrong. 

One more example of a false citation must close this part of 
the subject. Bridel described a variety of Bu.vbaitmia apln/lla, 
which he termed var. viritlis; mark, only a variety. Subsequently 
he raised it to specific rank, under the style of B. indusiata. Now 
it is perfectly clear that Bridol cliristened his species indmiata. 
In spite of this, wc find tliis statement put forth, " B. viridis, 
Brid." Surely it is an unhealthy and morbid activity to mis- 
represent earlier writers thus ; common sense recoils from it. 

As if to supply me with additional matter for comment, the 



80 BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

second edition of ' The London Catalogue of Britisli Mosses and 
Hepatics,' &c., lias just reached me. Nearly all tlie faults I have 
reprobated in the foregoing lines are here set forth in a glaring 
fashion. I will take a few as a sample of the many. " Dicfwduntium 
pd I ltd (hull, L." How could Linnaeus refer any species to 
Schimper's genus ? " DicraneUa varia, Hcdw." Hedwig had long 
ceased to be ere Schimper's DicraneUa was published. " Scliycria 
Ikmiana, Sm.," will not do ; did not Smith call it Grimmia Don- 
niana? See ' Fl. Britannica,' vol. iii., p. 1198 (1801), so that the 
specific name even is not true ; Bruch and Schimper published 
their genus Seluferia years after Smith's death. 

" Ikirhuhi uiKiuiculata, Dill.," is terrible, far worse than to 
quote the ' Hortus Cliffortianus ' (1737), as the authority for Cono- 
carpus electa, as is done in another book. I must refrain from giving 
more examples from this abundant storehouse ; every name as cited 
above is absolutely misleading, not one of these writers having used 
the generic and specific names as coupled here. 

Minor faults in this list are quoting "Wils." and also ' Bry. 
Brit. ;' did not Wilson write the ' Bryologia Britannica ' as 
Schimper did the ' Bryologia Europtea' ? both " Schpr." (for anim- 
adversions on this way of shortening authorities see below), and 
'Bry. Eur.' surely are not wanted: " Eerg." and " Ferguss." for 
the same man testify to some amount of carelessness in proof- 
reading ; a good reader would secure uniformity for the author in 
such matters. " Lindbg.," for Lindberg should be expanded so as 
not to be confounded Avith Liudenberg. The affectation of accuracy, 
accompanied by real inaccuracy, in the following quotation is very 
irritating : — 

" CoNocEPHALus, Ncckcr (1790). Hepatica, Mich. 1741 ; Fega- 

tcUa, Eaddi, 1818) 3. [C] covicus, L." Linnaeus seems 

to have called it nothing else than Marchantia conica. 

This is something worse than writing " Potamogcton lanceolatus, 
Sm.,'' for Smith, considering the generic name as neuter, wrote 
lane CO I at Hill, and if we use his name we must do so too. 

My last example shall be the most recent ; on page 35 of the 
number of this Journal for February, 1881, there is a description 
of " Lejcunea idicina, Tayl." Taylor, as shown in the very next 
line, termed it a Jungeimannia. 

I am quite aware of the ready retort which the authors of these 
assertions may use, but as I have stated my case in suiSciently 
plain terms, I there leave it. The state of things must be deplor- 
able which could cause Mr. Bentham to write: — " The genera of 
ferns have been thrown into such confusion and uncertainty, that 
pteridologists acknowledge a right of priority in specific names 
whatever may be the genus under which they may have been first 
published" (Flora Australiensis, vol. vii., p. G99). At first sight 
this sentence reads as if anarchy having reigned so long, laws need 
not now be obeyed ; but I do not take this to be its meaning. I 
understand Mr. Bentham to say that on transferring a fern from 
one genus to another, the old specific name is always to be 
retained as a sort of help to the memory ; in fact, greater tenderness 



BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 81 

than usual is to be shown. If, however, the opposite view be 
intended, then I must emphatically protest against such lawless 
action ; if crj'ptogamists have offended so grievously in the past, 
it is worse than Aveakness to condone the offence, and so to pardon 
a continuing breach of the admitted rules. 

The next topic I touch upon again requires us to hark back to 
the practice which Linufeus set and followed in his books ; I 
allude to the uses of capitals in specific (or, more correctly, trivial) 
names. In the original specific names such as Linnaeus employed 
in the ' Hortus Cliifortianus,' I cannot recall one instance of a 
capital letter being employed, but the reason is obvious ; these 
names were only revised descriptions, in brief Latin sentences 
purged from the references to other plants which Linnaeus con- 
demned and did not at first practise. But an examination of the 
' Pan Suecus,' where the present form of specific names was first 
adopted throughout, we find capital letters to very many names. 
The usage of Linnaius herein practically declares itself within the 
first dozen names, Venmica A)uu/allis, V. Beccahunga. V. ChamcEdrys 
occurring together in a group. To compress the matter into small 
compass, the great master made use of a capital when he took his 
trivial name from a name given by some previous author ; the 
three given a few lines above were generic names according to the 
herbalists of a previous day ; this was undoubtedly his guiding 
rule, and when he did employ a substantive for the second term 
he clearly marked it as such by a capital letter, whilst adjectives 
took their proper place without that mark. 

Adhering, therefore, as closely as we can to Linn^eus's plan, 
it is tolerably clear that a capital letter must be used in the fol- 
lowing cases : — 

(a.) An old generic name, e.g., 

Crassida Cotyledon, Haw. ; Galium Cruciata, Scopoli ; 
G. Mollugo, L. ; Andromeda FuUfolia, L. 
(b.) A native name, e.g.. 

Cassia Canca, Cav. ; Myrsine Manglilla, E. Br. ; Eugenia 
Chekan, DC. 
(c.) A substantive used instead of an adjective (an uncommon 
case), e. g., 

Eucalyptus Glohilns, La Bill, 
(d.) A substantive used in the genitive case, e.g., 

Pyrethrum Halleri, Willd. ; Rosa Monsonia", Lindl. ; 
Podoj)hyllum Emodi, Wall, 
(e.) A substantive used adjectively in commemoration, e.g., 
Salix Uussclliana, Sm. ; Grimmia Donniana, Sm. ; 
Malva Boryana, DC. 
All other names must begin Avith a small letter, as adjectives, 
even if derived from places or other genera, e.g., 

Collontia gillioides, Benth. ; Tanacetiim critkmifolium, 
Linn. ; Anemone ranunculoides, L. 
In this last case LinnaDus seems to have been somewhat incon- 
sistent. These rules have been practically observed from tlie date 
of the first edition of the ' Species Plantarum ' (1753) till now, with 

M 



82 BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE. 

some few exceptions, which go to prove the rule. At the present 
day the zoologists have adopted the plan of using no capital letters 
whatsoever in their specific names, and tlieir cxami)le lias unfor- 
tunately been extended into the botanical portion of Godman and 
Salvin's ' Biologia Centrali- Americana.' I am aware that the 
excellent botanist who has charge of this department is not 
lightly to be blamed in tliis matter ; he had to conform to the 
zoological scheme which will form the largest portion of the work. 
Nevertheless, such names as ^' Ma miliaria schelhasii, M. schiedeana, 
M. seidc'lii, M. seitziana," and so on, offend the sight of those 
accustomed to better methods, and can win no adherents to such 
a system. It reminds one very forcibly of the two Australian 
rascals, " mephistophelos with a little m, and brutus with a little 
b," sketched by Mr. Charles Eeade in his novel, 'It is Never too 
Late to Mend.' These examples remind me that Haworth's genus 
should be written Mammillaria (PI. Succ, 177). Eeichenbach in 
1827 seems to have led the way in misspelhng it, and Bentham 
and Hooker do so in the 'Genera. 

On one point I venture to differ from Linn^us in favour of 
modern procedure, and that is in such cases as, Scandix Pecten-Veneris 
and Asplfnium Ruta-Muraria. The specific epithet here being 
composed of two words, the use of a hyphen is eminently desirable. 
I am here counselling the use of the names given in the ' Species 
Plantarum,' for the ' Pan Suecus ' must be regarded as a sort of 
stepi^ing-stone to better things; e.g., Chenupudium Henriciis and 
Hijdrocharis Morsus. 

Pythium De Baryanum is too monstrous to pass in that form. 
Debaryanum or Baryanum if you please; either combine the pre- 
position with the following noun or discard it, as in Yanhcurckia, 
Breb., or Candollea, Lab. 

The last item in my present commimication is on the ill- 
advised abbreviations used by certain writers from whom one 
would expect better things. Once more to quote M. Alphonse 
DeCaudolle, Hook, is the proper abridgement for Hooker, and not 
the cabalistic Hkr. Initials should be carefully avoided, L. and 
DC. being too well known for any possible mistake, and consecrated 
by long habitude, excepted ; combinations of initials also should 
be eschewed ; two wrongs do not make a right, and if one cannot 
stand alone, it ought not to be fagotted with others to mutually 
support each other. S. & M. for Sebastiani and Mauri, M. & K. 
for Mertens and Koch, 0. & H. for Oliver and Hiern, and K. & K. 
for Karelin and Kii'ilow, are essentially vicious modes of abbrevia- 
tion. H. & T. has frequently been used for Hooker and Taylor's 
' MuscologiaBritannica,' whilst H. f. &. T. means Hooker [fil.] and 
Thomson's ' Flora Indica : ' two entirely different sets of authors 
are here to be kept distinct by the single letter f. If authors 
are too hurried or slovenly to take the necessary pains to write 
their copy fair for the printer, the latter should be instructed 
to expand it to the legitimate form. "Web. Mohr." and " Kar. 
Kir." need the sign & to complete the reference. I have instanced 
the example of zoologists as only to be shunned ; their rules do 



MOSSES COLLECTED IN IRELAND. 83 

not run on the same Hue as do ours, and reform is hopeless in 
their case. 

I may mention that a contemporary zoologist is using for his 
own species the initial W., which fifty years ago was understood to 
mean nothing hut Willdenow, hut which practical good sense now 
writes Willd. 

For further examples of the mischievous method of ahhre\dating 
author's names, see M. DeCaudolle's ' La Phytographie,' pages 
272-278, where will he found remarks of weighty significance. 
I need not say how full of important matters that volume is, but 
many of the writers whose deeds I have censured will bow to 
M. DeCandolle's judgment, whilst they might dispute the views 
here set forth were they unsupported. 



ON SOME MOSSES COLLECTED IN lEELAND, 

By David Oer. 

Having entrusted to Professor Lindberg, of Helsingfors, a large 
number of Mosses which I had myself collected in different parts 
of Ireland, I have lately had the pleasure of receiving from him a 
list, in which he gives his identification of all the species in 
my collection. Among them I find five species and three varieties 
not hitherto included in any work with which I am acquainted on 
British Mosses, viz. : — 

Ccratodon conicus, Sch. On the sandhills of the North Bull, 
Dublin. 

Bnjum Mildeanum, Jur. About Kilrock Quarry, Howth. 

Schistujihifllum Oni, Lindb." Eocky slopes in Ballinascorney 
Glen, Co. Dublin. This I have frequently distributed under the 
name of Fissidens adiantoides, Hedw. 

CanipijlopHs jmrado.vus, Wils. Crevices of rocks, south side, 
near the summit of the Hill of Howth. 

Bacomitrimn ohtusum, Br. Dublin Mountains ; not uncommon. 

R. obtusion, var. suhsimplex. With the former; not rare. 

Didymodun cyliiidricus, B. & S., var. Daldinii. Tore Mountain, 
Killarney. 

Hypnum molluscum, Dill., var. robustum. Mangerton Mountain, 
Killarney. 

Besides the above, not hitherto recorded as British, Professor 
Lindberg finds among my specimens the following five species new 
to Ireland : — 

* [This is fully described by Prof. Lindberg in the ' Eovue L5ryolopiqne ' for 
1880, pp. 97—99. He gives the locality as follows: — '• Hiberuia, in aggere 
limoso-arenoso juste Finglas Bridge, ad Tolka-river, baud procul Glasnevin 
Gardens in vicinitatc boreali-oecidentali nobis Dublin (1864, David Orr, n. 78, 
ut ' Fissidens viridulis 1 ')" We learn from I\Ir. Orr that he found tlie moss in two 
localities at Glasnevin — " on stones in the bed of the l{ivcr Tolka, which are left 
dry in summer ;" and " at an old quarry on north baiilc of the 'J'olka east of the 
Botanic Gardens." There seems some jirobability tiiat the jilant may have been 
accidentally introduced in its Irish localities. — Ed. Jolkn. Hot.] 



84 DOCTRINE OF CLKISTOGAMY. 

Uicranum Stnrldi, Web. & M. Wet rocks near the top of 
Powcrscourt Waterfall. 

D. circinataui, Wils. In the wood on south side of Powerscourt 
Waterfall. 

Tiininia nnrvrijira, Zctt. Among crags on the west side of Lake 
Liiggislaw, Co. Wicklow. 

Orthotriclinm. Shawii, Wils. On an alder tree at head of 
Ballinascorney Gap, Co. Dublin. 

llijpnum (liijnntenm, Brid., var. On wet spongy spots on the 
Sutton side of Howth. 



ME. DARWIN'S DOCTEINE OF CLEISTOGAMY. 
By S. Le M. Moohe, F.L. S. 

At page 343 of his ' Forms of Flowers ' Mr. Darwin argues 
with regard to cleistogamy, that " if a plant were prevented either 
early or late in the season from fully expanding its corolla, with 
some reduction in its size, but with no loss of the power of self- 
fertilisation, then natural selection might well complete the work 
and render it strictly cleistogamic." The examination of a very 
small female flower of a vegetable-marrow grown in the open air, 
has led me to dissent from this conclusion. 

This flower was about two and a half times smaller than is usual 
with the species. All its parts were equally reduced ; the lobes of 
the calyx were a little unequal, as also those of the corolla, which 
was much paler in colour than is usual. There was nothing 
to remark about the styles and stigmas, except that the former were 
rather more deeply separated and the stigmatic papilla smaller than 
in the type. The ovules were normally developed, and the only other 
point observed was the fewer and weaker haii's on the ovary of the 
dwarf. Two flowers intermediate in all their characters were also 
observed. 

I was greatly struck with the extremely small size of this 
flower, the difierence between the two forms being much greater 
than in some undou.bted cases of cleistogamy, accompanied by 
reduction of parts. Whether, however, it shows a tendency to 
cleistogamy, I know not ; if it does, then the only case at all 
similar is the Hoya carnosa mentioned by Mr. Darwin (/. c. p. 331), 
which was supposed to have been fertilised without floral expansion 
and production of stamens. But in a review of Mr. Darwin's work 
(Journ. Bot. 1877, p. 376) I pointed out that there was only too 
much reason for the belief than an unfortunate blunder had been 
committed in this case. I may also remark that there is no reason 
to suppose that the lateness of the season is a sufficient cause for 
the appearance of the 'dwarf, as not only were flowers of the 
ordinary size produced at the same time, but the plant was a 
healthy one engaged in the task of ripening marrows.* It was the 

* None ot tbese marroAvs came quite to peifection, and the cold weather of 
October soon killed the plant, so that the small flowers wei'e, I suppose, due in 
great measure to the lateness of the season. But this does not lessen the 
validity of the view here maintained. 



DOCTRINE OF CLEISTOGAMy. 85 

resemblance in many respects to a cleistogamic flower that led me 
to notice what 1 thought might be a peculiarity due solely to the 
separation of the sexes — namely, the expansion of the corolla — and 
I reasoned in this way. AVe know that the first external sign of 
fertilisation is withering of the floral envelopes or petals ; also that 
if pollination of an expanded flower is prevented, the perianth 
remains fresh for some time, a fact so well recognised that the 
gardeners at Kew are forbidden to apply the pollinia of the Orchids 
to their stigmas. We are, therefore, justified in concluding that 
the effect of fertilisation is to cause immediate cessation of the 
vitality of the envelopes or petals in correspondence with the 
cessation of their function ; consequently, if any flower were 
fertilised before expansion, we should expect that the further 
development of the envelopes or petals would remain in abeyance. 
Let us see whether this view is not more consonant with a rational 
interpretation of facts than Mr. Darwin's. 

First, bearing in mind the necessity which eveiy plant is under 
of being at least occasionally crossed in its fertilisation, we should 
expect sometimes to find within the limits of a species or genus 
three forms of flower : one adapted to cross-fertilisation alone ; a 
second cleistogamic, with reduced organs ; and a third — as witness 
to the difi'erentiations undergone — either cleistogamic with unre- 
duced organs, or open but capable of self-fertilisation. I am not 
sure whether this has been observed with a species ; but the late 
Mr. J. Scott, a few years ago, published some notes upon species 
of Eranthemum (Journ. Bot. 1872, p. 46), which he showed to be 
trimorphic, the largest flowers being quite sterile, the intermediate 
occasionally self- fertile and readily cross-fertilised, and the smallest 
closed and perfectly fertile. Now, unless some error crept into the 
case of the largest flowers, and it is very difficult to think that an 
apparently perfectly organised flower is incapable of reproduction, 
Mr. Scott's cases are not in point ; neither do I know anything 
further of Campanula colorata than the mere statement of the fact 
that it bears flowers intermediate between open and closed (Darwin, 
I. c, p. 330). There is, however, the genus Viola, which answers 
all expectation. Instead of the closed flowers, so familiar to every- 
body, Viola tricolor bears small open ones with a modification of the 
stigmas, rendering them autogamic. This plant is in fact a 
synthetic type. The small open flowers of the species are relics 
of the antedimorphic condition of the genus. At some j)eriod, but 
under conditions which it is impossible to dogmatise upon, it would 
appear that trimorphism set in, afterwards followed by dimorpliism 
by the elimination in some case or cases of the closed flowers, and 
in another or others of the intermediate ones. Every other 
difficulty will vanish if we su])posc that, at the time the genus 
contained tiimdrphic individuals, it comprised but two species, the 
descendants of which retained the special dimorphism of their 
ancestor. That this is no extravagant supposition will, 1 think, be 
generally admitted ; but there is an alternative view. According 
to this V. tricolor and its allies may never have produced closed 
flowers, cleistogamy having affected only the other section by 



86 DOCTRINE OF CLEISTOGAMY. 

conversion of the small open flowers into closed ones, and this was 
probably consequent upon the lial)ility of the larger flowers to faU 
in their fertilisation, a failure which they have retained to this day. 
Upon this supposition the genus was never truly trimorphic, but 
only dimorphic. How is it possible to explain this case by the aid 
of Mr. Darwin's doctrine ? Some people may say " the species of 
§ Noniiiiiium are spring flowerers, whereas V. tricolor is of the sum- 
mer. By unfavourable weather which prevented the growth of the 
envelopes but was not prejudicial to the reproductive organs, the 
spring flowers were rendered cleistogamic, reduction of parts being 
then brouglit about by natural selection. It is obvious that the 
summer-flowering species would not produce closed flowers." This 
is extremely plausible ; but I may remark that V. tricolor lasts 
much longer towards autumn (September) than its congeners, and 
that it is not far behind them in the spring. Further, that many 
cleistogamic species produce then- closed flowers in the summer. 
The objection to this will be that the summer development of closed 
flowers is an adaptive modification. Granting this to be a valid 
objection, it becomes necessary to treat the hypothesis in the only 
way in which it is possible to refuse assent to the whole body of 
Spinoza's philosophy, namely, by questioning its premises. The 
only unfavourable conditions which can prevent the maturation of 
the perianth are cold and wet. By what experiments, then, has 
it been established either as a rule or as an exception, that 
phanerogamous plants, prevented either by cold or wet or both 
from expanding then- flowers, may suffer no baneful efl'ects in their 
fertilisation ? That such is the reverse of the truth is a matter of 
universal experience ; in fact it was only the other day that 
Mr. Hart in these pages (-Jom-n. Bot. 1880, p. 306) expressed his 
belief that, owing to the ungenial climate, the plants of high lati- 
tudes cannot ripen their seeds, the whole of the phaner ogamic 
vegetation being of a perennial character. But further comment 
is useless, as the doctrine immediately collapses when questioned 
in this way. 

I believe, then, that cleistogamy is caused by the phj'siological 
condition of great fertility without crossing co-existing with the 
morpiiological one of germination of the pollen while still within 
the anther-cell, or at least before expansion of the perianth. The 
result of the latter condition is arrest of the floral envelopes, which 
remain in position until separated or pushed up by the enlarging 
capsule. This doctrine seems simple enough, and at the same time 
fully accounts for the phenomena in question ; all we have to 
suppose is a peculiar heteromorphism, certainly not greater than 
that of Amjxdoa and Lycaste on the same stem, of Catasetum and 
Myanthus, of the two forms of Scilla [Drimia] florihunda, of several 
species of Eranthemum, and many other instances. On the other 
hand, by adopting it, we escape from the dilemma of ascribing to 
an agency or agencies hostile to rej)roduction, the origin of a form 
of it betraj'Uig so astonishing an amount of vitality. 



87 



ON ERYTHRMA CAPITATA, Willd. 
By Frederick Townsend, M.A., F.L.S. 

Since my notice in this Journal for November, 1879, of a 
remarkable j\njthrwa from the neighbourhood of Freshwater, in 
the Isle of Wight, I have had the opportunity of comparing it 
with an authentic specimen of Enjthraa atpitata, Willd. ; and I 
have lately stated, in a more extended notice read before the 
Linnean Society, December 2nd, 1880, that I have come to the 
conclusion that Willdenow's plant and that fi'om the Isle of 
Wight form two varieties of the same species, with the following 
characters. I defer heading the varieties with a specific character, 
in the hope that future opportunities may enable me to draw up a 
more perfect one than I could now give. 

E. CAPITATA, Willd., var. a. sphcErocephala. — Caule (^-3 poll.) 
plerumque simplici et solitario erecto subangulato, foliis rosulatis 
ovatis ovato-oblongisve spathulatis obtusis 3-5 nervatis, foliis 
caulinis paucis connatis angustioribus, floribus subfasciculatis in 
capitulo dense congestis sessilibus uumerosis cum bracteis obtusis 
intermixtis, bracteis exterioribus flores sequantibus vel superanti- 
bus, calyce corollfe tubo asqualii, filamentis in imo tubi coroUae 
insertis, stylo obliquo, quadranti parte ovarii sub anthesid 
exserto, capsula calycem excedente. (1) vel (2). In pascuis 
apricis. 

On the downs of Freshwater, Isle of Wight, and Newhaven, 
Sussex. July and August. 

Caulis s«pe in superiori parte ramum nudiusculum imum 
alterumve capitulo terminatum emittet. 

Var. /J. Willdenoiviayia. — E. capitata, Willd. Bracteis acutis, 
laciniis calycis angustioribus, laciniis coroll^e angustioribus et acu- 
tioribus. "Latet locus natalis." 

The earliest description of E. capitata is the following, given 
by Chamisso : — " Enjthrcca capitata, foliis elliptico-lauceolatis 
obovatisque tri et quinque nervibus sessilibus fioribus capitatis 
bracteatis. Willd. Species notabilis, inedita, ex herb, ccleberriuii 
viri. Planta semel sed copiose a phytopola adlata rursus baud 
reperta est* Latet locus natalis." Cham. ' Adnotationes qujBdam 
adFloram Berolinensem,'p. 9 (1815). The longer description given 
in Roemer and Schultes's ' Syst. Veg.' was probably written by the 
elder Schlechtendahl, who took care of his friend Willdenow's 
herbarium, and sent many notes to Schultcs on " Eeliquife 
Willdcnowianffi." 

The true 7'>. capitata, Willd., is wanting in Willdenow's 
herbarium, and the only specimens preserved are in the 
" Herbarium Gcnerale" at Berlin. 

Since Willdenow's time the plant has not been found, and it 
appears that a capitate form of E. Centaurium, Pers., has been taken 
for E. capitata, Willd., and is described in Floras as E. Centaurium 



88 SHORT NOTES. 

var. capitata, Eoem. & Sch. One of the most marked features in 
E. capitata, Willd., is the nearly free filavients, which, instead of 
hcing attached throughout the leugth of the tuhe of the corolla as 
in all other species of the genus, are attached only at the very hase, 
and are otherwise perfectly free within the tuhe. 

It has been suggested that the English plant may be (1) a 
dimorphic sexual form, or (2) a monstrosity. I do not believe it to 
be the former, because it lias only one form — not two forms, as 
would be the case in dimorphism. I do not believe it to be a 
monstrosity, because the plant is abundant on the downs through- 
out a considerable area, extending over three or four miles in 
length, and the characters of the many specimens observed 
throughout this area are constant. Nor can the plant be a 
hybrid, for the only species occurring on the same ground are 
E. Centaurium and E. pulcheUa, neither of which exhibit cha- 
racters which approach those which I have described as pecuHar 
to our plant. 



SHOET NOTES. 



OsMUNDA REGALis, L., IN CAMBRIDGESHIRE. — In reference to the 
note by Mr. Pryor (Joiuii. Bot. 1881, p. 5-4), I may remark that 
the only authorities for it being found in the county are Dent's 
' Appendix ad Cat. PL cu'ca Cantagrigiam ' (1685) and the remark 
by Mr. William Vernon in Eay ' Syn.' ed. 2 (1696). The locality 
is given by Dent as " within Gamlingay Park, and without by the 
pales in the corner next Sandy." Prof. John Martyn ('Methodus 
PL' 8) includes it on the same authority and in the same w'ords. 
Prof. Thomas Martyn includes it ('PL Cantabr.' 23) with a note of 
inquiry, and does not notice it at all in his list of special localities 
of plants near Gamlingay. Eelhan never saw it, although he was 
■well acquainted with the place, being often at Gamlingay. Dent's 
'Appendix' to the 'Catalogus' was printed long after Eay had 
finally left Cambridge and settled in Essex. I cannot find any 
other notice of this locality for the plant, which seems to have 
been destroyed soon after the time of Mr. Vernon (1690 — 96), who 
appears to have seen it, as he gives it as a guide to the Fungus 
fontamis purpiireus elegans. Mr. Vernon was a Fellow of Peter- 
house at that time, and the record of this fern rests wholly upon 
him and Dent. The Park has been long since divided into fields, 
and the "pales" removed; but otherwise the ground was not 
much altered until recently. I have examined all the possible 
places frequently, and so did the late Prof. Henslow, who marks it 
as to be omitted in the second edition of his ' Catalogue.' Perhaps 
I have not given sufiicient credit to Dent and Vernon by supposing 
that they made a mistake. But I do not know what was to extir- 
pate the plant between Vernon and Eelhan's time, as ferns were 
not then systematically transplanted as is now unfortunately the 
case. — C. C. Babington. 



short notes. 89 

The Authorship of the Third Editiox of 'English Botany.' 
— We have been requested to publish the following correspoudeuce : — 

" Thames Ditton, Jau. 28, 1881. 

" Dear Mr. Newbould, — Are you aware that a report has been 
spread among botanists to the effect that you are almost as truly 
the author of ' English Botany,' ed. 3, as is Dr. Boswell himself, 
whose name it bears as actual Editor ? I first heard the rumour, 
several years ago, fi'om a well-known botanical gossip ; and it has 
been repeated to me subsequently by various persons up to the pre 
sent time. I feel confident that such an absurd report cannot have 
originated with yourself, nor in any way can have been sanctioned 
or encom-aged by you. But doubtless there may be many bota- 
nists who are less favourably placed for forming a correct judgment 
in the matter. And even a foolish allegation may become converted 
into an accepted tradition afterwards through obtaining a presently 
uncontradicted currency. 

" Dr. Boswell handsomely acknowledged useful assistance given 
to him by yourself, in making references and tracing out various 
other details. But surely you and I shall both concur in holding 
it to be a special characteristic of 'English Botany,' in its third 
edition, that it is essentially and entirely the work of one mind, 
from beginning to end, in its purely scientific and descriptive 
portion. It digests into one comprehensive whole, re written and 
re-tested afresh, the variously and utterly disconnected descriptions 
of the original edition. 

" May I use the freedom of urging you to take some step 
towards contradiction of the false rumour ? To my judgment this 
appears to be called for, not only as a matter of justice towards 
Dr. Boswell, but also in support of your own reputation for truth and 
conscientious dealing. — I am, yours very truly, 

« The Rev. W. W. Newbould, Kew." Hewett C. Watson. 



" Montague House, Kew, Jan. 31st, 1881. 

" Dear Mr. Watson, — I have only received your letter in time 
to answer it now. I am much obliged to you for calling my 
attention to the vitality of a ridiculously absurd rumour, which I 
thought had been killed years ago. 

'• Every one who knows what I am, and what the great merits 
of Dr. Boswcll's 'English Botany' are, must be sure I am as 
little capable of writing a book like that as the frog is of enlarging 
itself to the size of the ox. Dr. Boswell has always done me more 
tlian justice, and any one who says the contrary must be very 
ignorant or very wicked. 

" As I do not know where this rumour exists, I put this letter 
at your disposal, and am, sincerely yours, 

" H. C. Watson, Esq.. Thames Ditton." W. W. Newbould. 



90 SHORT NOTES. 

Campanula rotundifolia, Jj., in Japan. — In a small set of 
Japanese plants, kindly presented to me by Mr. J. Bisset, I was 
glad to find very good specimens of our common Harebell, Cawjia- 
nnla rotnnilifulia, Linn., gathered by him at Oyama, in the island 
of Nippon, in Oct., 1876, and again, in the same locality, in Oct., 
1878, growing on the humid face of a perpendicular rock, in com- 
pany witli Saxif)-<i<ia cart uai folia, S. & Z., and Cunandron ramon- 
diuides, S. & Z. Specimens sent by him to Kew were by some over- 
sight returned as referable to Adenophora verticillata, Fisch. They 
are, however, in all respects identical with the typical form of the 
species. I think its occurrence in Japan Avorth recording, as neither 
Siebold and Zuccarini, Miquel, von Herder, nor Franchet and 
Savatier mention it as a native. Von Herder has given" a very 
full statement of the distribution of this plant, including many 
forms regarded by a large majority of students of the European 
flora as specifically distinct, and some of which at least it requires 
a strongly developed do'-trinaire synthetic bias to refuse to acknow- 
ledge. Amongst Mr. Bisset's plants I also found C. circ/roides, 
Fr. Schmidt,! which is apparently by no means rare in Japan, 
perfectly agreeing with original named specimens of Schmidt's from 
Sachalin. I mention it because neither he, as its discoverer, nor 
any subsequent writer on the Japanese flora, to my knowledge, has 
alluded to its affinities. I think, however, there can be no doubt 
that its nearest ally as yet known is the Cilician and Syrian 
C. cj/wludaria, Sibth. & Sm., which, curiously enough, Boissier 
places next C. rotundifolia, Sm.| The last mentioned author's 
redistribution of Campanuhr, involving the suppression of A. De 
Candolle's two primary sections Medium and J-hicodon, seems to me 
a distinctly retrograde step. — Henry F. Hance. 



Oenithogalum tenuifolium, Gitss., in Portugal. — I am indebted 
to my friend, the Kev. J. H. Thompson, incumbent of Cradley, 
near Birmingham, for a set of a very interesting series of plants 
collected by him in Spain and Portugal in the spring of last year. 
Among them is an Oniithof/alum, which I at once referred to 
0. tenuifolium of Gussoue [0. Gussonii, Tenore), a plant which 
ranges on the northern side of the Mediterranean from Greece to 
Provence, on the southern side fi'om Egypt to Marocco, and is 
found also in Corsica, Sicily, and other Mediterranean islands. 
Strange to say it has not hitherto been recorded fi-om the Spanish 
peninsula, and appears only in Willkomm and Lange's ' Prodromus 
FlorfB HispanictB* under the head of "Species inquirendfe," vol. i,, 
p. 217. Mr. Thompson's specimens were gathered on the 7th of 
April, 1880, at Cascaes, on the coast, west of Lisbon. Mr. J. G. 
Baker, of Kew, has kindly examined them, and agrees in the deter- 
mination of the species. I have also to thank him for pointing out 

* Act. hort. Petrop. I. 300. 

t Reis. in Amur-lamle u. a. d. ius. Sachalin, loi, t. -"i. ff. 14 — 19. 

{ Y\. orient, iii., 919. 



SHORT NOTES. 91 

tlieir identity with a specimen in the Kew Herbarium, received in 
December, 1876, from Professor Heuriquez, and nmnbered 142. 
This specimen was gathered at Coimbra, and was distributed by the 
Professor under the name of 0. umbellaUim, but is assigned by 
Mr. Baker without doubt to 0. tenuifolium, Gussone. — William 
Mathews. 

On the Distribution in the Alps of Alchemilla conjuncta, 
Bab. — The occm-rence in the Alps of Alchemilla conjuncta, Bab,, a 
fact which has been familiar to me for upwards of twenty years, 
having recently been mentioned as a novelty, it is desirable to place 
upon record what is actually known of the distribution on the 
Continent of this form of Alchemilla. For the purpose of avoiding 
error I have submitted to Prof. Babington all the specimens in my 
foreign herbarium of the two allied species. He is of opinion that 
the plants from the undermentioned localities belong unquestionably 
io Alchemilla conjuncta: — 1. September Tth, 1866; road between 
Dauphin and Bourg d'Oisans, Dauphme (Haute Isere). 2. August 
15th, 1860 ; La Berarde Dauphiue (Haute Isere). 3. August 22ud^ 
1860; Val PeUice, Western Piedmont. 4. July 31st, 1874. 
Ormond dessus. Canton Vaud, Switzerland. Professor Babington 
further informs me that in the year 1878 he received from the 
Eev. Augustin Ley garden-grown specimens of Alchemilla conjuncta 
from a plant obtained near the Tosa Falls, in the Val Formazza, 
Piedmont. Li the ' Cybele Britannica ' (vol. i., p. 863, 1847), Mr. 
Watson states that this species had been gathered in Switzerland by 
Mr. Twining, and that specimens from Gouan, supposed to have 
been collected in the Pyrenees, are in the herbarium of the late 
Sir W. Hooker. The history and description of Alchemilla conjuncta 
will be found in Prof. Babington' s paper in the ' Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History,' 1842, vol. x., p. 24. It has been 
treated as a distinct species by Mr. H. C. Watson in the ' Cybele 
Britannica,' and by Mr. Boswell Syme, ' English Botany,' vol. iii., 
p. 139. Sir Joseph Hooker regards it as a mere variety of Alchemilla 
alpina, L. (See ' Students' Flora,' 2nd edition, p. 123.) Nyman 
admits it as a species in his ' Sylloge Flora3 Europseaj,' 1854, 
p. 276, and in the ' Conspectus,' 1878, p. 238, with the localities 
Scotland and Faroe. So far as I know, it is ignored by every other 
foreign botanist, although it is certainly to be found in France, 
Switzerland, and Italy, and is probably widely distributed in 
Europe. — Williaji Mathews. 



Oxfordshire Roses. — In a hedge on the chalk-downs near 
Goring, Oxon, I noticed a Rose which has proved to be Uosa 
aspernata, Deseg., an interesting record, since it extends very con- 
siderably its northern range. On the marly district of Stonesiield, 
between Woodstock and Chaiibury, occurred a fine bush of Bosa 
Kusinciana, Besser. Mr. Baker has seen specimens of each. — 
G. C. Druce. 



92 

Notices of 9SooUs antr iitcmoivs. 



The Characea of America. By T. F. Allen, A.M., M.D. Parts 1, 2. 

S. E. Cassino, Boston, U.S. 
Cli((nice(V Americanoi Exsiccata-. Distributee a T. F. Allen, M.D. 

Pars I., nos. 1-10. 

We have here the beginning of an important work, each part 
containing three large quarto coloured plates, with descriptions ; 
and as it is apparently intended to figure every variety, the whole 
will probably contain some fifty or sixty plates. The descriptions 
are carefully di'awn up, and many interesting remarks are added 
from the author's observations and fi'om the works of A. Braun. 
Dr. Allen considers that Chara sejiincta should be included in 
Braun's aggregate species C. gi/mnopus, its only definite distinction 
being that the globules and nucules are developed separately at 
different nodes of the same branchlet. In support of the view that 
this character is insufficient, we might cite an instance of a speci- 
men of C.fraijifcra in which the same state of things occiu'red, 
although C. frat/ifera is normally dioecious. It may be here 
remarked that the name of C. m/vinopus, in an aggregate sense, is 
inadmissible, as Prof. Braun's original C. ijumnopus is an Afi-icau 
segregate, although he subsequently used the name to include a 
number of his previous species. With regard to the plates, it is 
miich to be regretted that the iisefulness of the work has been so 
much impaired by their being coarsely and inaccurately executed, 
and they are not improved by the colom's in which they are 
printed. 

Under the second title, we have received the first part of what 
promises to be a most interesting addition to the piiblished speci- 
mens of Chctracea. It contains nos. 1-10, among which are two 
new species — Xitella intermedia, Nordstedt, which is allied to N. 
gracilis; and N. luegacnrjia, Allen, a very striking plant of the 
polyglocliin group. The specimens are very well prepared, and 
the Sltelhc especially reflect great credit on Dr. Allen for the care 
he has bestowed upon them. H. & J. G. 



Two important contributions to our knowledge of Australian 
botany — Baron von Mueller's ' Eucalyptographia ' and Mr. E. D. 
Fitzgerald's ' Australian Orchids ' — progress with satisfactory 
regularity, the seventh part of the one and the sixth of the other 
having been lately issued. Baron von Mueller's careful plates and 
exhaustive descriptions, comprising much matter of economic 
importance, leave nothing to be desired, and Mr. Fitzgerald 
continues to report his observations upon the fertilisation of the 
plants which he figures, thus giving to his memoir a sj)ecial value ; 
he describes at some length, in the part now before us, the fertili- 
sation of Caleana. We have also received a handy list of Tasmaniau 
plants, entitled ' Census of the Plants of Tasmania instituted in 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 



93 



1879,' by Baron von Mueller ; and a very useful list of Australian 
Algfe by Dr. Sonder, in Avliich the Australian distribution of each 
species is briefly indicated ; this last forms a supplement to vol. xi. 
of the ' Fragmenta.' 

Under the title ' Illustrations of British Fungi,' Dr. M. C. Cooke 
has commenced the issue of a series of octavo coloured plates, " to 
serve as an atlas to the 'Handbook of British Fungi.' " The first 
number contains twenty plates illustrating the genus Ayaricus. 



New Books. — A. Le Jolis, ' Liste des Algues Marines de Cher- 
bourg' (Paris, Bailliere).- — N. L. Makchand, ' Botanique Crypto- 
gamique Pharmaco-medicalc ' (fasc. i.), (Paris, Doin). — P. van 
TiEGHEM, ' Traite de Botanique' (fasc. i.), (Paris, Savy). — Sereno 
Watson, ' Botany of California,' vol. ii. (Cambridge, Mass.) 



Articles in Journals. 
January. 
Ann. Sciences Nat. (Botanique), ser, vi., torn, x., no. 4. — A. 
Pauchon, ' Kesearches on the rule of light in germination ' (con- 
cluded, 16s.) — E. Bescherelle, ' Bryological Flora of Keunion ' 
(part 2). 

Bot. Zeitnng. — A. de Bary, ' On the classification of Thallo- 
phytes.' — E. Carlo, 'Anatomical Eesearches on Tristicha hypnoides.' 

Bull. Soc. Bot. de Belgique (vol. xix., pt, 2). — H. Pittier, ' On the 
distribution in the Swiss Alps of Gcntiana liitea, G. jnirjmrea, and 
G. punctata.'- — F. Crepin, ' Notes paleophytographiques ' (Spheno- 
phl/llu))i )uyriopJnjl/um, SpJienopteris Sauveurii, spp. nov.) — T. Durand, 
'Additions to the Flora of Liege.' — E. Marchal, 'Notes on 
Hederacecc collected by E. Andre in N. Grenada,' &c.' 

Brebissonia (Dec. 31 ). — P. Miquel, ' Eesearches on the Organisms 
of the An-' (concluded). 

(('oulters) Ijutanical Gazette. — E. L. Greene, ' New Species from 
Mexico' [Delphinium scaposuw, Draha nioyoUonica, Bihrs pinetorum, 
Lithospermum cobrense, L. viride). — J. Schneck, ' Cross-fertilisation 
of the Chesnut.' — M. E. Banning, ' New Maryland Fungi ' [Ayaricus 
[TricJiotonia) cellaris, A. (T.) Jirownei, llussula cinnainoniea, R. 
variata). — W. K. Higley, ' Carnivorous Plants.' 

Flora. — W. Nylander, ' Addenda ad Lichenographiam euro- 
pseam.' — C. Dehnecke, ' On the motion of the protoplasm of the 
plant-cell.' 

Hediviyia. — E. Wollny, ' The Marine Algaa of Heligoland.' 

]\Iayyar Nov. Lapok. — ' Centenary of Chamisso.' — J. Schaar- 
schmidt, ' On the division of Closterium intermedium.' 

Natural iat (Huddcrsfield). — C. P. Hobkirk, ' How to examine a 
Moss.' 



y4 i>ROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

(Esterr. Bot. Zeitsclirift. — ' J. S. Poetsch ' (portrait). — J. C. 
Schlosser, ' Seneciu Vukutlnocici, n. sp.' — M, Secland, ' On a trunk 
from the Pasterzen glacier,' — M. Gaudoger, ' Pugillus Plantarum 
novarum ' (contd. ; forms of Woodsia rufidula and Potamo(/eton 
trichdides). — C. MarcLcsetti, * An Excursion to Aden.' — P. G. Strobl, 
* Flora of Etna ' (continued). — J. Murr, ' On the Flora of North 
Tyrol.' — A. Oberuy, ' Vegetation of Tliaia ' (Iglau; contd.) 

Science-Gossip. — G. Massce, 'Notes on some of our smaller 
Fungi ' (concluded). 

Scottish Naturalist. — J. Cameron, ' Gaelic Names of Plants ' 
(continued). — J, Stevenson, ' Supplement to " Mycologia Scotica." ' 
— F. B. White, ' Fungi of Perthshire.' — Id., ' On Pseudatliijriam 
flexile and its relation to P. alpestre.' 



l^voccctrtnss of Societies. 



LiNNEAN Society of London. 

Februari/ Srd, 1881.— E. M'Lachlan, Esq., F.E.S., m the chau'. 
— Lieut. -Col. A. A. Davidson was elected a Fellow. — A note was 
read from Mr. A. Craig-Christie on the occurrence of stipules in 
the natural order Ilicinea;. In several hooks it is stated this order 
has exstipulate leaves, but specimens of Ilex Aquifolium were 
shown ill which what appeared to he small deciduous stipules 
were present. Mr. Christie also called attention to the extreme 
scarcity of holly berries this season in the Lothians generally. — 
The following paper by Mr. George Bentham was read : — ' Notes 
on Ci/peracece; with special reference to Lestiboudois's Essai on 
Beauvois' Genera.' The author states Lestiboudois's Essai was 
founded on Palisot and Beauvois' manuscript, which was originally 
intended to follow his ' Agrostographia,' and has been almost 
entirely lost, and random guesses have been made at the species 
intended by the short characters given in Eoemer and Schultes' 
' Systema.' Nees von Esenbeck, in the 7th, 8th, and 10th 
volumes of the ' Linnaea,' and Kunth, in vol. ii. of his excel- 
lent ' Enumeratio,' appear to have correctly identified many 
of these. Eighteen so-called genera are here referred to various 
established genera. Steudel's ' Synopsis ' is marked by the 
author's haziness of species. Boeckeler has a thorough knowledge 
of species, but his diagnoses are often excessively long. Mr. 
Bentham proposes few changes in the order of genera as set forth 
by Kunth, and he considers that Boeckeler's primary division of 
the order, as to whether the fertile flower is hermai)hrodite or 
female only, bears the test of detailed examination. 



Hermaphrodite flowers. 

1. Scirpese. 

2. Hypolytrese. 

3. Ehyiichosporeas. 



Unisexual flowers. 

1. Cryptangese. 

2. Sclerieas. 

3. Caricete. 



LINNEAN SOCIETY. 96 

Then followed a short paper under the heading of ' Eemarks on the 
Coffee Leaf Disease,' by Mr. Wm, Bidie, in a letter addressed to 
and communicated by Mr. J. Cameron, of Bungalore. The Coorg 
country referred to is situated in the Western Grhats, and the 
European enterprise in coffee has here wholly developed there 
within the last twenty -five years, and no disease was observed till 
four or five years ago. The author mentions that the disease 
appears to have been imported from Ceylon or by way of Chickma- 
gloon, a district of Mysore, sixty miles distant from Coorg. It 
seems worst in impoverished exposed fields, and least where there 
is shade and rich soil. A small red insect has been noticed 
feeding over leaves covered with the pest, but its relation to 
the disease as yet remains undetermined. Plants grown from 
Ceylon seed suffer most, while those trees of Coorg origin and 
growth are least affected. A system of "renovation pitting" has 
been successfully tried, a pit being dug at short intervals, wherein, 
by pruning, are buried all the affected leaves ; and this seems to 
check the spread of the disease, particularly among the Coorg 
coflee trees. — Dr. M. C. Cooke afterwards read a paper ' On the 
Coffee Disease in South America,' describing and summarising all 
the data extant, and showing that up to the present time coflee 
I)lantations in Venezuela, Costa Kica, Bogota, Caraccas, and 
Jamaica have been affected. 

February Vlth. — Frank Crisp, Esq., LL.B., F.L.S., in the 
cliau-. — Mr. W. Wickham exhibited and made remarks on two 
collections of plants fi'om the Arctic regions. Of the fifty-seven 
species of flowering plants collected by Captain H. A. Markham in 
Novaya Zemlya in 1879, thirty-seven of the most interesting of 
these were placed before the Fellows of the Society for inspection. 
The absence of any species of Gentian is remarkable, as it is so 
characteristic of the European high lands, and, moreover, as 
Arctic Russia, to which Novaya Zemlya is in proximity, and from 
which it most probably derived its plants, con tarns six species of 
Gentian. Another interesting feature of the collection is the 
l)re,sence of three species of the LeyuminoscB, found in abundance 
and of vigorous growth, viz., Astralai/us alpiiius, A. friyidus, and 
Uxijtrupis campcstris. The family is unrei)resented in Spitzbergen 
and Arctic Greenland. Of I'olemuiiiuvi ccBruleum and its very 
arctic variety or subspecies Z', hiiiiiilc (as noted by Sir J. Hooker in 
his notes to Cajitain Markham's voyage, 'Polar Reconnaissance'), 
Mr. Wickham remarks, whence came the variety ? did causes 
forming the variety operate only in part, or were there two sources 
whence Novaya Zemlya was stocked ? The second collecticm of 
typically Polar plants exhibited were those fi'om the coast of Franz 
Josef-land, obtained by Mr. Grant, who accompanied Mr. Leigh 
Smitli in his successful voyage thither in 1880. Some sixty-one 
species of flowering plants were collected, but from the account 
given of the country visited it is very probable a more ample flora 
yet awaits investigation. — Mr. C. B. Clarke read a paper on 'Eight- 
hand and Left-hand Contortion of the Corolla.' He maintains 
that Linnicus's definition of right-hand contortion is correct, and 



90 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

that the criticisms on it pubhshed by M. Alphonse DeCandoUe in 
his ' Phytographie ' are founded on a misconception. He holds 
that everybody understands the same direction (viz., the watch- 
hand direction), by the term right-hand contortion ; that the 
apparent direction of rotation of the heavenly bodies appears 
reversed if the spectator looks north instead of south ; that the 
direction of rotation is the same whetiier the observer supposes 
himself within or without the helix ; but that the apparent direction 
of contortion of a helix is altered if the spectator reverses the 
du-ection in which he looks along its axis. 



Botanical Ntlws, 



We understand that the printing of Mr. B. D. Jackson's ' Guide to 
the Literature of Botany ' is completed, with the exception of the 
Index, and the whole of that is now in the printer's hands ; the 
work is expected to be ready for issue towards the end of this 
month. The total number of additions to Pritzel's ' Thesaurus ' 
is stated to be 58-10. 

The Eeport of the English Dialect Society for 1880 announces 
that the third and concluding part of Britten and Holland's 
' Dictionary of English Plant-names ' will be issued during the 
present year ; and that the reprint of Tm-ner's ' Names of Herbes ' 
is already in type, and will be issued as soon as Mr. Britten has 
completed his notes upon it. Mr. Britten has also in preparation 
a work iipon ' The Folk-lore of British Plants.' 

It is with very great regret that we announce the death of Mr. 
Regix-axd a. Pryor, which took place at Baldock on the 18th of 
last month. 

Frau Johanna LItders, nee De Boor, died at Baden on 18th July 
last. She was bom 21st October, 1811, married in 1831, and 
settled at Kiel in 1851, from which time she zealously studied 
botany under Nolte and others. Besides contributing to Eaben- 
horst's ' Decades,' several articles fi-om her pen appeared in the 
' Botanische Zeitung ' and Max Schulz's ' Archiv.' Her collections 
and books are beciueathed to the Botanical Institute of Kiel 
University. 

Prof. Alphonso Wood, of New York, author of ' A Class-Book 
of Botany,' ' Fourteen Weeks in Botany,' and ' The American 
Botanist and Florist,' died on January Ith of this year. 

The death is announced of Dr. John J. Bigsby, F.R.S., on 10th 
February of this year, aged 88. He was the author of ' The Flora 
and Fauna of the Siberian Period,' ' Flora and Fauna of the 
Devonian and Carboniferous Formations,' and other palteontological 
works. 



Ta,h218. 




<^ 



J.N Fuxh. a^. 



ift!st,I^e*>-rr'.,a;n,& Co imp. 



C . 



..^^-,-,^-ii•^-, 



.■V-. T 



^Ti iT^ r^ T 1 



97 



(!^v(gmal iUvticlcs* 



A NEW VARIETY OP CAREX PILULIFKIL-L, L. 

By Henry N. Eidley, B.A., F.L.S. 

(Tab. 218). 

Through the kindness of Mr, F. Arnold Lees, specimens of a 
new British Carex, recently collected by him in Yorkshire, have 
been added to the British Museum Herbarium, and have been 
placed in my hands for description. The plant was obtained 
at Plumpton, near Knaresborough, Mid-west Y'^orkshire, in the 
month of July, 1880, and called by Mr. Lees, in a notice of it in 
' Science Gossip ' for December last and reproduced at p. 24 of this 
Journal, Carex Saxumhra. He says, in a letter accompanying the 
specimens, " Y'^ou will observe its affinity with C. piluUfera, of 
which I regard it as a striking variety rather than a species. Mr. 
Watson and Mr. Baker coincided, however, in the opinion that it 

was worth naming It grew in very large tufts, in deep 

shade, fi'om the crevices and on the overhanging escarpments of 
red grit rocks, overhung and overgrown with the Scotch fir, wych 
elm, and oak trees. The leaves are narrow, deep bright green, with 
reddish brown sheaths at base, long fibrous roots, and long leafy 
bracts." The plant is undoubtedly a variety of Carex piluUfera, as 
Mr. Lees has suggested, and it is a sufficiently distinct variety to be 
worth attention. 

The largest of the specimens received measures nineteen inches 
in height, and the leaves are proportionately longer, but narrower 
than in most specimens of pilulifcra. The lower bract is remark- 
ably long and curved, extending far beyond the terminal spikelet, 
and ending in a long fine point ; in the largest specimen it measures 
two inches and a half in length ; the upper bracts are also unusually 
long and slender. The male spikelet is shorter and darker in 
colour than in the normal variety. The nut differs from that of 
typical piluUfera in its longer beak, larger size, and longer, almost 
fusiform shape ; the down with which it is covered is also shorter 
and scantier. The glume is red, Avith a dorsal green projecting 
vein, which terminates in a point rather more than one-third of the 
glume in length, and adorned with a double row of sharp processes 
which are continued down the vein, becoming fewer towards the 
base, and also along the upper margin of the glume. In the typical 
form of piluUfera the point is much shorter, and the whole glume is 
of a lighter colom*. 

The most striking differences between this plant and the normal 
form are those of the vegetative organs, and this seems to be to 
some extent at least correlated with the locality in which this plant 

N. s. VOL. 10. [April, 1881.] o 



98 THE MORPUOLOGY OF THE LEAF OF FISSIDENS. 

occurs, which is, as I have stated above, in the crevices of red sand- 
stone rocks in deep shade, whereas Carex piluUfcra usually grows 
in open heathy spots. There is a specimen in the herbarium of the 
British Museum which resembles this plant somewhat in the length 
of the lower bracts ; it was collected by R. J. Shuttleworth " In 
locis lucidis sylvfe Bremgarten prope Bern." This is the nearest 
approach that I have seen to the Yorkshire plant. I propose 
to name it Carex pilulifera, var. Leesii. 



Explanation of Plate 218. — Carex jxilulifera. L., var. Leesii. 1, fruit 
(enlarged); 2, fruit otC. pilulifera (enlarged). 



THE MORPHOLOGY OP THE LEAF OF FISSIDENS. 

By Richard Spruce. 

The leaves of Fissidens ivere originally S-lobed ; with the medial and 
longer lobe, bg a half-turn on its axis, placed verticallg, i.e., at right 
angles to the other two lobes and to the base of the leaf, which is inserted 
transverselg on the stem. As we now usuallg see them, the lobes have 
become connate ; the two lateral lobes coinplicate into an equitant sheath, 
and at the keel, bat especially at the apex, winged with the vertical medial 
lobe ; but are still occasionally found more or less dissevered, as in the 
ancestral type. 

In a male flower of Fissidens pusillus, Wils., I have found the 
innermost involucral leaf, or bract, oblongo-rotund, not complicate 
but concave, cloven at the apex into three subequal short obtuse 
lobes ; the middle lobe twisted half round so as to set it at right 
angles to the rest of the leaf, and traversed by a faint nerve, which 
was not continued downward into the integral portion of the leaf. 
By searching I found other male flowers with similar 3-lobed 
leaves, and a more or less rudimentary nerve, rarely extending to 
the base of the leaf. See also ' Bryol. Europ.,' fasc. 17, Fissidens 
bryoides, Hedw., t. 2, f. 10, and Sullivant's ' Icones Muscorum,' 
F. obtusifulias, Wils., t. 22, f. 20, where male bracts, more or less 
distinctly 3-lobed, are figured. 

In the synoicous flower of " F. pusillus," Sch. Syn. ed. ii. 
= F. viridulus, Sw., var. synoicus, one or both of the bracts is not 
unfrequently seen 3-lobed. I found one instance of the innermost 
bract being merely canaliculate (not complicate), cloven just above 
the middle into two lanceolate patent lobes ; the nerve (proceeding 
from the base of the leaf) forked at midway, and one branch of the 
fork continued up each lobe to its apex. At the sinus was a minute 
tongue-shaped process, evidently the aborted medial lobe, or lamina, 
whose place had been usurped by, and shared between, the two 
lateral lobes. 

These cases, and other parallel ones that might be cited, show 
conclusively that the leaf of Fissidens is really 3-lobed ; in the 
primitive Fissidens cloven perhaps nearly or quite to the base, the 
lobes having subsequently become " connate" in the manner which 



THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE LEAF OF FISHIDENS. 90 

we now find normal to all the species, viz., with the two lateral 
lobes complicate into a navicular sheath, embracing the stem ; the 
longer medial lobe adnate to their apices and keeled suture, and 
extended in the same plane as the folded sheath, but at right 
angles to the latter when flattened out. All this is independent of 
the presence or absence of a nerve, for the leaf of F. hyalmus, 
Wils., is nerveless, and yet its structure is essentially the same. 

Usually the lateral lobes are connate with each other nearly or 
quite to the apex, into the form of a boat, to the keel of which is 
adnate the vertical lobe ; in some leaves, however, one lateral lobe 
is free from the other, and connate with the vertical lobe, in the 
same plane, but often sinuate at the suture (which can be distinctly 
traced). This brings the leaf into close relationship with that of 
Micropterygium, among Hepaticfe, where the complicate leaf, with a 
wing at the keel, is formed by the union of two lobes, whereof the 
smaller lobe is connate with the larger, considerably within the 
margin of the latter, so that the salient portion forms a broad wing 
at the suture, or keel ; but when closely examined the leaf is seen 
to consist of only two planes, and not of three, as in the normal 
leaf of Fissidcns. See in Lindenberg and Gottsche's ' Species 
Hepaticarum,' the figures of Micropterygium, fasc. 11, t. 21 ; and in 
Hooker's ' Musci Exotici,' the figures of Gottschea appendiculata, 
t. 15, and of 6r. Thouarsii, t. 48, which have leaves formed on the 
same plan as those of Micropterygium. 

It must be admitted that, in their normal state, lobed or deeply- 
cut leaves are rare in the true Mosses ; yet we have examples of 
such in Diphyscium, Bxuhaumia, and a few others ; and in my 
Tayluria laciniata (from the Andes of Quito") the involucral leaves 
may almost be styled pinnatifid. But in examining mosses, 
abnormal adhesions and cleavages not unfrequently meet the eye. 
I have seen, for instance, in various species of CaUicnsteUa — a genus 
of Hookeriaceae, abundant in Tropical America, whose leaves are 
traversed nearly throughout then length by two stout parallel 
nerves — an occasional bilobed leaf, with one of the nerves runniug 
up into each lobe ; — a somewhat analogous case to that of the 
bilobed leaf of a Fissideiis above described. The diligent observer 
will call to mind frequent cases of divergence from the ordinary 
structure of the organs of mosses. If he has kept notes or draw- 
ings of them they may prove a valuable mine of raw material for 
future refining and working up ; for the teratology of mosses has 
hitlierto been too little studied, and it offers a fine and almost 
unoccupied field of research to any young bryologist desirous 
of distinguishing himself. 



100 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEE A. 
By C. B. Clarke, M.A., F.L.S. 

The species of the genus Leca indigenous to British India are 
arranged by Prof. Lawson, in Sir J. D. Hooker's ' Flora of British 
India,' i., 6G4-GG8. My friend Sulpicins Kurz has subsequently, 
in the ' Journal of the Asiatick Society of Bengal,' 44, ii., 178-180, 
and in his 'Flora of British Burma,' i., 278-281, dealt with the 
genus in a very different manner. In naming up my own collection 
of Bengal Leea for distribution, I have been obliged to compare 
Lawson and Kurz. In the following notes I have for convenience 
included all the Indian species, but I feel little confidence in the 
limits of any except the Bengal ones, all of which I know" well by 
sight, as I took rather a special interest in the genus. 

Leea is known, when in flower, from Vitis by the promment 
white and yellow staminal tube ; when in fruit, by the larger 
number of cells (4-8) in each berry. It is also generally known 
by its upright habit and want of tendrils ; but there are two 
Indian Vines, viz., V. spectabilis, Km'Z, and V. cordata, Wall., which 
are upright, without stipules. In the fruits of Leea some of the 
carpels often are abortive, so that 1-3-seeded berries are common ; 
but in most fruiting examples some 4-6-seeded berries occm'. 

As regards the characters that should be employed for specific 
diagnosis in this genus, I have no absolute reliance on those used 
by Lawson and Kurz, but have no better to propose. Lawson 
employs the pinnation of the leaves for primary divisions, and then 
places as the only species in his first simjile-leaved section a plant 
[Leea latifoUa, Wall.) that has pinnate leaves. Kurz relies much on 
the notching of the lobes of the staminal tube, which I find a ver}' 
uncertain character in the well-known species ; for instance, in 
Leea crispa the lobes of the staminal tube are usually distinctly 
notched, but I have well-developed expanded flowers in which they 
are narrowed upwards entire apiculate. I therefore fear that this 
character must be very cautiously trusted in the case of species 
only once or twice collected. Kurz has introduced into the 
character of his Leea tiiijantea the mark, " seeds tubercled-keeled, 
the edges tubercled-ribbed " ; but the seeds of all the species known 
to me are so very similar that I have been unable to make any use 
of the seed for specific diagnosis. Griffith, in his ' Ic. PI. Asiat.,' 
t. 645, fig. 3, gives a faithful representation of a seed of Leea ; it 
has a T-shaped groove on the back, two grooves near together on 
the inner narrow face, and one shallow groove on each flank. The 
filaments are curved inwards, and the anthers inverted and packed 
within the staminal tube in the bud : the anthers thus remain in 
the expanded flower so long as wet ; but directly the sun dries it 
the filaments straighten themselves, and the anthers are long- 
exserted. I know no species, nor have I seen a single plant, where 
the anthers remain packed within the staminal tube altogether. 
Wight and Arnott, however, state that the anthers are usually 
syngenesious ' ; and Brandis (as weU as Lawson) introduces the 



It 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 101 

character " anthers connected " or " anthers free " into the specific 
descriptions. Kurz lias ignored this character, and, I doubt not, 
rightly ; the " syngenesious " theory seems a ■pnori improbable ; 
while, if the mucilaginous flowers be pressed wet, the anthers 
appear connected in the herbarium. 

The colour of the berry is an excellent character in the field, 
and, I believe, absolute, i.e., none of the red-berried species has 
ever been known to produce a yellow berry ; but all these berries 
wither to black at last. The berries of Leea are exceedingly acrid 
till the moment when they become perfectly ripe, when they are 
edible, and resemble in flavour small grapes. 

The colour of the flowers has been used by Kurz as a discrimi- 
nating mark of species, and it is, in my judgment, one of the best, 
most decisive, and most absolute in the genus ; the petals in one set 
of species are a greenish white, in another set a fine red. I have 
never known a case in which one of the red-flowered species pro- 
duced a greenish white flower, or vice versa. The colour of the 
petals is so marked that it can be distinguished in the herbarium 
in fairly-prepared examples. 

Series A. Rubrifiora. — Petals red. (All with compound leaves ; 
none arborescent ; none with the close primary nerves of 
the Sect. Pyc nun euro,). 

Sect. 1. Edgeworthi^. Leaves all 1-pinnate. 

1. L. ALATA, Edgw. in Trans. Linn. Soc, xx. 36. — Glabrous or 
nearly so, leaves 1-piunate, ripe berries red. 

Laws, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 665 ; Brand. For. Fl. 102 ; L. rubra, 
Koyle 111. 145, not of Blume ; /,. Staphylea, Wall. List, 6824, 
E. partly, not of Koxb. 

Sirmoor, Wallich ; Gurwhal, Falconer ; North-west India, Eoyle; 
Deyra Dhoon, Edgeworth; Sikkim Terai, J. D. Hooker; Sikkim Terai 
and Mudhopoor .Jungles, alt. 0-500 feet, C. B. Clarke. 

A shrub, 2-5 feet high, stiff not succulent. Leaves pinnate ; 
none 2-pinnate in the herbarium tips of branches, nor do I recollect 
any 2-pinnate lower leaves. Leaflets in the upper leaves 5-9, 
10 by 2^ in., oblong, shortly acute, rounded or rhomboid, unequal 
at the base, sessile or very shortly petiolated, glabrous or minutely 
puberulous on the nerves beneath, not dotted ; primary nerves 11 
on each side the midrib, ^ in. apart, so that there are 2-5 serratures 
of the margin for each primary nerve ; secondary nerves nunierous, 
subparallel, conspicuous. Main rachis of the leaf often grooved or 
subulate ; stipules large, rounded, deciduous. Peduncles 3-8 in., 
stout. Cori/iiib dense, reddish, minutely rusty, hai'dly pubescent ; 
bracts and bracteoles none, even in the corymbs containing buds 
only. Lobes of the staminal tube ovate-oblong, emarginate. Berries 
:^^ in. diam., with 4-6 carpels. — Km-z says, in ' Journ. As. Soc. 
Beng.,' 44, ii. 180, that his L. samjuinea in ' Journ. As. Soc. Beng.,' 
42, ii. 66, described with much more compound leaves and an 
orange berry, was L. alata, Edgw. I beHeve Kurz never saw 
L. alata. 



102 A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

2. L. TRiFOLiATA, Laws. in Fl. Brit. Incl. i. G66. — Leaves 1 -pin- 
nate, leaflets 3 or 5, of wliicli the two lowest are much reduced, 
elliptic shortly acuminate, pubescent on the nerves beneath, 
peduncle short, corymb pubescent, bracts narrowly lanceolate-linear, 
subpersistent. 

South-east Assam ; Namroop, near the Patkoy Mts., Griffith 
(Herb. Propr. n. 1293); Bootan, Booth; Assam, Masters, Jenkhis ; 
Cachar, Keovni : Mishmee, Griffith (Herb. Propr. n. 1344; but 
from the number I suspect this plant was collected in the Patkoy 
ranges : the locality Mishmee has been freely added to Griffith's 
Patkoy collection by the hand of somebody in Europe who imagined 
that the Patkoy ]\Its. were in Mishmee. 

"A shrub, 8 feet high" {Griffith). Upper 3 leaflets attain 
5 by 3^ in., rhomboid at the base, nearly glabrous, denticulate ; 
primary nerves on each side tlie midrib 12, some \ in. apart ; 
secondary nerves close, parallel, conspicuous; lowest 2 leaflets near 
the apex of the long subpersistent stipules, sometimes appearing as 
mere auricles to it, sometimes \ in. long, only yet petiolated, some- 
times developed half as large as the 3 upper leaflets. Peduncle 1 in. 
Corymb small ; bracts \ by one-twelfth in. Berry \ in diam. ; 6-4- 
celled. — I am not sure of the affinity of this species, I am not even 
sure that the corolla is red ; but, should the corolla turn out to be 
green, I cannot agree with Prof. Lawson that the species is " closely 
allied to L. aspera.'' 

3. L. PUMiLA, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 41, ii. 302 ; 44, ii. 179 ; 
For. Fl. i. 278. — Leaflets of the upper leaves 5, densely softly 
villous beneath when young, corymbs peduncled, villous, appearing 
as compound umbels. L. sunyuinea, M'Lelland MS. 

Prome, M^Lelland ; Karen Country and Tonkyeghat, Kurz, 
The examples of M'Lelland and Kurz are simple shoots 6-9 in. 
long, bearing each 2 or 3 young leaves upwards and 1 flowering 
peduncle : I therefore assume these to be hot weather flowering 
shoots coming up after the annual burn. The species is, from 
M'Lelland's calling it L. sanguinea, and from the appearance of the 
dried flowers, a red-corolla one, and is really allied to L. rubra, 
Blume, which M'Lelland would have probably considered L. san- 
yuinea, Wall. The whole of these shoots are brown-woolly. Young 
'leitfiets 2 by 1 in., ovate-lanceolate, subsessile ; primary veins 
10-12 on each side the midrib, much divided before they reach the 
closely- toothed edge ; stipules large, subpersistent. Peduncle 
2i in. ; rays of the quasi-umbel 7, 1^ in. each ; bracts and bracteoles 
early disappearing. Flowers closely clustered, subsessile ; corolla 
fulvous without, some time before expansion. Berry unknown. 

Sect. 2. L^T^. Leaves 2-pinnate, none (or rarely) 3-pinnate. 

4. L. AcuinNATA, Wall. List, 6830. — Upper leaves bipinnate ; 
leaflets acuminate-caudate, obscurely or crenately toothed, glabrous; 
corymbs minutely rusty- villous, not stout ; ripe berries orange- 
yellow.— L. Staphylea, Wall. List, 5824, C. 

Bengal Terai, alt. U-2i5UO feet, from Sikldu to Upper Assam, and 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 103 

from the base of the Garrow Hills to Muneypoor, Wallich, H.f. <£■ T., 
&c. ; common aud often collected. 

A succulent, Aveak under-shrul), 2-3 feet high, with large flaccid 
leaves, and the whole corymb coralloid-red, growing in moist shade. 
Uppermost leaves nearly always bipinnate; rhachis round, not stout ; 
uppermost leaflets oblong, lowest leaflets often ovate ; petiolules 
often ^-l in. Terminal leaflet 7 by 2 in., rhomboid at the base, 
not dotted beneath ; primary nerves on each side the midrib 10, 
1 in. apart ; secondary nerves somewhat close, parallel, and promi- 
nent ; leaflets usually obscurely toothed, with 1-3 teeth for each 
main nerve, sometimes with blunt distant crenatures ; stipules 
early deciduous. (Jonjmh sessile orpeduncled ; bracts and bracteoles 
none even in the corymbs containing buds only. Lobes of the 
staminal tube subquadrate, emarginate. Berries l-\ in. diam., with 
4-6 carpels. — Lawson has placed this with L. sainhucina, though 
Hook. f. had noted the scarlet pedicels and flowers. It can be 
generally separated in the herbarium by the rusty-pubescent inflo- 
rescence, the leaflets of thin texture aud not sharply toothed, the 
much shorter flower buds, even in sicca evidently red. Fruiting 
examples, where the pubescence of the corymb is nearly lost, are 
more difficult to distinguish. — Kurz has communicated an Andaman 
examj)le marked " L. acuminata, Wall." ? but it is, I think, 
L. sambucina, Willd. ; there is no note of the colour, but the young 
corymb is glabrescent, the leaflets sharply toothed. 

5. L. L^TA, Wall. List, 6831, et Ic. iued. in Herb. Kew. — Upper 
leaves bipinnate ; leaflets large, acuminate, dotted beneath ; corymb 
very stout, minutely rusty villous, on very stout short peduncles. — 
Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 42, h. 65 ; 44, ii.^ 179 ; For. Fl. i. 278. 
L. sawjuinea, Wall. List, 6824, M., not of Kurz. 

Eangoon and Prome, Wallich ; Burma and Andamans, fide 
Kurz. Distrib. Java. — The Kew Herbarium specimens are marked 
" Bengal," only without name of collector, and were probably dis- 
tributed from the Calcutta Botanic Garden. 

This species is not known to me alive : it seems so near L, acumi- 
nata that I imagine Kurz included L. acuminata under his descrip- 
tion of L. liPta. However, the Bengal I., acuminata is a succulent 
plant, and never shows the thick peduncle, short corymb, and dotted 
leaves of L. lata. 

6. L. cocciNEA, Planch, in Ilort. Donat. 6. — Upper leaves 
bipinnate ; leaflets oblong, lanceolate-caudate, glabrous ; corymbs 
bhort-peduncled, glabrous ; petals rose-red, staminal tube yellowish. 
— Bot. Mag. t. 5299 ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 44, ii. 178, 179. 

" Not uncommon in the savannahs and savannah forests of 
Pegu ; rarely in the diluvial forests of Martaban," Kurz. 

This species is inserted as Indian on the authority of Kurz : 1 
have never collected it, nor can I find, in any of the British her- 
baria, an Indian example. The native country of L. cnccinea, 
Planch., is altogether unknown ; but I cannot distinguish the 
cultivated specimens from some of the African examples called 
L. cuccinea by Bojer (Hort. Maurit. 61). L. coccinea much resembles 



104 A UKVISION OF THE INDIAN KPECIES OE LEEA. 

L. acuminata, Wall., but differs tberefrom by its very glabrous 
corymb. From Kurz saying that the inflorescence of his species 
was " glabrous or nearhj so," and from his expressing an opinion 
that L. coccinea might be only a weaker form of L. Ueta, I cannot 
get rid of a suspicion that Kurz by L. coccinea meant L. acioiiinata, 
Wall., the more especially as I know Kurz had in his possession a 
totally different species authoritatively (but wrongly) marked 
L. acuminata, Wall. 

Sect. 3. KuBEyE. Leaves often 3-pinuate. 

7. L. RUBRA, Blume, Bijd., 197. — Upper leaves 2-3-pinnate ; 
leaflets small, the primary nerves beneath sharjuy raised, crisped, 
and often minutely setulose ; corymbs minutely rusty, jjuberulous, 
short-peduncled ; ripe berries deep red. — -Decne in Ann. Mus. 
d'Hist. Nat. iii. 445 ; Hassk. PI. Jav. Ear. 453 ; Miq. Fl. Ind. 
Bat. i. pt. ii. 610 ; in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 96 ; Kurz in Journ. 
As. Soc. 44, ii. 180 ; For. Fl. i. 279. — L. sam/uinea, Kurz in Journ. 
As. Soc. 42, ii. 66 '? 

Dacca, plentiful ; and throughout the Mudhopoor Jungle, C. B. 
Clarke; Pegu, M'Lelland : Tcnasserim, Heifer (Kew Distrib. n. 
1281) ; Attaran, Brandis fide Kurz. — Distrib. Throughout Malaya 
to Borneo, and Cambodia. 

The " scarlet dwarf," rarely more than 1-2 feet high, but 
spreading, stiff, and suftrutescent. Uppermost leaf often thrice- 
pinnate. Leaflets 2-3, rarely 4 in. long, oblong or elliptic, acute, 
hardly acuminate, sessile or scarcely petiolated, rhomboid or cuneate 
at the base, glabrous. Primary nervea (in a terminal leaflet 3 in. 
long) 11, much raised beneath in the diied example, but exceed- 
ingly thin and acute, crisped ; the bristles on these nerves are a 
good specific character, but are very small and scarcely to be found 
in old leaves ; crenations irregular, shallow, obtuse, often 2-3 for 
each main nerve ; secondary nerves somewhat parallel, close, and 
conspicuous. Main rhachis of the leaf 4-winged ; stipules large, 
more persistent than in most species. Peduncle Q-1^ in., stout, 
more or less 4-winged ; corymb dense, often not longer than the 
petiole ; bracts and bracteoles 0, even in the corymbs in bud. 
Lobes of the staminal tube notched. Berries J in diam., with 4-5 
carpels. — Kurz gives as the locality for his L. sanguinea " Ava," 
from which I infer that he never saw the plant alive, but had 
a specimen marked ^^ mnguinea, Wall.," and collected either by 
Wallich or Griffith in Upper Burma. Kurz nevertheless describes 
the berry (which I assume he never saw except dry) as " orange 
coloured"; he may either have guessed this from the dried speci- 
men, or there may have been a field-note by the collector. Kurz's 
description agrees so closely with the common East Bengal L. 
rubra that I should have assumed an error on Kurz's part, but that 
he knew L. rubra so well, in which the berry is always a deep red. 
Kurz's Ava plant is therefore either some species new to me 
or L. rubra ; and Kurz is certainly mistaken in thinking it could 
have been either L. (data, Edgw., or L. samjuinea, Wall. At least, 
L. sanguinea. Wall., as to the type-specimen in AVallich's herbarium, 



A EEVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 105 

is identically L. lata, and the named specimen of L. saiu/uinca, 
issued to Kew from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, is L. Iceta : but it 
is highly probable that Kurz has got a specimen of L. rubra 
collected and named by "NVallich L. sanguinea ; for the name I have 
somehow got for L. rubra in my own herbarium is L. samiuinea, 
Wall., and I have issued it under that name both to Kurz and to 
others. 

8. L. WiGHTii, C. B. Clarke. — Leaves 2-3-pinnate, glabrous ; 
leaflets ellii3tic-lanceolate, caudate, serrate, not setulose on the 
nerves beneath ; corymb sessile, divaricate, with long branches and 
branchlets, red rusty villous upwards : petals red. — L. iStojihi/lea, 
Wight 111. t. 58, not of Eoxb. ; L. robusta, Wight in Herb. Prupr., 
not of Eoxb., nor of Wall., nor of Laws. 

Deccan Peninsula ; Malabar and Courtallum, WiijJtt, n. 523. 

Eeferred by all authors to L. sambucina, which the leaves gene- 
rally resemble, but have the secondary nerves very conspicuous. 
L. sambucina, as understood below, has green petals and a white- 
yellow staminal tube ; I have never known it produce petals in the 
least red, far less a red corolloid panicle ; nor have I ever seen L. 
sambucina with the upper panicle branches and pedicels villous. 
This may possibly be allied to L. acuminata. Wall., but the leaves 
are broader, more serrate, the corymb much wider, — Brandis and 
Dalzell both state that the flowers of L. sambucina are greenish 
white, and nevertheless quote Wight 111. t, 58, for that species. 
Kurz, who has differentiated his species by the character of green 
and red petals, quotes Wight 111. t. 58 under L. sambucina neverthe- 
less. See further remarks under L. sambucina. 

9. L. AcuLEATA, Blume, Bijd., 137. — Glabrous; stem and 
petioles prickly ; leaves 2-3-pinnate ; leaflets elliptic acuminate ; 
corymb short-peduucled. — Miq. Fi. Ind. Bat. i. pt. ii. 612 ; in Ann, 
Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 99. 

Nicobars ; Katchall, Kurz (in Jouru. As. Soc. 45, ii. 124) ; and 
a Katchall example has been communicated to Kew from Leyden, 
— Distrib. Malaya and Borneo. 

A shrub ; the prickles on the stem scattered, distant. Leaflets 
6 by 2 in., the terminal one often cuneate at the base, the lateral 
rounded ; nerves 10 on each side the midrib, i in. apart ; crena- 
tions usually few and somewhat deep ; petiolules (even of the upper 
leaflets) often ^ in. — From the di-ied examples I guess the petals to 
have been red, and I suspect the fruits Avere red also. L. horrida, 
Teys, & Binn., the only other prickly species, has green petals. 
— Eumph. Herb. Amb. iv. t. 44, adduced for L. aculeata by Miquel, 
does not, I believe, represent either L. aculeata or L. horrida ; the 
aculeation of the stem is far too dense, but as Eumpliius says the 
flowers were white, it was not /v. aculeata. — The Katchall example 
has larger leaves than usual, but Borneo specimens closely 
resemble it. 

10. L. sETULiGERA, C. B. Claikc. — Uppermost leaves 2-3-pin- 
nate ; leaflets elliptic, acuminate, glabrous, very bristly on both 



106 NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 

surfaces ; peduncles slender ; corymb small, dense, glabrous 
(corolla red ?). 

Concan, l>r. Stocks. 

From the well-preserved examples of Dr. Stocks it is tolerably 
certain tliat the corolla is red; but, wliatever the colour of the 
corolla, the example cannot be matched with any other Lcca at 
Kew. The leaves and leaflets generally resemble those of L. rubra, 
but the margin is closely, regularly, acutely (not deeply) serrate ; 
and between each pair of main nerves, on the upper surface of the 
leaflets, are 3-5 rows of unusually stiff bristles, l-rdundes 14 in. ; 
bracts and bracteoles 0, even in the corymb in bud. Flmrcrs as in 

L. nihra. 

(To be continuetl;. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 
By William E. Beckwith. 

(Contimifil i'mm ]). 51.) 

Ule.v Gallii, Planch. On Grinshill Hill. 

(jciiista (ouilica, 1j. Boggy field near Berrington ; boggy ground 
near the High Vinealls, LudloAV. 

G. tinctoria, L. Very frequent in fields under the Wrekin ; 
near Cressage Park, Ironbridge, and the Bultliy Hill. 

Ononis cam jiestr is, Koch. Rather rare. Near Dryton, Wroxeter ; 
Shineton, Ironbridge, and Coalport. 

0. arvensis. Fries. Much more frequent than the last species : 
very common near Little "Wenlock, Buildwas, and Harley. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria, L. On limestone rocks near Much Wen- 
lock. 

Medicatjo muculata, Sibth. About Eyton Rock, Wroxeter. 

Melilotus officinalis, Willd. Fields near the Arkoll Hill, 
Wellington. 

Trifolimii arcrnsr, L. Hermitage Hill, Bridgnorth ; near 
Hauglunoud Al)be3% and Snow Pool, L)rytou. 

Astrai/alHsi/lycijphi/llHs, L. On the High Rock, near Bridgnorth. 

Ornithopus jjcrpnsillas, L. Very abundant on the High Rock, 
Bridgnorth : found also near Church Stretton, Cound, Eyton-on- 
Severn, Grinshill, and Charlton Hill. 

Vicia tetraspcrma, Moench. Rather frequent about Eaton Con- 
stantine, Berrington, Wroxeter, Uffington, Bridgnorth, Leighton, 
and Harley. 

r. sijlratica, L. Shclton liougli, near Shrewsbury ; Jiggers 
Bank, near Coalbrookdale ; near Buildwas Park, Ludlow, Stokesay, 
and Berwick. 

Lat/ii/rus si/lrcstris, L. Bank of the Severn near Eaton Con- 
stantine ; near Evenwood Countl. 

Prnniis avium, L. Near Buildwas, Leighton, and in Attingham 
Park. There are some very fine trees of this species in the woods 
round Bomere Pool. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 107 

Spiraa FilipenduJa, L. lu a small wood near Much Wenlock. 

Poteriwn Samjuhorha, L. Frequent near Much Wenlock ; near 
Whitemere Mere. 

Alchemilla vuhjaris, L. Not ixucommon about the Wrekm ; and 
near Buildwas, Belswardyne, Cound, Leighton, and Shineton. 

Potentilla ari/mtca, L. On and near Haughmond Abbey ; near 
Dry ton, Wroxeter. 

P. Coma rum, Nestl. Very frequent in bogs and by pools near 
Cound, and Berrington ; by the side of Bomere Pool, and about all 
the Ellesmere Meres. 

Riibus Idmis, L. Very frequent about Ellesmere and Whixall 
Moss ; frequent in damp Avoods near the Wrekin. 

Geiijii rirale, L. Brook near Craven Arms Station. 

Ro.m ruhiginosa, L. Near Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

Pijrus torminalis, Ehrh. A single tree near Cressage ; several 
trees in a small wood at Shinewood, near Shineton ; a large tree 
seven feet in circumference by the foot-road from Shineton to 
Lawley's Cross, Buildwas. 

P. Aucuparia, Gaertn. Woods and hedges round the Wrekin, 
and about Ellesmere ; frequent. 

Lythrum Salicaria, L. Banks of the Severn and Tern ; sides 
of pools about Leighton, and Buildwas, and by Whitemere Mere, 
near Ellesmere. 

Peplis Portula, Li. Very frequent in woods round the Wrekin, 
and near Bomere Pool. 

Epilohium anfiHstifoUiun, L. In several places in the woods 
round the base of the Wrekin, but scarcely ever in bloom ; about 
Grinshill, Shawbury Heath, and Stokesay ; abundant on Whixall 
Moss, where the variety brachycarpum is most frequent. 

bL hirsutum, L. Sides of pools and ditches ; very frequent. 

E. montanum, L. Very frequent in woods on high ground. 

E. roseinii, Schreb. Ditches about Harley, and Shineton. A 
well-marked species differing considerably from /','. montanum in the 
shape of the leaves. 

E. tetragonum, L. Wet places round the base of tlie Wrekin ; 
woods near Bomere Pool ; near Cressage ; and Downton Castle. 

E. palustre, L. Pools about Ellesmere, Brompton, near 
Eerrington, Berwick, and Willey Hall ; by the side of the Shrop- 
shire Union Canal, in many places. 

Circfra Lutetiana, L. Frequent in moist wet woods ; very 
abundant round the Wrekin. 

Myriophijlluin verticiliaium, L. In ditches near Eyton-on-the 
Wealdmoors, Wellington. 

M. spicatuiii, L. Pools and ditches ; very frequent in the 
Shropshire Union Canal. 

Bryonia dioica, L. Hedges ; very frequent. 

Pdhca (jrossidaria, L. Hodges near Eaton Constantine and 
Leighton ; very frequent about Wliixall Moss and Ellesmere. 

E. rubniiii, L. Wet places in woods, and by streams ; frequent 
in the neighbourhood of the Wrekin, and about Ellesmere. 

li. nigruiii, L. A few bushes in a wet wood at the south-west 
base of the Wrekin. 



108 NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS, 

Scduin jnirjiiirasrens, Kocli. Frequent just on the borders of 
SJiropshire near Middleto-\vn, and under Moel-y-golfa Hill : occurs 
also near Haughmond Abbey. 

6'. rejie.vnm, L. Walls and rocks about Bridgnortb, Haughmond 
Hill, and Ludlow. 

S. eleijanH, Lej. On the Longmynds, near Church Stretton. 
The variety in i huh of this species is the S. Forstcrianum of 
Leigh ton's Flora. 

Cotijledon Umhilicns, L. Very frequent about Bridgnorth, Church 
Stretton, Evton-on-Severn, Bulthy Hill, Grinshill, and Hawkstone 
Park. 

Saxifrofjii tri dactylites, L. Old walls about Bridgnorth, [Much 
Wenlock, and Acton Burnell. 

S. [frioiulata, L. Frequent on dry sandy banks near Wroxeter, 
Berrington, Leighton, and Attingham Hall ; may be also found 
growmg luxuriantly in ivct meadows by the side of the "Worfe near 
Eindleford, Bridgnorth. 

Chrijaosplenium oppasiti/oliiuii, Li. Very frequent ; abundant by 
streams, and in wet places near the Wrekin, Cound, Slaineton, 
Harley, and Buildwas. 

C. alleniifuUiim, L. By a small brook flowing from the Long- 
wood to Brockholes Bank, Leighton. 

Parnassla palustris, L. Wet field between Cound Moor and 
Acton Pigot ; near Church Preen ; near Croesmere Mere. 

Astrantia iiuijur, L. On a hill near Stokesay, Ludlow. 

Cicuta virosa, L. By Colemere and Whitemere Meres ; Hencott 
Pool, near Shrewsbury ; and a small pool at Norton, Wroxeter. In 
its fresh state this j^lant is certainly not injurious to cattle ; at 
Norton they browse it off so closely that I can seldom obtain 
a specimen in flower ; and at Colemere Mere I have also found it 
eaten off. 

Heloscitidium inundittnni, Koch. Berrington and Bomere Pools; 
pools near Eaton Constantine, and Upton Magna. 

Petroselinum sativum, Hofim. Eocks about Bridgnorth, and 
Eyton-on- Severn. 

Sium aiiiimtifolinm, L. Frequent along the banks of the 
Shropshire Union Canal near Uffiugton, Upton Magna, and 
Withington ; by Colemere Mere, and in ditches near Eyton-on- 
the-Wealdmoors. 

Oimanthe fistidosa, L, Frequent about Berrington, Bomere, 
Eaton Constantine, and Ellesmere. 

Oe. crocata, L. Frequent by the Severn and Tern, and uour 
Buildwas, Leighton, and Ellesmere. 

Oe. VheUandrium, Lam. Frequent about Berrington, Ellesmere, 
and Wliixall Moss ; I have also found it at Sundorne and Cressage. 

Silaus pratensis, Besser. Fields near Longvrood Eaton Con- 
stantine ; near Leighton, and round Much Wenlock. 

Pastinaca sativa, L. On the ruins of Uriconium at Wrox- 
eter. 

Cluerophijllum Antliriscus, Lam. Near Bridgnorth, Coiuid, and 
Wroxeter. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 109 

Myrrhis odorata, Scop. Euins called the " White Ladies " near 
Shifnal, and about Stokesay Castle. 

Conium macidatum, L. Not uufrequent about Bridgnorth, 
Bnildwas, Leighton, Shifnal, and Betton ; common by Cound and 
Shineton brooks. 

Sunjrnium Olusatrnm, L. About Ludlow Castle. 

Cornus smKjmnca, L. In woods and hedges ; very common round 
the Wrekin. 

Viscum alhiDii, L. Grows on the poplar near Pitchford, the 
hawthorn at Lougner and Attiugham, and the crab near Leighton. 
By no means common in North Shropshire. 

Adoxa Mosclintellina, L. A'^ery frequent about the Wrekin, 
Ellesmere, and Berrington. 

Samhucns Khulm, L. Old lime quarries on Lincoln's Hill, Iron- 
bridge. 

S. nigra, L. A large bush of the variety laciniata grows on 
Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

VibunuDii (Jimlus, L. Very common in wet woods and bogs 
near the Wrekin. 

Galinm erectum, Huds. Frequent near Shifnal, especially about 
and Evelyth ; occurs also on the banks of the Severn, below Coal- 
port, and near Bridgnorth. 

Asperula odorata, L. Very common round the Wrekin, and in 
woods round the Ellesmere Meres. 

Yalt'iiana diuica, L. Marshy places near Pitchford, Leighton, 
and Charlton Hill, frequent. 

Dipsacus si/lrestris, L. By the Severn and Tern in several 
places ; very frequent round j\Iuch Wenlock, Ironbridge, and 
Buildwas. 

D. pilosus, L. Very frequent about Cound ; I have also found 
it in Farley Dingle ; near Lumhole Pool, Coalbrookdale ; Middle- 
town ; and Eyton-on-the- Wealdmoors. 

Scabiosa Succisa, L. A variety with white flowers grows very 
frequently under the AVrekin and near Belswardyne Hall. 

S. cuhimhaiia, L. In a larch plantation near Much Wenlock, 
and just on the borders of Shropshire, near Middletown. 

Onopordiim Acanthimn, L. Fields near Norton and Eyton 
Wroxeter. 

Cardials eriupliorun, L. Left bank of the Severn, near Buildwas. 

Carlina vulgaris, L. Frequent round the base of the Wrekin 
and on the Lougmyuds ; occurs also on Shirlet Hill, Willey ; 
Greenshill ; Bausley Ilill ; and Stephen's Hill, Cound. 

Centuurea Scabiosa, L. Very frequent about Much Wenlock; 
not uncommon near Cressage, Leighton, and Wroxeter. 

('. C'ganus, L. Occurs every year in fields near Eaton Mascott 
and Bomere, and often in corn-iields in other places. 

Chrysanthemuin scgetiun, L. Frequent about Eaton Mascott, 
and on Shawbury Heath. 

Achillea I'tanitica, L. Wet places, especially on high ground; 
very frequent round the base of the Wrekin. 

i'ilago iiiiiiiiiia. Fries. High liock, Bridgnorth; Mill Glen, 



110 NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 

near Cluirch Stretton ; Ten tree Hill, and on the Cambrian Kail- 
way over Wliixall j\Ioss. 

Gnaphalium stjh-aticuin, L. Base of the Wrekin near Wenlock's 
Wood, High Vinealls, near Ludlow ; hill near Stokesay, and on 
the High liock, Bridgnorth. 

Senecio sylratmis, L. Very frequent about the Wrekin. 

Bidens cernna, L. Very frequent about Ellesmere ; by Sun- 
dorne pool, Acton Burn ell pool, pools at Willey, Uckington, Oakley 
Park, and ditches on the Wealdmoors at Eyton. 

B. tn'iHirtlta, L. More frequent about Ellesmere than the last 
species ; near Acton Pigott. 

Inula Heloiiuiii, L. Near Langley ; Acton Burnell ; near 
Brompton, Berrington ; by the brook at Harley and Shinewood ; 
near Buildwas Eailway Station. 

I. Cimiiza, DC. Very common about the ArkoU Hill, Wel- 
lington ; near Much Wenlock ; and Stephen's Hill, Cound ; fre- 
quent about Buildwas, Ludlow, Stokesay, and Middletown. 

/. (li/senterica, L. Very abundant in Avet fields between the 
Wrekin and the Severn, and near Cressage Park. 

Erifjeron acris, L. Not unfrequent about Bridgnoth, IMuch and 
Little Wenlock, and Harley ; very common on old walls in the 
town of Ludlow. 

Solidngo Virt/aurea, L. Frequent about the Arkoll Hill, the 
Breidden Hills, Bridgnorth, and Wenlock's Wood near the Wrekin. 

Petasitcs vxli/aris, Desf. Abundant by Cound and Shineton 
Brooks ; near Shifnal, and in Farley Lingle. 

Cichorium Intybus. By the side of the Severn Valley Eailway, 
between Shrewsbury and Berrington, and sometimes in the ad- 
jacent fields. 

Picris Jiieracioides, L. Frequent about Buildwas, Coalport, and 
Much Wenlock; I have found specimens, too, near Eaton Con- 
stantine and Charlton Hill. 

Traijopogun ]>rat('mis, L. Frequent about Ironbridge and 
Buildwas ; I have collected it also near Eaton Constantine, Cound, 
Stokesay, and Leighton. 

Lactnca mumlis, Fres. Frequent on dry banks or walls, about 
Acton Pigott, Much Wenlock, Buildwas, Willey Hall, Shifnal, 
Coalport, Ludlow, and Church Stretton. 

Hieracium mnrunnn, Fries. I have collected specimens of this 
plant near Ludlow and Shifnal ; I have also had specimens sent 
by Mr. R. M. Sergeantson from the Caradoc Hill. 

H. nih/atum, Fries. Not unfrequent about the Wrekin. 

H. uDihellatum , Vill. Brought me by Mr. Pi. M. Sergeantson 
from near Acton Burnell. I have also found it on Shawbur}- 
Heath, and round the edge of Whixall Moss. 

II. hon'ale, Fries. Very frequent on high ground, especially 
about the Wrekin. 

Lobelia DortiiKuina, L. Berrington Pool, Bomere Pool, Black- 
mere and Newton Meres, near Ellesmere. 

Jasione montana, L. Frequent about Church Stretton, Grin- 
shill, and the Breidden Hills; 1 have also found it near Eaton 
Constantine, Ellesmere, and Whixall. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIEE PLANTS. Ill 

('ampanxda Trachclliun, L. Very frequent in hedges and open 
woods round the Wrekhi, and in the parishes of Buildwas, Leighton, 
Eaton Constantino, and Wellington. 

C. patula, L. Frequent about Berrington and Couud, espe- 
cially near Cound Stank. 

Vaccinium Oxycoccos, L. Shomere Moss, and boggy ground 
near Bomere Pool ; "Whixall, and Welshampton Mosses. 

T'. Yitis-idaa, L. Mr. W. Phillips sent me specimens of this 
plant, in 1877, from the Stiperstones Hill. 

V, Ml/ rt ill us, L. Very abundant on the Longmynds ; frequent 
in Willey Park, about the Wrekin, and near Ludlow. 

Andromeda Pidifolia, L. Piather frequent on Whixall and 
Welshampton Mosses. 

Fi/roht vdnur, L. In a rock-hole on Whitcliff, near Ludlow. 

Ligustnun rub/are, L. Woods about Much Wenlock and Build- 
was, apparently wild. 

Vinca iinnor, L. Near Leighton ; and Buckley, Acton Burnell. 

Krijthrcca Centauriu)ii, Pers. Very frequent about Much and 
Little Wenlock, and round the base of the Wrekin ; I have found 
it, too, near Eaton Constantiue, Cressage, Cound, Uffington, and 
Ellesmere. 

Chlora perfoliata, L. Frequent about Much and Little Wen- 
lock, Broseley, and L'onbridge ; it also occurs near Cressage Park, 
Church Preen, Whitchurch, and Ellesmere. 

iTentiana Amarella, Jj. Frequentuear Much Wenlock and Harley ; 
I have also found it near the Wrekin and under the Arkoll Hill. 

Menyanthes trifoliatu, L. Pool near Eaton Constantine ; 
frequent in Berrington and Bomere Pools ; abundant in the 
Ellesmere Meres. 

Polemonium coiruleiim , L. On the banks of the Worfe, near 
Eindleford, Bridgnorth. 

Convolfidus st'])iuiii, L. Very abundant on the banks of the 
Severn, near Buildwas and L'onbridge. 

Cuscuta Kpithymam, Murr. Naturalised on gorse on Charlton 
HiU and Tentree Hill, where it has lived for some years. 

Sulanaiii niiirum, L. Frequent near Cound. 

AtroiHi Belladonna, L. Woods between Cound and Evenwood, 
in several places ; on the slopes of the Wrekin near Cludley, and 
on Lawrence's Hill. 

Hyoscya)inis niyer, L. About the old ruins at Wroxeter, twenty 
years ago it was plentiful, but now it has become rare. 

Verhascum Thapsus, L. Frequent round the Wrekin, Arkoll, 
and Tentree Hill ; found also about Charlton Hill, Eyton-on- 
Severn, Cound, and Ellesmere. 

V. Lycknitin, L, Near Snow Pool, Dry ton, Wroxeter. 
V. Bluttaria, L. Apparently quite wild near Leighton, Eyton- 
on- Severn, and Bettisfield. 

Scrujdndaria aquatica, L. Banks of the Severn and Tern ; near 
Eaton Constantino, Leighton, Buildwas, Shineton, Harley, and 
Couud. 

8. KhrJiarti, Stev. Frequent near Buildwas, Coalport, Shineton, 
and Cound, and on the banks of the Teme, near Ludlow. 



112 A NEW HONGKONG ANONACEA. 

S. nodosa, L. Frequent on the Wrekiu and in the suiTounding 
woods, growing in drier situations than the two hist species. 

(To be continued.) 



A NEW HONGKONG AyoXACEA. 

By H. F. Hance, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c. 

Nine years ago, in tlie Supplement to the ' Flora Hongkong- 
ensis,'* I recorded an Anouaceous plant, apparently referable to the 
genus Melodorum, but only known in fruit. Being very anxious, if 
possible, to determine this new plant satisfactorily, I asked Mr. 
Charles Ford, superintendent of the Hongkong Botanic Gardens, 
who takes much interest in the Flora of the island, to have the 
goodness to try and get flowering specimens, and in August, 1879, 
he told me that he had found it on Victoria Peak, whilst my 
original plant grows in the thick wood at Hongkong, where I first 
gathered fruiting specimens in August, 1861. On since comparing 
the two, I was surprised to find Mr. Ford"s altogether different from 
my species ; but, though not in fruit, it is certainly a Melodorum, 
and as it appears quite distinct from any enumerated in the ' Flora 
of British India,' or in Miquel's last review of the Anonacctc of 
the Indian Archipelago,! I now describe it fi-om very satisfactory 
materials, for which I have to thank Mr. Ford. It is, I beileve, 
nearest in afiinity to M. rujincrve, H. f. & Th., and M. WaUichii, 
H. f. & Th. The flowers, soaked in boiling water for the purpose 
of dissection, and the dried leaves, broken up between the fingers, 
exhale an odour of nutmeg. 

Melodokum ( Eumelodorum) glaucescens, sp.nov. — Late scandens, 
ramis cortice glabro nigricaute ruguloso obtectis, ramulis rufulo- 
tomentellis, foliis anguste oblougis basi obtusis apice emarginatis 
supra glaberrimis opacis costa impressa venisque vix promi- 
nulis crebre reticulatis subtus glaucescentibus pilis brevibus 
adpressis ocido tantum armato conspicuis dense obtectis, costa 
valida rufo-tomentella costulisque parallelis 10-13 jugis elevatis 
venulisque transversis promiuulis notatis 2i— G poll, longis 8 liu. 
ad If poll, latis petiolo crasso tomentello lineali, inflorescentia 
rufo-sericea, floribus secus rachem innovationes terminantem fasci- 
culatis, fascicuhs distantibus alternis 5-8 floris simi^liciter umbelli- 
formibus vel cymulosis singulo folio florali fulto, sepalis triangulatis 
semilineam longis cum petalis exterioribus plano-convexis ovatis 
obtusiusculis 2^ lin. longis extus dense rufo-sericeis, petalis in- 
terioribus ovatis minute cinereo tomentosis inferne excavatis, ovariis 
rufo-tomentosis. 

In summo monte Victoria Peak, ins. Hongkong, m. Augusto, 
1879, coll. C. Ford. (Herb, propr. no. 21,141.) 

* Journ. Linn. Soc., xiii., 99. 

+ Ann. Mas. Bot. Lujrd.-Bat. ii., 1 sqq. 



113 

NEW BRITISH LICHENS. 
By the Rev. W. Johnson. 

1 BEG to record the following additions to our liclien-flora. I 
have submitted specimens to Dr. W. Nylander, who has deter- 
mined and named them. As a strictly scientific description of 
these plants will be given by Dr. Nylander himself, in his forth- 
coming ' Addenda ad Lichenographiam Eiiropiam,' I shall not 
attempt that here, but, pending those descriptions, simply give 
my own observations of the plants, with their discovery. 

Lecanora ehagadiza, Nyl., n. sp. — The thallus of this lichen is 
indeterminate, of a medium thickness, rimoso- or somewhat 
areolato-dilfract. When dry, the chinks are rather wide. The 
surface is slightly uneven, and of a dull virescent colour. It has a 
little the faded appearance of having been washed with Avater. 
The apothecia are innate and suburceolate, with an obtuse even 
margin ; their colour is fuscescent, margin paler, The hypothecium 
is pale ; paraphyses slender, filiform, conglutinate. While ad- 
herent the apices are fuscescent ; when separated by K they are 
pale and slightly articulate. The asci are lineari-clavate. The 
spores numerous, colourless, oblong, very minute. The gelatina- 
hymenea is cferulescent, then slightly tawny with iodine. Thallus 
K — C — . This plant was found on fresh-water-washed sandstone, 
close beside the sea ; Barrowmouth, near Whitehaven, Cumberland, 
1880. 

Lecanora albo-lutescens, Nyl., n. sp. — Thallus white or be- 
tween white and grey ; its growth seems to be from white at first 
to a bluish grey in age. It is closely adherent, indeterminate, 
leprose, or areolate. The areoleae have a scabrous appearance. 
The apothecia are waxy, orange-red, concave, with thick proper 
margin, growing paler outward, until it blends with the subtending 
thalline margin. The centre of the apothecia is frequently, though 
not always, furnished with an umbo, and the margin often flexuose. 
The hypothecium is pale ; paraphyses are moderate, free. The 
spores are eight, polari-bilocular, ellipsoid ; the polar cells are 
large, with a distinct connecting tube. With K the hymenium 
becomes deep crimson, especially the apices of the paraphyses. 
Thallus K — C — apothecia K deep crimson. This lichen grows on 
sandstone rocks, in low altitudes, where the atmosphere is moist. 
I first gathered it on the rocks l)y the side of tlie River Tyne, at 
By well, Northumberland, in 1B7H. Since then I have found it at 
Wark-upon-the-Tyne, Northumberland; and on the roadside 
between Whitehaven and Scalegill, Cumberland. 

Pertt'saria spit-omanthodes, Nyl., ?;. .tp. — Thallus cinereous, 
thickish, rimoso dift'ract ; margins of the widish chinks, when dry, 
irregular and tending upward. Surface of thallus much and deeply 
wrinkled, very uneven. Apothecia innate, rugoso-difibrmed ; 
ostiola open, irregular, black ; when wet, minutely granulate or 
l)apilloso, with prominent thalline margin. Section of hymenium 
rather dark ; paraphyses slender. Spores from two to four in eacli 

<4 



114 BRYOLOGICAL NOTES. 

ascus, large, ellipsoid, sometimes oviform, violet, with a yellowish 
tinge ill the centre. When K is applied, distinctly and deeply 
violet. Episporo hroad, transversely handed or wavy with light 
and shade. The central part of spore is rough and granular ; with 
K it sometimes assumes a smooth and cellular appearance. Para- 
physes, asci, and epispore are deep hlue, with iodine. Thallus K 
yellow, then deep orange-red. This lichen is allied to I'crtumria 
Urceolftrui, Nyl., hut differs from it in the colour and non-isidiose 
condition of thallus, in the thickness of the paraphyses, and the 
numher and character of the spores. It was found on granitic 
rocks beside Ennerdale Lake, Cumberland, 1880, and no doubt is 
a very rare plant. 

I have also met with the following rare lichens, the occurrence 
of which in Cumberland it may be desirable to record : — 

Lecanora eri/sihc, forma ohscnrata, Nyl. — On old walls. Ashy, 
Cumberland, 1880. 

Ciraphis elegans, forma .sunplicior, Cromb. — Thallus similar to 
type ; lirellas short, mostly simple, a few branched at right angles ; 
thalline margin prominent when mature ; epithecium rimffiform 
more or less open, proper margin moderate, slightly flexuose, plain. 
Same habitat as the type. Woods near Ashy, Cumberland, 1880. 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES. 

By W. West. 

The last edition to the British Moss-Flora is Lescuraa mutabilia, 
Brid. [Fterigynandrum mutahile, Brid., Bryol. Univ., is the earliest 
name; Pterogonium striatum, Scliwg., and Lescurcea striata, B. & S. 
Bry. Eur., are also synonyms), which I gathered last August on 
mica-schistose rocks, near the summit of Ben Lawers, on the 
south-east side. It was growing near or with Pseuduleslcea atro- 
virens, Dicks., as one of my envelopes contained both species. The 
plants gathered were female ones, and belong to the form which 
grows on trees, and not to the form (var. saxicola, Milde), which 
growls on rocks. The latter form is more robust, having broader 
and less acuminate leaves in the specimens I have examined. I 
have also had Norwegian and Pyrenean specimens of the form 
found on trees sent to me by the Eev. J. Fergusson, to wdiom I am 
also indebted for the var. sa.ricoJa, as well as for the correct determi- 
nation of the Ben Lawers plant. I have compared them Avith the 
latter, and in general appearance they thoroughly agree, save that 
the Pyrenean specimens have their leaves only slightly subsecund, 
agreeing in this with the saxicolous form from Norw^ay. The 
corticolous form gathered from a tree in Norway is exactly identical 
in its decidedly subsecund leaves w^ith the corticolous form found 
on rocks on Ben Lawers. The specimens gathered from trees had 
almost entire leaves, while both the specimens from rocks had the 
leaves distinctly serrate in the upper part. Schimper says of the 
leaves of the corticolous form, " erecto patientia et patientia ;" of the 
var. saxicnht he says, " pro more subsecunda." My limited 



SHORT NOTES. 115 

examination of specimens (from only four localities) shows that both 
forms vary ; therefore the subsecundity of the leaves cannot safely 
be used as a distinguishing character. This species belongs to the 
orthocarpous leiophyllous Hypnacea;, and is the only Euroi^ean 
species of the genus. 

Not far from the same place on Ben Lawers I gathered Timmia 
austriaca, Hedw. ; this is an interesting find, for, as far as I am 
aware, it was only previously recorded in Britain fi-om the banks 
of the Isla, in Forfarshire. I have just been examining about a 
score packets of Timmia, and I find in examples from different 
places that the deptli of serration of the leaves varies, as does also 
their length, in both T. ynegapolitana, Hedw., and T. austriaca, Hedw. 
In the latter species the extent of the serration on the margin 
also varies considerably, not at all approaching the base in some 
specimens, notably so in a specimen from Cape Warrenden, Arctic 
Eegions, in which the serration is confined almost entirely to the 
apex. In those specimens where the serration on the margin of 
the leaves descended the lowest, the serrulation on the back of the 
nerve was also continued lower down ; this was especially the case 
with robust specimens from the Pyrenees, Viarelia, and South 
Tyrol. The distinctly sheathing orange base of T. austriaca, 
Hedw., is a good character, though in specimens of T. meijapolitaua, 
Hedw., from Canada, the characteristic shorter ivhite sheathing 
base was distinctly lutescent approaching orange, but not by any 
means as deep in colour as it is in T. austriaca, Hedw. The serra- 
tion is denser and generally coarser in T. mei/apolitana, Hedw., 
than it is in T. austriaca, Hedw. The var. bararica, Hessler, of T. 
megapulitana, Hedw., is well described by the character " serration 
confined to upper part of leaf," and moist exami)les seem to have 
more spreading (almost recurved) leaves than the type. The 
leaves of T. norvegica, Zett., appear to be less pellucid than in the 
other species, and the papillosity of the upper part of the back of 
the nerve alone thoroughly distinguishes it from both the other 
sj^ecies. (I think also that the two European species of Buxhaumia 
offer a distinctive character in the difl'erent degree of roughness of 
their setae.) I find the character of " curvation of leaves when dry " 
of no use, only in T. austriaca, Hedw., they seem to have a homo- 
malloi;s tendency. 

Schimper says that there is only another species of the genus 
which occurs in N. America. Is it Kau and Hervey's Cata- 
logue, and if so, under what name, as this genus is not in their 
catalogue ? 



SHOKT NOTES. 



Chemical Tests for Lichens. — Most lichenologists have pro- 
bably found the solution of chlorinated lime to be a very unsatis- 
factory preparation, as it loses its properties after a time. To 
avoid mistakes likely to occur through this fact being unnoticed, I 
have found it advisable to previously test it on the sorediate form 
of Pertusaria relata, which is easily obtained, at least in the south 



116 SHORT NOTES. 

of England. If the chlorinated lime solution be in good condition 
this liclien will turn a brilliant carmine-red immediately the thallus 
is touched with the liquid. But it has lately come under my 
notice that it is the custom with some chemists to strengthen this 
solution for disinfecting purposes by adding a little chlorine water 
to it. This addition renders the liquid absolutely valueless for 
testing lichens, as it destroys the colouring-matter. I would 
therefore advise those who wish to have a satitfactory test to pur- 
chase the chlorinated lime in dnj powder, and not absolutely 
destitute of odour, to mix it with an equal bulk of water, and pour 
off the clear liquid, and to prepare the solution afresh once a fortnight, 
to keep the solution in the dark, or to test its efficacy on Pertusaria 
vi'lata before applying it to other lichens. — E. M. Holmes. 



A New Beitish Hepatic. — J Hni/ennannia Jxrai-vA-ana, Limpricht, 
was collected on Ben Lawers, August 12, 1880, W. West ; also pro- 
bably near Cwm Glas, Snowdon, August, 1880, by J. Cash and W. H. 
Pearson (specimen too meagre to be quite sure). — W. H. Peakson. 



SphactNum subbicolor, Hampc. — My friend Dr. Eehman having 
sent me an authentic specimen of the plant described under this 
name by Dr. Hampe (' Flora,' 1880, p. 440), I find it is identical 
with S. papilloswn, Lindberg, of which of course it becomes a 
synonym. — E. Braithwaite. 



" Aloe elegans. Tod. ined. A. ahyssinica, Hort. Pan. Species 
elcgantissima, acaulis, foliis perglaucis, validis elongatis, floribus 
Ijlerumque luteis vel luteo-cocciueis, pedunculo foliis longiore, 
ramoso paniculato. Infauste pro A. ahyssmica commutata, diftert 
in primis caule nullo ; nee ulla cum nostra A. pcrcrassn affinitas." 
We extract this description from Todaro's ' Index Seminum Hort. 
Eeg. Bot. Panormitani' for 1880, as it is likely to be overlooked. 
The 'Index' contains also the name "Salvia pnetermissa, Tod. 
ind.' [med] , of which plant no information is given but the fol- 
lowing : " Simillima Salricf cinua-itnttsi, occurit in hortis sub nomine 
A. [S.] (cyi/ptiaca:, Linn., a qua louge diversa." 



Eudbeckl\ lacinl\ta, L. — On Augnist 18th, 1880, I saw about a 
dozen stems of this plant, from three to four feet high, growing up 
through a low thorn hedge, pasture on one side, a wet ditch and 
road on the other, near the railway station at Portbury, Somerset. 
There are cottage gardens within two hundred yards of the spot, but 
neither I nor any of my acquaintance have ever seen this composite 
in cultivation. On account of the protection affoi'ded to its roots by 
the thick sot hedge, the plant will probably become well estab- 
lished, but the llower-heads were nearly all gathered by passers- 
by, and I had not an oj^portunity of observing if ripe fruits 
were produced. — Jas. W. WmTE. 



Hypnuji imponens, Hedw. — In a recent excursion to Blackdown, 
Sussex, 1 met with this moss in some abundance around one o 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 117 

the i^onds oil the summit of the Dowii, growing together with 
Hi/]»ui)ii cujiressifoimc, var. ericetonun, which it strongly resemhles 
ill habit. The moss being wet, I was struck with a feature by 
which it may readily be distinguished in the field, viz., the si em 
shows of a reddish brown colour through the leaves, so that each 
branch seems to have a dark line running up the centre. This, 
combined with the fact that towards the base of the stem the leaves 
turn brown, while those of H. cupreHsifornw, var. ericetorum , remain 
pale, enabled me to separate easily the two plants. Brachyodus 
trichixU's, Cawpijlosteliiim saxicola, and Nardea adnata still grow on 
Blackdown ; the Cawpi/lostelhun generall}'' grows here, often on the 
same stone with Brachyodus, but is recognised by its taller seta, 
long teeth and longer operculum, and by fruiting in a more 
scattered manner and less freely. It seems to prefer always the 
more exposed edge of the stone on which it grows. The fruit is 
in best condition in January. — E. M. Holmes. 



isxtracts antf Notices of Booiis auti fitemoivs. 



NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF PHANEROGAMS PUBLISHED 
IN PERIODICALS IN BBITAIN IN 1880. 

The periodicals referred to in the compilation of this list are : — 

' Botanical Magazine,' ' Gardeners' Chronicle,' 'Icoiies Plantarum,' 

' Journal of Botany,' ' Journal of the Linnean Society of London,' 

and ' Garden.' 

AcANTHOLiMOX CALOCEPHALUM, AitcMson d Hemsley (Plumba- 

ginefe). — Afghanistan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 77.) 

A. LEPTosTACHYUM, Aitch . d Hcmsl. — Afghanistan. (Id. p. 76.) 
A. MuNROANUM, Aitch. d' Hemsl. — Afghanistan. (Id.) 
AcRiDocARPus HiRUNDo, S. Moove (Malpigliiaceae). — W. Trop. 

Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 1.) 

.IilcHM.EA jiuLTicEPs, Baker (Bromeliaceaj). — Kio Janeiro. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 49). 

Aerides pachyphyllum, Ftchb. f. (Orchideae). (Gard. Chrou. 

xiv. 231.) 

Albvca Nelsoni, xV. /'-'. Br. (Liliace^j. — Natal. (Id. 198). 

Aloe Atherstonei, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Boc. xviii. 170). 

A. Barter:, Baker. — Guinea. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 168.) 

A. BoLusii, Jiaker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 179.1 

A. coNSTRicTA, Fxtkcr. — Trop. Africa. (Id. 168.) 

A. cRASsiPEs, B((ker. — Trop. Africa. (Id. 162.) 

A. FALC.\TA, I laker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 181.) 

A. GASTERioiDEs, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 166.) 

A. Greenii. Baker. — Cape. (Jouiii. Linn. Soc. xviii. 165 ; 

Bot. Mag. t. 6520.) 

A. HETERACAXTHA, Baker. — (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 161.) 
A. Kraussii, liaker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 159.) 
A. LONGisTYLA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 158.) 
A. Macowani, Baker. — S. Africa. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 170.) 



118 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

Aloe macracantha, Baker. — Cape. (Jouni. Linn. Soc. xviii. 167.) 
A. NiTENS, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Liuu. Soc. xviii. 171.) 
A. Perryi, Baker. — Socotra. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 161.) 
A. pRATENSis, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 156.) 
A. ScHWEiNFCRTHii, Baker. — Trop. Africa. (Id. 175.) 
A. siGMOiDEA, Baker. — Kaffraria. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 177.) 
A. SPECIOSA, Baker. — S. Africa. (Journ. Liuu. Soc. xviii. 178.) 
A. Thraskii, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. ISO.) 
Angr.ecu.m Christyanum, Fcchb. f. (Orcliidejej. (Gai'd. Cliron. 

xiii. 806.) 

A. HYALoiDEs. Hchlj. f. — Madagascar. (Gfard. Chron. xiii. 264.) 
Anthurium parvum, xV^ K. Brown (Aracete). — Eio Janeiro. 

(Card. Cln-on. xiv. 588.) 

Aragoalycopodioides, Benth. (Scropliulariaceae). — New Granada. 

(Ic. Plant, t. 1325.) 

ARiSiEJiA ALBUM, .V. /','. Br. (AracesBj. — Kliasia. (Journ. Linn. 

Soc. xviii. 247.) 

A. FiLiCAUDATUM, .V. E. Br. — Ccylou. (Id. 253.) 
A. PExiciLLATUM, .V. E. Br. — Hong Koug. (Id. 248, t. 5.) 
A. PULCHRUM, N. E. Br. — India. (Id. 252, t. 6.) 
Arnebia speciosa, Aitchison d Hemsleij (Borragiueae). — Afghan- 
istan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 81.) 

Aster Gerlachii, S. Moore (Composittei. — China. (Joiu'n. 

Bot. p. 262.) 

Astragalus cerasinus, Baker (Leguminoseae). — Afghanistan. 

(Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 47.) 

A. lmmersus, Baker. — Afghanistan. (Joru'n. Linn. Soc. xviii. 45.) 

A. Kuramensis, Baker. — Afghanistan. (Id. 46.) 

A. luteo-c.eruleus, Baker. — Afghanistan. (Id. 47.) 

A. MiCRODONTUs, Baker. — Afghanistan. (Id. 46.) 

A. ptilocephalus, Baker. — Afghanistan. (Id. 47.) 

A. rhizocephalus, Baker. — Afghanistan. (46.) 

AsTROxiA Samoensis, S. Moore. — Samoa (Journ. Bot. p. 3.) 

Astrostejima, Benth. gen.nov. (Asclepiadaceae). — A. spartioides, 

Benth.— Borneo. (Ic. Plant, t. 1311.) 

Asystasia Charmian, S. Moore (Acanthaceas). — Trop. Africa. 

(Joiu-n. Bot. p. 38, t. 213.) 

A. Welwitschu, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 308.) 
A\TCNA oligostachya, Muuro [name only] (Graminege). — Afghan- 
istan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 108.) 

Barkerl\ cyclotella, Bchb. /. (Orchidese). (Gard. Chron. 
xiii. 72.) 

Barleria alata, S. Moore (Acanthaceae). — Angola. (Journ. 
Bot. p. 266.) 

B. C.ARRUTHERsiANA, >S'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 270.) 
B. cyanea, S. Moore. — China. (Journ. Bot. p. 265.) 

B. POLYNEURA, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. I3ot. p. 266.) 
B. sALiciFOLiA, 6'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 268.) 
B. Stellato-tomentosa, S. Moore. — Angola. (Id. p. 268.) 
B. VILLOSA, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p, 267.) 
B. violascens, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 265.) 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 119 

Barleria Welwitschii, S. Moore. — Angola. (Jouru. Bot.p.267.) 
Beaucarnea Watsoni, Baker (Liliacere). — Mexico. (Journ. 

Liiin. Soc. xviii. 236.) 

Blepharis cuanzensis, Wehr. (Acanthacefe). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 230.) 

B. glumacea, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 232.) 
B. Noli-me-taxgere, 6'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 231.) 
B. Welwitschii, N. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 231.) 
Beassia euodes, IicJib. /'. (Orcliideae). — New Grranacla. (Garcl. 

Chron. xiii. G80.) 

BuLBOPHYLLUJi ALOPECURUM, Eclih. f. (Orcliideffi). — Burmali. 

(Gard. Chron. xiv. 70.) 

B. Beeenicis, Rchh. f. (Gard. Cliron. xiv. 588.) 

B. iNERs, Ilchh. f. — Assam. (Gard. Chron. xiii. 776.) 

B. iNops, Rchh. /. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 620.) 

Cacoucia velutina, S. Moore (Leguminos^e). — W. Trop. Africa. 
(Journ. Bot. p. 2.) 

Calanthe Petri, Bchli. f. (Orchidefe). — Polvnesia. (Gard. 
Chron. xiv. 326.) 

Calophanes Hildebrandtii, X. Moore (Acanthaceffi). — E. Trop. 
Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 8.) 

C. thunbergi^flora, S. Moore. — S. Trop. Africa. (Id. p. 8.) 
Caragana acaulis, Baker (Legurninosfe). — ^Afghanistan. (Journ. 

Linn. Soc. xvih. 44.) 

Caedanthera justicioides, S. Moore (Acanthacete). — Nile Eiver. 
(Jouru. Bot. p. 70.) 

Carex Buchanani, Ber(/(ir. (CyperacefB).— N. Zealand. (Journ. 
Bot. p. 104.) 

Clematis leptomera, Hance (Eanunculace^e). — China. (Journ. 
Bot. p. 257.) 

C. Eobertsiana, AitcJiison d' Hemsley. — Afghanistan. (Journ. 
Linn. Soc. xviii. 29.) 

Cob^a campanulata, HemsL (PolemoniaceaB). — Ecuador. 
(Garden, xvii. 352.) 

C. Trian^, He)iisl. — N. Grenada. (Garden, xvii. 353.) 

CoELOGYNE barbata, Orijf. (Orcliidefe). — Bootan, Khasia. (Gard. 
Chron. xiii. 9.) 

C. PELTASTEs, Rclib.f. — Bomco. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 296.) 

CoRYDALis suAVEOLENs, Haure (Papaveraceae). — China. (Journ. 
Bot. p. 258.) 

Cotyledon papillosa, Aitcln'son ,(■ Hemsley (Crassulacete). — 
Afghanistan. (Journ. Ijiini. Soc. xviii. 58.) 

C. tenuicaulis, AitchiiKJU (0 Jlcmslei/. — Afghanistan. (Journ. 
Linn. Soc. xviii. 57.) 

Crinum Kirkii, y'^//,(v(Aniaryllidaccre). — Zanzibar. (Bot. Mag. 
t. 6512.) 

C. PODOPHYLLUM, Baker. — Trop. Africa. (Bot. Mag. t. 6483.) 

Crossandra Greenstockii, S. Moure (Acanthaceic). — Trop. 
Afi'ica. (Journ. P>ot. p. 37.) 

Cryptocoryne caudata, N. K. Br. (Araceaa). — Borneo. (Journ. 
Linn. Soc. xviii. 243, t 4.) 



120 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 



Cypripedium Petri, Bchli. f. (Orcliidese). — Malayan Archipelago. 
(Gard. Claron. xiii. 680.) 

C. Bpickkianum, liclih.f. (Gard. Cliron. xiii. 203.) 
Dalhousiea AFRicANA, S. Mourc (Legumiuosff). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. !>. 2.) 

Dasylirion pliabile, I'xihcr (Liliacoffi). — Mexico. (Journ. Linn. 
See. xviii. 2-10.) 

Dendrobium bostrychodes, Jiclib. f. ( Orchidea; ) . — Borneo. 
(Gard. Chron. xiv. 748.) 

D. ciNNABARiNUM, lic/il). f.) — BoniBo. (Gard. Clu'on. xiv. 166.) 
D. Phal^nopsis, Fitz(ieral(l. — North Australia and New Guinea. 

(Gard. Chron. xiv. 38.) 

D. tetrachromuai, iic/(^._/'.— Borneo. (Gard. Chron. xiii. 081.) 
Dendrochilum Cobbianuji, Lichb. /'. (Orchidea?). — Phillippines. 

(Gard. Chron. xiv. 748.) 

DicLiPTERA ANGOLENsis, S.iVioore (Acanthace^e).— Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 362.) 

D. Welwitschii, S. Moure. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 362.) 
DiPCADi Balfourii, /Jrf/.rr (Liliacefe). — Socotra. (Gard. Chron. 

xiv. 424.) 

DisA megaceras, Hook. f. (Urchidefe). — S. Africa. (Bot. Mag. 
t. 6529.) 

Dracontium Carderi, Hook. f. (Aracefe). — Columbia. (Bot. 
Mag. t. 6523.) 

Dracophyllum Kirkii, Benp/r. (Epacrideje). — N. Zealand. 
(Journ. Bot. p. 104,) 

Ehretia resinosa, Hance (Borraginete). — China. (Id. p. 299.) 

Epidendrum chlorops, lichh. f. (Orchideffi).- — Mexico. (Gard. 
Chron. xiv. 524.) 

E. Meseni, Rchh.f. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 390.) 

Eragrostis Nevinii, Hancc (Graminere). — China. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 302.) 

Eremurus Aitchisoni, Baker (Liliacefe). — Afghanistan. (Journ, 

Linn. Soc. xviii. 102.) 

Eria Cuktisii, Bchh. f. (Orchidefe). — Borneo. (Gard. Chron. 

xiv. 685. 

Eriospermum brevipes, Baker (Liliacese). — Algoa Bay. (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 231.) 

EuoNYMus FoRBESii, Honce (Celastrinese). — Chuaa. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 259.) 

Euphorbia Zambesiana, Vwuth. (Euphorbiacese). — E. Trop. 

Africa. (Ic. Plant, t. 1305.) 

Gagea setifolia, Baker (Liliaceae). — Afghanistan. (Journ. 

Linn. Soc. xviii. 101.) 

Gasteria apickoides, Baker (Liliaceae). — (Id. 197.) 

G. cHEiLOPHYLLA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 184.) 

G. EXCELSA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 193.) 

G. FUscopuNCTATA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 193.) 

G. gracilis, Hort. Saunders. — S. Africa. (Id. 193.) 

G. PALLEscENS, Baker. — S. Africa. (Id. 190.) 

G. parvifolia, B}aker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 193.) 

G. PEANiFOLiA, Baker. — S. Africa. (Journ. Ijinn. Soc. xviii. 188.) 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 121 

Gasteeia porphorophylla, Baker. — Caj)e. (Id. 190). 
Gr. SPIRALIS, Baker. — Cape. (Joiirn. Linn. Soc. xviii. 189.) 
Gr. SQUARROSA, Baker. — (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 147.) 
Glossocalyx brevipes, Benth. (Monimiacefe). — W. Trop. Africa. 

(Ic. Plant, t. 1302.) 

Gr. LONGicuspis, Benth. — W. Trop. Africa. (Ic. Plant, t. 1301.) 
Haworthia affinis, Baker (Liliaceffi).— Cape. (Jonrn. Linn. 

Soc. xviii. 213.) 

H. bilineata, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 213.) 
H. BoLUsii, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 215,) 
H. GLAUCA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 203. j 
H. Greexii, llaker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 202.) 
H. icosiPHYLLA, Baker. — Cape. (Joiu-n. Linn. Soc. xviii. 207.) 
H. MINIMA, Baker.— 'C-ek^B. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 215.) 
H. Peacockii, Baker. — Cape ? (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 202.) 
H. POLYPHYLLA, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 213.) 
H. TisLEYi, Baker. — Cape. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 208.) 
Hibiscus schizopetalus, Hook. f. (Malvaceae). — E. Africa. (Bot. 

Mag. t. 6524.) 

Hiernia, S. Moore, gen. nov. (Acantliaceie). — H. angolensis. 

Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 197, t. 211.) 

HippEASTRUM Andreanum, Baker (Amaryllidacefe). — N. Grenada. 

(Gard. Chron. ii. 424.) 

Hygrophila ULiGiNOSA, S.Moorc (Acanthacete). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 197.) 

Hypoestes antennifera, S. Moore (Acantliacefe). — Trop. Africa. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 41.) 

H. CALLicoMA, S. Moore. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 41.) 
H. strobilifera, S. Moore. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 40.) 
IsocHORisTE africana, S. Moorc (Acantliacese). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 309.) 

JusTiciA BREviCAULis, S. Moove (Acautbacefe). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 341.) 

J. cLEOMoiDES, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 313, t. 214.) 

J. LiETA, ;S'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 311.) 

J. Lazarus, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 313.) 

J. LOLioiDES, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 310, t. 214.) 

J. monechmoides, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 311.) 

J. MossAMEDEA, S. Noorc. — Aiigok. (Journ. Bot. p. 312.) 

J. Nepeta, .S'. Moorc. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 312.) 

J. Salsola, .S'. Moore. — iVngola. (^ Journ. Bot. p. 340.) 

J. scABRiDA, *S'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 310.) 

LiELiA Dormaniana, BicJih. J'. (Orcliideffi). — Brazil. (Gard. 

Chron. xiii. 1G8.) 

Lepidagathis Medusae, S. Moore (Acantliacese). — Trop. Africa. 

(Journ. liot. p. 39.) 

L. myrtifolia, 8. Moore. — Trop. Africa. — (Journ. Bot. p. 38.) 
L. PALLEscKNs, *S'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 308,) 
L. PENicuLiFERA, S. Moore. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Jiot. p. 39.) 
LiLiuM NiTiDUM, Baker (Liliaceae). — California. (Gard. Chron. 

xiv. 198.) 

B 



122 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

« 

LiPARis FORMOSANA, Rc/ih. f. (Orchideaj). — ^Formosa. (Gard. 

Cliroii. xiii. 81)4.) 

L. Stricklandianv, Ilchli.f. — Assam? (Grard. Cliron. xiii. 232.) 
LoRANTfius BiBRACTEOLATus, Hauce (Lorantliaceffi). — China. 

(Joum. liot. p. 801.) 

L. cuRviFLORUs, Beuth. — Trop. Africa. (Ic. Plant, t. 1304.) 
LuDDEMANNiA Lehmanni, Rc/ih. /. (Orcludeae). — N. Grenada. 

(Gard. Cln-on. xiv. 085.) 

Masdevallia Dayana, Itchb. /'. (OrcliidetE). — N. Grenada. (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 29-5.) 

M. Editardi, [Ichb.f. — Columbia. (Gard. Cliron. xiv. 778.) 

M. pulvinaris, lifJib. f. (Gard. Cliron. xiii. 200.) 

M. Koezlii, Echb. f. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 778.) 

M. swERTLEFOLiA, Hchb.f. — N.Grenada. (Id. xiv. 890.) 

M. XANTHiNA, Uchb. f. (Gard. Chron. xiii. G81.) 

Maxillaria ARACHNITES, llcJih. f. (Orchideoj). — -New Granada. 

(Gard. Chron. xiii. 894.) 

Medinilla halogeton, .S'. Moore (Melastomacese). — Admiralty 

Islands. (Journ. Bot. p. 3.) 

Mesopinidium incantans, Rclih. f. (Orcliidefe). (Gard. Chron. 

xiii. 586.) 

MiLLETTiA cognata, Hcince (LeguminosiB). — China. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 260.) 

MoDEccA ACULEATA, OHv. (Passifloraceffi). — E. Africa. (Ic. 

Plant, t. 1817.) 

Nepenthes Dyak, S. Moore (NepenthaceaB). — Borneo. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 1, t. 206.) 

Nepeta manchuriensis, <S^. Moore (Labiatae). — Manchuria. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 5.) 

Neuracanthus africanus, T. And. (Acanthacese). — Trop. Africa. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 87.) 

N. DEcoRus, (S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 307.) 
N. NivEUS, S. Moore. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 87.) 
N. scABER, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 807.) 
NiDULARiuM GiGANTEUM, Baker (Bromeliacese). — Eio Janeiro. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 50.) 

OcTOMERiA Saundersiana, Rchb. /. (Orchide£e). — Brazil. (Gard. 

Chron. xiii. 264.) 

Odontoglossum Eduardi, Echb. f. (Orchidea?). (Id. 72.) 
0. flaveolum, Echb. f. — Bogota. (Gard. Chron. xiii. 41.) 
0. HoRSMANi, EcJib. f. — New Granada. (Gard. Chron. xiii. 41.) 
Oncidiu-m chrysoknis, Echb. f. (Orchideas).— Ecuador. (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 620.) 

O. diodon, Echb. f. (Gard. Chron. xiv. p. 69.) 

0. MELANOPs, Echh.f. — Ecuador. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 620.) 

0. PR.'ESTANs, Echb.'f. (" n. sp. : hybr.?") (Id. 296). 

0. xANTHocENTRON, Echb.f. — S. America. (Id. xiii. 104.) 

Onobrychis dasycephala, r,aker (Leguminoste). — Afghanistan. 

(Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 48.) 

0. MicROPTERA, Bcikcr. — Afghanistan. (Id.) 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 123 

Onobrychis spinosissima, Baker. — Afghanistau, (Id. 49.) 
Otomeria oculata, .S. Moore (Rubiacese). — E. Trop. Africa. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 4.) 

Pentanisia Ouranogyne, S. Moore (Rubiaceae). — E. Trop. 

Africa. (Jouru. Bot. p. 4.) 

Parsea Namnu, Oliv. (Lauriueaj). — China. (Ic. Plant, t. 1316.) 
Pertya Aitchisoni, C. B. Clarke (Compositse). — Afghanistan. 

(Jonrn. Linn. Soc. xviii. 72.) 

Petalidium coccineum, 8. Moore (Acanthacese). — Angola. 

(Joiu-n. Bot. p. 225.) 

P. GLANDULosuM, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 226.) 
P. LepidactAthis, S. Moore. — Angola. (Jonrn. Bot. p. 227.) 
P. loranthifolium, iS'. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 227.) 
P. PHYSALomES, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 225, t. 212.) 
P. rupestre, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 226. ) 
P. Welwitschii, S. .^ioor6^— Angola. (Id. p. 227, t. 212,) 
Ph.edranassa schizantha, Baker. (Grard. Chron. xiv. 556.) 
Phajus Humblotii, Rchh. f. (Orchideas). — Madagascar. (Gard. 

Chron, xiv. 812.) 

Phaylopsis ANGOLANA, S.Moore (Acauthaceie). — Angola. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 229.) 

P. OBLIQUA, T. And. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 229.) 

Photinia crenato-serrata, Hance (Rosacea?). — China. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 261.) 

Phyllachne Haastii, Bergrjr. (Styhdiefe). — N. Zealand. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 104.) 

Pleurospermum corydalifolium, Aitchison d Hemsleij (Umbelli- 

ferae). — Afghanistan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 62.) 

P. PULCHRUM, Aitchison <£ Hemsleij. — Afghanistan. (Joum. 

Linn. Soc. xviii. 63.) 

Polygonum biaristatum, Aitchison d Hemsley (Polygonaceffi). — 

Afghanistan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 90.) 

P. compactum, Hook.f. — Japan. (Bot. Mag. t. 6471.) 
PoNERA pellita, Rchb. f. (Orchideae). (Gard. Chron. xiv. 8.) 
Potentilla Collettiana, Aitchison <£• Hemsley (Rosacese). — 

Afghanistan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 63.) 

PoTHos celatocaulis, N. E. Br. (Aracefe). — Borneo. (Gard. 

Chron. xiii. 200.) 

Primula obconica, Hance (Primulaceag). — China. (Journ. Bot. 

p. 234.) 

QuERcus Beccariana, iifn(/(.(Cupulifera3). — Borneo. (Ic. Plant. 

t. 1315.) 

Q. Jenkinsii, Bc7ith.— Assam. (Ic. Plant, tt. 1B12, 1313.) 
Q. Maixgayi, Bcnth. —Venang. (Ic. Plant, t. 1314.) 
Renanthera Storiei, Ilchb.f. (Orchideaj). — Philippines. (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 296.) 

Restrepia Falkenbergh, Bchb. f. (Orchidea;.— New Granada ? 

(Gard. Chron. xiii. 232.) 

Rhododendron afghanicum, .Aitchison d- Hemsley (Ericaceffi). — 

Afghanistan. (Journ, Linn. Soc, xviii. 75.) 

R. Collettianum, Aitchison d Hemsley. — Afghauislun. (Id.) 



124 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

KuBUS Ec/E, Aitchison (EosacecB). — Afgliauistau. (Id. 5-1.) 
EuELLiA AMABiLis, S.Moove (Acaiitliaccfe). — Trop. Afr. (Id. p. 7.) 
E. BiGxoNi.EFLORA, S. Moorc. — Aiigola. (Journ. Bot. p. 198.) 
E. DivERsiE'oLiA, .S'. Moure. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 198.) 
E. PoKTELi.^, //ooA-./.— Brazil. (Bot. Mag. t. 6498.) 
E. ScLERocHiTON, S. Moore. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 7.) 
Sarcochilus RUBRicENTRUM,i<'tf5;^e/-a/f/(0rchidea)). — Queensland. 

^Gard. Cliron. xiv. 38.) 

Saxifraga afghanica, Aitchison d Hemsleij (Saxifragaccffi). — 

Afghanistan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 56.) 

Scadiosa afghanica, Aitchison d Hemslrij (Dipsacea;). — Afghan- 
istan. (Journ. Linn. Soc. xviii. 67.) 

SciLLA TRICOLOR, Baker (LiliaceEe). — Port Elizabeth ? (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 230.) 

Sedum Liebmannianum, Henisl. (Crassulacete). ^Mexico. (Gard. 

Chron. xiv. 38.) 

S. RETusuji, Henisl. — Mexico. (Gard. Chron. xiv. 38.) 
SiPHONOGLossA NuMMULARiA, S. Moure (Acanthaccffi). — Kaffraria. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 40.) 

SiPHONosTEGiA LjEta, S. Moorc (Labiattc). — China. (Id. p. 5.) 
Stelltjlaria, lienth., gen. nov. (Scrophulariaceaej : S. 

NiGREScENs. — W. Trop. Afi'ica. (Ic. Plant, t. 1318.) 

Stenia GUTTATA, Rclih. f. (Orchides;). — Peru. (Gard. Chron. 

xiv. 134.) 

Stenomesson luteo-viride, Baker (Amaryllidacese). — Ecuador. 

(Bot. Mag. t. 6508.) 

Stimpsonia cbispidens, Hance (Primulacese). — China. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 234.) 

Thrixspermum Moorei, lichb. f. (Orchide^e). — New Britain 

(Gard. Chron. xiii. 104.) 

Thunbergia affinis, S. Moore (Acanthaceffi). — E. Trop. Afiica. 

(Journ. Bot. ]). 5.) 

T. ANGOLENSis, S. Moorc. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 195.) 

T. ARMiPOTENS, S. Moorc. — Augola. (Journ. Bot. p. 195.) 

T. Cycnium, 8. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 194.) 

T. HYALiNA, S. Moorc. — Augola. (Journ. Bot. p. 195.) 

T. HuiLLENSis, S. Moore. — Angola. (Journ. Bot. p. 194.) 

T. ScHWEiNFURTHii, S.Moorc. — Trop. Africa. (Journ. Bot. p. 6.). 

TiLLANDsiA DisTACHYA, jE>rt/«v (Bromeliaceae). — British Honduras. 

(Gard. Chron. xiii. 200.) 

TococA coRiACEA, S. Moorc (Melastomaceae). — Central America. 

(Journ. Bot. p. 3.) 

Tripterygium Bullockii, Hance (Celastrineae). — China. (Journ. 

Bot. p. 259.) 

WoRMiA Burbidgei, Hook. f. (Dilleniacese). — Borneo. (Bot. 

Mag. t. 6531.) 

Yucca Peacockii, Baker (Liliace®). — Mexico? (Journ. Linn. 

Soc. xviii. 223.) 

Zingiber corallinum, Hance (Zingiberaceas). — China. (Joiu'n. 

Bot. p. 301.) ^___ 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 125 

THE COFFEE.LEAF DISEASE. 

Mr. Marshall Ward lias been prosecuting his work at Hemileia 
vastatrix (the coffee-leaf disease) in Ceylon with much success, and 
has issued a Second Eeport, containing not only much that is new 
about the fungus, but many observations on its relation to the coffee- 
plant. Among the numerous experiments made by Mr. Ward, 
one in which he propagated the disease by sowing the yellow 
spores (uredospores) is the most interesting. He has also con- 
tinued to work with some success at the history of the teleutospores 
— which, on germinating, produce a four-chambered promycelium, 
whence arise four " conidia " at the tips of lateral branches. 
These " conidia " germinate in various nutritive fluids, and form a 
short delicate tube ; they also begin germination on the coffee-leaf, 
but soon die. The farther history of these bodies is of the utmost 
importance to the investigation. On the "coral-like" mycelium, 
Mr. Ward has discovered numerous haustoria. He has also under 
supervision several experiments as to the application of remedial 
measures on a large scale. 

In an Appendix (H) there is an account of experiments made 
by Mr. Ward to satisfy himself of the fact that the wind conveys 
fungus spores from place to place. The examination of the glass 
slips exposed showed numerous spores of different kinds, including 
those of the Hemileia. This is interesting in view of the absurd 
objections made by Prof. Baldwin to Mr. George Murray's similar 
experiments with the conidia of Plujtophthora infestans, de By. 
(' Journal of Botany,' December, 1880). In this Eeport Mr. Ward 
shows that he has gathered a great mass of details, of which we hope 
at a later stage of the investigation to give a full accoimt. 



Prof. Ealph Tate has published ' A Census of the indigenous 
Flowering Plants and Ferns of extra-tropical South Australia,' on 
the same principle as Baron von Mueller's ' Census of the Plants of 
Australia,' referred to at p. 92. 

The last part (vol. xiv., pt. 1) of the 'Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh ' contains an interesting paper, by 
Mr. (j. M. Thomson, on ' The Flowering Plants of New Zealand 
and their Eelation to the Insect Fauna.' 

The recent (January) part of the ' Proceedings of the Geologists' 
Association' contains Mr. G. S. Boulger's paper ' On the Geological 
and other causes of the Distribution of the British Flora,' of which 
we gave a summary at p. 62 of this Journal for 1880. 

We are indebted to Mr. W. Phillips for a useful list of ' The 
Hymenomycctjo of Shropsljire,' reprinted from the ' Transactions ' 
of the Shropshire Archteological Natural History Society. We 
regret that the author has followed Cooke's 'Handl)Ook' in giving 
what some persons call " Englisli names " to the Fungi enumerated. 
Notliing can possibly be gained by calling Vuhjporus vuhjaris 
" Common effused Polyporus," or AniicuUuia un'sniterica " Entire 
Auricularia." 



126 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

TuE last imvt, published iu February, of ' Hooker's Icones Plan- 
tarum ' contains figures and descriptions (the former very roughly 
executed) of some interesting novelties, including a new genus of 
Anarardidrcct [Micronychia, Oliv.), and one of CijperacecE [Actino- 
schu'ims, lienth.) 

Mr. Bernard Hobson, of Sheffield, has issued a little pamphlet 
of thu-ty-two pages, entitled ' What to observe in the Sheffield 
Botanic Garden,' which is in many respects a model of what such 
a guide should be. We have seldom met with a greater amount of 
accurate information pleasantly conveyed in so small a compass. 
Printed apparently for private distribution, we learn that the im- 
pression is already exhausted. We trust that Mr. Hobson will 
issue a second edition for sale to the piiblic, as the pamphlet can 
hardly fail to interest and instruct any intelligent person who may 
visit the Sheffield gardens. 

The recently issued part (2nd ser., vol. iii., pt. 1), of the ' Atti 
della Societa Crittogamologica Italiana ' contains papers by G. 
Passerini on the Cryptogams observed upon Tobacco ; a list of the 
Lichens of Gargano, by A. Jatta; a description of a new Agaric, 
Aijaricns [Pleurolus) parthcnopcjiis, by 0. Comes ; and 'Nova Ad- 
denda ad Mycologiam Venetam,' by C. Spegazzini. 

Mr. J. E. Bagnall has commenced in the ' Midland Naturalist' 
a flora of Warwickshu-e, which, so far as can be judged from the 
introductory matter, — all that has yet appeared, — promises to be a 
careful record of our present knowledge of the Botany of the county. 
We have before expressed our approval of the prominence given to 
local observations in this useful periodical. 

We have received ' Practical Botany for Elementary Students,' 
by Dr. Houston, which forms one of ' Stewart's Educational Series.' 
The author describes at length what may be observed by the dis- 
section of actual specimens of some of the more important types of 
the natural orders represented in Britain ; and his book may be 
useful to those who have previously gone through some general 
introduction to Botany, and are anxious to put their knowledge to 
the test by the examination of living plants. The possible plant 
which ornaments the cover should be suppressed in future issues. 



New Books. — J. D. Hooker, 'Flora of British India,' part viii. 
[Buhiaca: — Composita) (L. Eeeve, 10.s. QiL). — V. A. Poulsen, ' Bo- 
tanische Mikrochemie ' (Cassel, Fischer). — B. Frank, ' Die Krank- 
heiten der Pflanzen ' (^Breslau, Trewendt). 



Articles in Journals. 
February. 

[Coidters] Botanical Gazette . — E. C. Howe, ' Carex Sulh'vavtii, 
Boott, ahybrid.' — G.Vasey, ' Trichostemma Barishii,' sp.nov. — W.K. 
Higley, ' Carnivorous Plants ' (contd.) ' Catalogue of Indiana Plants.' 

Butanischc Zeltung. — H. Hoffman, ' Cultural Experiments upon 



BOTANICAL, NEWS. 127 

Variation.' — E. Cario, ' Auatomical Eesearclies uj)ou Tristicha 
hypnuides' (concluded). — H. Wendland, 'On the l>nramnciF.' 

Botaniska Notiser. — F. W. C. Areschoug, ' On the Fruit of Borra- 
ginecB 3bnd Labia tee.'' — K. B. J. Forasell, ' Note upon Rubus maxiDnis,!^.' 

Bulletin de la Societe Botanique de Genere. — J. Muller, ' Genevan 
Chciracea.' — Id., ' New Classification of the Vegetable Kingdom.' — 
S. Calloni, ' Pistillody of Stamens in Persica vulgaris.' — Id., 'Mon- 
strosity of flower of Erythronium De7is canis.' — Id., ' On the corm 
of Ranunculus bulbosus.' 

Hediviyia. — E. Wolfing, ' Marine AlgtB of Heligoland' (concluded). 

Journal of Linnean Society (Botany, vol. xviii., no. 110). — J. O. 
Baker, ' On a Collection of Plants made by L. Kitching in Mada- 
gascar' (2 tab. : Kitchingia and Ulwducodon [see Journ. Bot., p. 32] ). 
— G. Bentham, 'Notes on Oi-cJddecc' — Id., ' Notes on Cyperaced;.' 

Mafiyar Xdvenytani Lapok. — J. Schaarschmidt, 'Specimen Phy- 
cologiiB ^quatoriensis.' — (Suppl.) A. Kanitz, ' Plantfe Eomanise 
hucusque cognit^e ' (contd.) 

Midland Naturalist. — J. E. BagnaU, 'The Flora of Warwick- 
shire.'— A. W. Wihs, 'The Desmide^e of N. Wales.' 'Plants 
Flowering at Falmouth, December, 1880, and January, 1881.' 

(Esterreichische Botanische Zeitschrift. — A. Kerner, ' Seseli 
Mahji,' n. sp. — M. Gandoger, ' Pugillus plantarum ' (contd. : forms 
of Putanior/eton crispus, Lijiiemn sparteuin, and Hordeuin nn(rinu)n.') — 
P, G. Strobl, ' Flora of Etna ' (contd.) 

Science Gossip. — ' Science-Gossip Botanical Exchange Club Ee- 
port for 1880.' 



Botanical Ncb)*>, 



Dominique Alexandre Godron was born 25th March, 1807, at 
Hayange, where his father was engaged in the iron works. 
Educated for the medical profession at Strassburg, on the outbreak 
of cholera in 1832 he was appointed assistant-surgeon in the 
department of the Moselle. He married in 1834, and thereupon 
settled at Nancy. He was compelled, on the plea of health, to 
relinquish his official duties in 1850, but in 1854 he willingly 
undertook the Professorship of Natural History in the newly 
founded Faculty of Sciences at Nancy, which he retained until 
1872. He died in that place on 16th August, 1880, and left his 
collections, including his types, to the Faculty above-mentioned. 
Amongst his numerous scientific pubdications may be mentioned — 
the 'Flore de Lorraine,' 3 vols., 18-13-4i:, with Supplements in 
1845, and second ed. in 2 vols, in 1857 ; ' De I'espece et des races 
dans les etres organises,' 2 vols., 1859, an important contribution 
to the species-question ; and the work in conjunction with Gi'enier, 
by which he is most widely known, the admirable ' Flore de France,' 
in three volumes, the publication of which extended from 1848 
to 1850. 



128 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

Irish Botany has suffered a serious loss in tlie death of Isaac 
Carroll, of Corli. He died on the 7th of September, 1880, at the 
comparatively early age of fifty-two, and at the time of his death 
he was engaged in the exploration of the extreme south-westei-n 
parts of the county of Cork, in aid of which he had received a 
grant from the Royal Irish Academy. One of the oldest and most 
valued friends of the late David Moore, of Glasnevin, he was one 
of the best and most trusted contributors to the ' Contributions 
towards a Cybele Hibernica' (1866), and had, in partnership with 
the Rev. T. Allin, prepared an excellent new Flora of Cork, of 
which the MS. is left in the hands of the authorities at the Queen's 
College, in which institution he had of late been employed 
arranging and naming the herbarium of British plants, a task 
which no one in his own county was more competent to carry 
out. A most accurate and careful observer, Isaac Carroll iden- 
tified, with scrupulous interest, all the plants of his own county. 
His MS. 'Flora' includes the Lichens and Mosses of the county, 
and will, we trust, be given to the public by the authorities 
of Queen's College. Isaac Carroll did not limit his attention to 
the flowering plants alone. He was an excellent lichenologist, 
and published many lichenological papers, several of them in the 
earlier volumes of this Journal. In 1861 he accompanied Mr. 
Joseph Shackleton, of Lucan, and Dr. David Moore, to Lapland, 
for the express purpose of studying the alpine flora and collecting 
lichens in this desolate region : he also visited Iceland. Many 
of his specimens were purchased by the authorities of the British 
Museum. Another portion, including mosses, Jungermannite, 
lichens, and sea-weeds, are preserved in the herbarium at Queen' 
College, Cork ; they form a fine collection, are well mounted, and are 
in excellent preservation. In the early summer of 1880 Mr. CarroU's 
health, already weak for some years past, completely gave way 
before he had accomplished much of his undertaking, and he 
retired to the little seaside village of Aghada, hoping to regain 
health and strength sufficient to enable him to resume his 
botanical labours. This he was not permitted to accomplish ; and 
Irish botanists have to regret the loss of one of the most exact, 
truthful, and diligent members of their little baud. We under- 
stand that Mr. A. G. More, to whom we are indebted for this 
notice, is preparing a fresh supplement for the ' Cybele Hibernica,' 
and in this the name of Mr. Isaac Carroll will be often quoted. 
Other younger botanists, though too few in Ireland, are abeady 
pushing forward their explorations throughout the less known 
district's. Mr. S. A. Stewart, of Belfast, Mr. Richard Barringtou, 
and Mr. H. C. Hart have done good work already, and we hope 
ere long to see materials collected upon which may be founded an 
improved edition of Moore and More's ' Cybele Hibernica.' 

We are glad to learn that Mr. J. E. Griffith, of Bangor, has in 
contemplation a complete Flora of Anglesea, in which the Cryp- 
togams will be included. We have noticed what may be considered 
his preliminary list at p. 28 of this Journal. 



Tat. 219. 




G.V/qtersloiii,Sons,Iiitli - Edia' 



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129 



C^viginal ^tttclcs. 



ON THE MOEPHOLOGY OF THE PITCHER OF 
CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS. 

By Alexander Dickson, M.D., Professor of Botany in 
the University of Edinburgh.* 

(Plates 219 & 220). 

In a paper on the Structure of the Pitcher of Cephalotus foUi- 
cularis, read at the Plymovith meeting of the British Association, 
and pubhshed in the ' Journal of Botany ' in January, 1878, I 
pointed out the remarkable difference as to the position of the lid 
of the pitcher between Cephalotus, on the one hand, and Sarracenia 
and Nepenthes, on the other. In Cephalotus the lid is jDlaced on that 
side of the orifice of the pitcher nearest to the main axis, while in 
Sarracenia and Nepenthes it is on the side farthest from the main 
axis. At that time I was inclined to assume that the pitcher-hd in 
Cephalotus represented the extremity of the leaf, and this led me to 
suggest — although under reserve — that, Avhile the pitcher in Sarra- 
cenia and Nepenthes appears as a pouching of the leaf from the 
upper surface, in Cephalotus, on the other hand, the pouching 
would, on the assumption indicated, be from the lower leaf-surface. 
Developmental evidence is at present scarcely attainable, requiring, 
as it would do, the sacrifice of many specimens of a plant not very 
easy of cultivation, and never very common ; and in absence 
of this we are glad to meet with any teratological deviations which 
may throw light upon the subject. 

Some time ago om- esteemed foreman at the Botanic Garden 
here, Mr. Eobert Lindsay, told me he had once seen what appeared 
to him to be a pitcher springing from an ordinary leaf, and I asked 
him to look at our plants from time to time in hope of abnor- 
malities presenting themselves. The result has been the detection 
of several very interesting and instriictive forms intermediate 
between the oi'dinary foliage-leaf and the pitcher ; and I have now 
vexy great satisfaction in being able to pronoimce a decided opinion 
on the general morphological relations of the Cephalntus--pitc\ieY, 
even although I have to admit the complete reversal of my previous 
conceptions of the subject. 

These abnormal leaves are four in number, of small size and 
feeble development. I shall now describe them in order of their 
extent of deviation from the form of the ordinary foliage-leaf 
towards that of a pitcher. 

* Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, March 10th, 1881. 
N. s. VOL. 10. [May, 1881.] S 



180 ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF 

Specimen A (Plate 219, fig. 2). — In general form this closely 
resembles the foliage-leaf, presenting a somewhat ovate blade 
naiTowed gradually below into the leaf-stalk. It exhibits, however, 
on the upper surface a somewhat elliptical spoon-like excavation 
involving the terminal two-thirds, or thereby, of the lamina. This 
excavation is deepest at the end next the petiole, where it is 
bounded by a pretty sharply defined border. On the lower siirface, 
towards the leaf-apex, there is distinct development of a keel-like 
ridge in the middle line. In this specimen we have the pitcher 
cavity foreshadowed by the spoon-like excavation, while the keel- 
like ridge represents the middle dorsal wing, which is a very 
prominent feature in the perfect pitcher. 

Specimen B (Plate 219, fig. 3). — Here the excavation has 
advanced to the formation of a narrow somewhat elongated funnel 
with oblique mouth, the far side of the orifice, from the main axis, 
extending out beyond the near ; the leaf-apex (in this case a little 
truncated) being at the far side of the orifice. The near side of the 
orifice, instead of exhibiting the simply rounded excision seen at 
the deeper end of the spoon-like excavation in the first mentioned 
specimen, is here developed in the middle line into a small but 
distinct tooth-like projection. This lobe is the first indication of 
the pitcher-lid. As in the former specimen, there is here, also, a 
keel-like ridge in the middle line on the lower leaf-surface. 

Specimen C (Plate 219, fig. 4). — In this we have a still greater 
approximation to the pitcher-form. As in the last, we have a 
funnel-like structure with oblique mouth, the far side of which 
retains, however, more of the original pointed form of the leaf- 
apex. The greater advance towards the ascidium consists in the 
greater development of the structure representing the pitcher-lid, 
which is of considerable size and deeply cut into three lobes, two 
longer and stronger lateral lobes, and a shorter, feebler median one. 
Here, again, we have along the middle dorsal line a keel-like 
projection. 

Specimen D (Plate 219, figs. 5 and 6). — In this, a misthriven 
leaf of very small size, we have a still greater approximation to the 
normal ascidium. The lid is relatively larger, and exhibits two 
lobes separated by a considerable notch, in this respect according 
more with the structure of the normal lid, where we have the 
extremity emarginate, corresponding to the dichotomous disposition 
of the principal veins. Further, in addition to the middle dorsal 
keel or wing, which is more pronounced in this than in the other 
specimens, we have, on one side, a slight indication (Plate 219, 
figs. 5 and 6, / »•) of one of the oblique lateral wings of the normal 
pitcher. The far side of the orifice of the funnel has still the 
j)ointed form of the apex of the foliage-leaf. 

In all these specimens it is to be noted that the tip of the 
middle dorsal keel or wing and the apex of the leaf are coincident. 
Inasmuch, however, as none of them show the slightest trace 
of the remarkable development of the corrugated rim, with its 
inflexed teeth, it may still be open to question what represents the 
leaf-margin in the perfect pitcher. If the lower (outerj border of 



THE PITCHER OF CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS. 131 

the corrugated rim represents the leaf -margin, then the tip of the 
middle dorsal wing would represent the leaf-apex. If, on the other 
hand, the leaf-margin is represented by the line of the inflexed 
teeth, then the middle dorsal tooth (Plate 219, fig. 6, mdt), in line 
with the middle dorsal wing and conspicuous by its larger size, 
would represent the leaf-apex.''' Of tlie two possibilities I am 
disposed to look upon the first as the more probable ; partly from 
the coincidence of the tip of the middle dorsal keel or wing with 
the leaf-apex in the abnormal specimens mentioned above, and 
partly from the vascular distribution in the normal pitcher. In the 
latter, the vessels from the extremity of the petiole divide into two 
sets, an upper going to supply the lid, and a lower which diverge 
radiatingly and are distributed to the pitcher-wall. Of the last 
mentioned set there are three somewhat more marked than the 
others, viz., a lateral vein on either side curving downwards and 
outwards past the lower extremity of the lateral wing, and passing 
obliquely across the lateral glandular patch to curve upwards 
towards the pitcher orifice, and a middle vein which runs in the 
ventral wall of the pitcher to the bottom, whence it passes onto the 
dorsal surface, where, however, it leaves the pitcher- wall, and, 
passing into the middle dorsal wing, continues its course just 
withua the curiously expanded edge of that structure. In my 
opinion this coiu'se of the middle vein seems to prove that the 
middle dorsal wing is a development of the midrib, and that its 
apex really represents the leaf-apex. 

In the three specimens exhibiting the funnel-shaped excavation, 
it is to be observed that the sharp margin of the far side of the 
orifice of the funnel — representing, as it undoubtedly does, the 
margin of the leaf — is continuous with an angular ridge, or lateral 
line, as we may call it, on either side of the funnel (Plate 219, figs. 
3. 4, and 5, II). These " lateral lines " can scarcely be anything else 
than the downward continuations of the leaf-margin ; and if they are 
so, it follows that all above the "lateral lines" is upper, all below 
them lower leaf-surface. In this way I am led to view the pitcher-lid 
as wholly developed fi-om the upper leaf- surface, with which both its 
aspects are continuous. This conclusion might, indeed, have been 
anticipated from inspection of Specimen A, where the portion 
of the margin of the spoon-like excavation next the petiole belongs 
manifestly to the upper leaf-surface. In the j)erfect pitcher the 
" lateral lines " are distinctly recognisable as ridges, one on either 
side, running from the junction of the corrugated rhn with the 
base of the lid down towards the extremity of the petiole, where 
they disappear. 

To convert, in idea, one of the funnel-like structures above 
described into the normal Cephalutus-intcher, we must imagine that 
side of the funnel nearest to the main axis as remaining com- 
paratively stationary, while the far side of the funnel becomes 
calceolately x^ouched to an enormous extent, forming, in fact, 

• Somewhat similurly, tbe teeth in lino willi tlie lateral wings of the pitcher 
are also of consijicuoub size. 



182 ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF 

almost the entire pitcher. The pitcher-leaf of Cephalotiis, with its 
calceolate pouching, whereby the apex of the lamina is curved round 
so as to become approximated to its base, may not inaptly be com- 
pared to the well-known "hammer-headed" ujiper petals oi Aconitum, 
where we have also petiolated leaf-organs with similar pouching of 
the lamina and approximation of apex to base. The interest of 
this comparison is further heightened by the circumstance that in 
both cases the internal surface is developed (although for very 
different purposes) as a secreting apparatus. In illustration of 
the parallel, I give an outline figure of the pitcher-leaf of 
Ccphalotus (Plate 219, fig. 6), placed in such a position — with 
petiole nearly vertical — as will enable any one at a glance to com- 
pare it with the nectariferous petal of Aconitum (Plate 219, fig. 7), a 
figiu-e of which I have borrowed from Prof. Asa Gray's ' Text Book.' 

The conclusions to which I have been led may thus briefly be 
stated : — 

1st. That the pitcher results from a calceolate pouching of the 
leaf- blade from the upper surface. 

2nd. That the apex of the leaf is on the far side of the pitcher- 
orifice from the main axis and from the lid, and is probably repre- 
sented by the tip of the middle dorsal wing. 

3rd. That the pitcher-lid represents an outgrowth or excrescence 
from the upper leaf-surface. 

In this place I must mention that Dr. Masters, in his ' Tera- 
tology ' (p. 314), says that " in CephalotusfuUicidaris rudimentary 
or imperfect pitchers may be frequently met with in which the 
stalk of the leaf is tubular, and bears at its extremity a very small 
rudimentary leaf-blade." Unless there is some error of description, 
the cases here referred to must have been exceeding!}^ unlike mine ; 
but whatever they may have been, it is quite certain that they had 
not been sufficient to enable Dr. Masters to come to any very 
definite opinion on pitcher-morphology. This may be gathered 
from his immediately following conclusions as to ascidia in general, 
which run thus: — " It is not in all cases easy to trace the origin 
and true nature of the ascidium, as the venation is sometimes 
obscure. If there be a single well-marked midrib the probability is 
that the case is one of cohesion of the margins of the leaf ; but if 
the veins are all of about equal size, and radiate from a common 
stalk, the pouch-like formation is probably due to dilatation and 
hollowing of the petiole." Again, when the result of a union of the 
margins of the leaf, the pitcher is generally less regular than when 
formed from the hollow end of a leaf- stalk. Fm-ther information 
is especially needed as to the mode of development and formation 
of these tubular organs so as to ascertain clearly when they are the 
result of a true cupping process, and when of cohesion of the 
margins of one or more leaves." 

In conclusion, I may refer to the princij)al points for comparison, 

• To this category Dr. blasters would, no doubt, relegate the ease of Cepha- 
lotiis. It seems just possible that in the monstrosities of Cephalotiis referred to 
by him the rudiment of the jjitclier-lid has been mistaken for a '• rudimentary 
leaf- blade." 



THE PITCHER OF CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS. 133 

or contrast, between the pitcher of Cephalotus, on the one hand, 
and those of Sarracenia and Xepenthes, on the other, in both 
of which latter the development has been examined — in Sarracenia 
by Professor Baillon,* and in Nepenthes by Sir Joseph D. Hooker,! 

As regards Sarracenia, Baillon's observations and conclusions 
are briefly as follows : — In S. purpurea the leaf appears at first as a 
small convex mammilla. A little later the base of the organ 
becomes somewhat dilated and a little concave towards the inner 
surface. This dilatation is the sheathing base of the petiole, and 
at a later period becomes considerably developed. It has nothing 
to do with the formation of the pitcher. This last appears some- 
what later as a small depression or fossa a little to the inner side 
of the extremity of the cone which represents the young leaf. 
This fossa — the result of inequality of development in the different 
portions of the extremity of a leaf whose petiolar and vaginal 
portions already exist — he holds to be formed on the upper surface 
of the lamina. The fully-developed pitcher he views as corre- 
sponding morphologically to a peltate leaf like that of Nehunhium. The 
large but shaUow inverted cone which forms the leaf-blade in Nehun- 
hium becomes in Sarracenia deeper and narrower, so as ultimately to 
present the form of a long obconical horn. The pitcher-lid he 
considers as merely the terminal lobe of the peltate limb. 

If Baillon is right — as probably he is — in viewing the pitcher 
of Sarracenia as a modification of a peltate leaf, it would, in this 
respect, seem to difler considerably from that of Cephalotus, In 
Sarracenia the whole outer surface of the pitcher, on the near as 
well as on the far side from the main axis, would represent lower 
leaf- surface ; whereas in Cephalotus the upper surface of the pitcher- 
lid and the portion of the outer surface of the pitcher-wall inter- 
vening between it and the extremity of the petiole, and bounded 
laterally by the " lateral hues" above referred to, belong to ^lp}}er 
leaf-surface. 

As regards Nepenthes, Hooker's observations conclusively show 
that the pitcher-cavity is the result of a pouching from the upper 
leaf-surface, and that the leaf- apex is represented by the " styliform 
process " which projects from behind the junction of the lid and 
pitcher. The lid here must be viewed as an outgrowth or 
excrescence from the upper leaf-surface, just as in Cephalotus : 
with this diflerence, however, that while in Cepludotus the lid 
springs from the side of the pitcher orifice nearest to the main axis, 
the lid in Nejwnthes springs from the aiHe farthest from it. 

The pitcher-leaf of Nepenthes presents, as is well known, very con- 
siderable difficulties to the morphologist who wishes to reduce its 
parts to the terms of "petiole " and " lamina." Tiie flatly expanded 
portion, sometimes sessile and sometimes supported by what closely 
resembles a petiole, is considered by Hooker as the lamina, whose 

* Sur le developpement des feuilles des Sarracenia. ' Comptes Rendus ' (Ixxi., 

p. oao.) 

+ On tlie Origin and Development of the Pitchers ol' Nepenthes, with an 
Account of some new Bornean Plants of that Genns. (Trans. Linn. Soc, 
vol. xxii., p. 415.) 



134 THE PITCHER OF CEPHALOTUS FOLLICULARIS. 

midrib is produced cas a tendril-like structure somewhat after the 
I'ashiou of the cirrhose prolongation of the leaf-apex in (rlijriosa. 
The pitcher he views as a glandular excavation on the internal 
aspect of this " excurrent midrib " somewhat below its extremity. 

With regard to this determination a few remarks may not be 
out of place. 

If Hooker's representation of the early development of the leaf 
of X('j)enthes be examined, and especially his figure of the first 
appearance of the pitcher-excavation (loc. cit., Tab. Ixxiv., fig. 1 h), 
one cannot but be struck with its exact correspondence with 
Baillon's description of the development of the Sarriicenia leaf, 
where the excavation representing the future pitcher appears 
as a small fossa a little to the inner side of the cone which 
represents the young leaf, the base of which is already some- 
what dilated and a little concave towards the inner surface. If the 
pitcher of Sarraci'ida represents a leaf-blade, it seems scarcely 
possible to resist the conclusion that the same must hold good for 
Nepenthes. 

An apparent difliculty, however, arises as to the signification of 
the flat expansion below the ch'rhose support of the pitcher. 

At first I was disposed to look upon all the parts below the 
pitcher — including the flat expansion — as representing the petiole ; 
but an examination of the remarkable leaf-forms occurring in 
certain Crotons now inclines me to adopt a view virtually identical 
with that of Hooker, although perhaps not exactly in the shape 
contemplated by him. 

In the plants called Croton interriiptus and C. picturatus — pro- 
bably both of them monstrous forms of C'. amjustifoJius — we have, 
m many of the leaves, the phenomenon of an interruption, or 
more or less sudden narrowing in the course of the lamina, which 
for some distance becomes reduced to the slender filamentary mid- 
rib. It happens, moreover, that in the greater number of the 
interrupted leaves the distal portion of the lamina — borne upon 
the " excurrent midrib " — is developed, peltate-fashion, into an 
oblique funnel of varying depth. '•= (Plate 220, figs. 1 and 2). 

The closeness of the parallel which may be di-awn between this 
structure and the ascidium-leaf of Xepenthes will be at once ax^parent ; 
and, although analogical reasoning of this kind must be employed 
with caution, it seems highly probable that in Xepenthes we have to 
deal with a leaf the lamina of which is interrupted in the middle of 
its course by becoming reduced to its midrib, and that, while the 
proximal portion of the lamina retains its typical form of a flat 
expansion, the distal portion becomes peltately expanded into 
a funnel or pitcher. 

In the Croton leaves just referred to, it is to be noted that the 
proximal expansion, while sometimes simply narrowed into the 
attenuated portion, as in Plate 220, fig. 1, is more frequently 
developed towards its extremity in a peltate manner, so that the 
midrib appears as excurrent from the lower leaf-surface, as in 
Plate 220, fig. 2. This latter case is of special interest inasmuch 

* Esx^ecially in C. picturatus. 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 135 

as a similar peltation towards the extremity of the proximal expan- 
sion occurs in many of the leaves of Nepenthes phylUunplwra , and 
forms one of the specific characters of Hooker's magnificent 
N. Rajah. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate 219.— a = Leaf-apex. I = Pitcher-lid. 11=^" Lateral line." vidw = 
Middle dorsal wing. Zzo = Lateral wing. 7nd!i = Middle dorsal tooth of corru- 
gated rim. 

Fig. 1. Normal. Foliage-leaf of Ceplialotus. 

Fig. 2. Specimen A. Leaf with spoon-like excavation on upper leaf-surface. 

Fig. 3. Specimen B. Leaf funnel-shaped, with small tooth-like rudiment of 
pitcher-lid on the near side of the orifice of the funnel. 

Fig. 4. Specimen C. Leaf funnel-shaped. Paidiment of pitcher-lid 3-lobed. 

Fig. 5. Specimen D. Leaf funnel-shaped, Eudiment of pitcher-lid 2-lobed. 
Nearly side view. 

Fig. 5 (a). Nearlj' dorsal view of same specimen. Middle dorsal wing seen 
with its tip coincident with the leaf-apex. 

Fig. 6. Normal Ascidium-leaf, placed, with petiole nearly vertical, for com- 
parison with the funnel-shciped abnormalities and with the accompanying figure 
of the petal of Aconitum. If the Ascidium-leaf be compared with the funnel- 
shaped specimens, and the position of the "lateral lines" [I I) be noted, it will be 
evident that the pitcher virtually consists of a calceolate expansion of the far side 
of the funnel from the main axis. 

Fig. 7. Nectariferous petal of Aconitum (after Asa Gray), showing petiolar 
portion (claw) and calceolately pouched lamina. 

Plate 220. — Fig. 1, Interrupted le&i oi Croton picturatus. Distal portion of 
lamina peltate, foi-miug an oblique funnel. Proximal expansion simply narrowed 
into the attenuated portion. 

I'ig. 2. Another of the same. Here, however, the upper part of the proximal 
expansion is peltate, so that the filamentary midrib appears as " excurrent" from 
the lower leaf-surface. 

In Plate 219 the figures are all more or less magnified. In 
Plate 220 they are of natural size. 



A EE VI SIGN OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 
By C, B. Clarke, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Continued from p. 100.) 

Series B. Viridiflorse. — Petals greenish white. 

Sect. 4. Pycnoneur^. — Stout shrubs, with several stems. 
Leaves once or twice pinnate. Leaflets with numerous, close, 
parallel, primary neiwes, conspicuous on the upper surface of the 
leaflet ; secondary nerves close, parallel, pubescent beneath. Ser- 
ratures of margin 1-2 onl}- for each primary nerve. — In this section 
are collected three species, easily separated from all the rest, but 
very difticult to distinguish in the herljariuni. 

11. L. cRisPA, Linn. Mant. 121.— Leaves all simply pinnate ; 
petioles and rhachises often winged; leaflets broadly oblong, very 
parallel-sided, acute or shortly acuminate ; ripe berries steel-gray. 
— Roxb. Fl. Ind. (ed. Wall.), ii. 1G7; Wah. List, G827 ; DC. ProdJ.-. 



136 A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

i. G35 ; Laws, in Fl. Brit. Incl. i. 655 partJu ; Kurz in Journ. 
As. See. 44, ii. 179 ; For. Fl. i. 280. — L. innnata, Andr. Bot. Rep. 
V. t. 355. 

Bengal, Assam, Cliittagong, Pegu ; common in the plains. 
Less frequent in the hills up to 2500 feet alt. in subtropical 
valleys. 

A stiff shrub, "4-8 feet. There are no bipinnate leaves in the 
herbarium, nor have I any recollection of such. Leaflets 4-7 in., 
rarely at all caudate, obtuse at the base, subsessile, or some of them 
with petiolules \ in. long ; primary nerves 12-15, or even 24 on 
each side the midi-ib, often carried each to the very point of the 
marked serratures. Cori/mhs nearly sessile, stout, branches often 
somewhat winged ; nearly glabrous or shghtly pubescent ; bracts 
subpersistent, J-^ in., linear ; bracteoles ^ in., lanceolate. Petals 
green, staminal tube Avhite ; lobes shortly bifid, emarginate or 
mucronate. Bcrnj often \ in. diam., passing from green to a 
mealy black-blue without going through any yellow stage. — Linnteus 
says his h. crispa was founded on a South African plant which came 
to him from Herb. Eoyen. The example now in Linnfeus's own 
herbarium, which came from Herb. Eoyen, and is named L. crispa 
by Linufeus's hand, is exactly the Bengal plant ; but no Leea is 
known from South Africa, and no Leea at all near L. crispa from 
Tropical Africa. 

12. L. ASPERA, Edgw. in Trans. Linn. Soc. xx. 36. — Upper 
leaves simply pinnate, or sometimes somewhat bipinnate, petioles 
and rhachises round or scarcely winged, leaflets cordate elliptic 
acummate — Brand. For. Fl. 102 ; Laws, in Fl. Brit. Lid. i. 665, 
not of Wall., nor of Kurz. L. staphylea, Wall. List. 6824, G and 
pai-t E, not of Eoxb. 

North-west Himalaya, alt. 2000-5000 feet, from Kumaon (Edge- 
ivorth ) to Kashmir {Jewquemont) h'equent ; and up to 7000 feet near 
Dalhousie, C. B. Clarke, Chota Nagpore, alt. 2000 feet, frequent; 
Parasnath, Eanchee, &c., L\ B. Clarke. Bombay, Capt. Geturne ; 
Concau, Law. Anamallays, Wight, nn. 525, 526. — One of the 
thoroughly Deccan Plateau forms, extending (as do so many of 
these) to the Western Himalayan, but not to the Eastern. 

A stout, spreading shrub, 6-12 feet high. Uppermost leaves 
usually simply pinnate, or with the lower pinnae trifoliolate ; lower 
leaves bipinnate. Leaflets not parallel- sided ; primary nerves 
carried very nearly (rarely quite) to the edge, then curved sub- 
bifurcated, so that the crenations of the margin are often nearly 
twice as many as the primary nerves, and less acute than those of 
L. crispa : upper surface asperous in Edgewoi-th's type specimen, 
but the bristles are more often obsolete. Cori/mb bracts, flower and 
fruit nearly as of L. crispa, but the branches are not winged nor so 
stout. Berries black finally ; I have no note whether they are 
yellow when first ripe. — In some of my examples the bracts are 
nearly an inch long, the bracteoles ^ m. lanceolate-linear some- 
what persistent ; but they are hardly worth constituting a variety 
of. — This species must be called L. aspera, Edgw., not of Wall.; 
for Wallich'ri note (in Eoxb. Fl. Lid. ed. Wall. ii. 468) probably 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA, 137 

means by L. aspera the same plant which he has under that name 
in his herbarium, which is L. robmta, Eosb. (see below). 

13. L. HERBACEA, Ham. in Wall. List. 6829. — Leaves or many 
of them bipinuate, leaflets caudate acuminate the base rhomboid 
or rounded, petioles and rachises rounded or scarcely winged, 
ripe berries yellow, finally black. — L. aspera, Kurz, in .Journ. As. 
Soc. 44, ii. 178, 170, For.ri. i. 280, not of Wall. L. crispa, Laws., 
in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 655, in great part. 

Himalaya east from Nepal, Khasia, and Birma, alt. 1000-5000 
feet, in the lower hills everywhere ; the most abundant species of 
Lidian Leea, but not spreading over the plains at any distance 
from the hills. 

A shrub, of many stems 12-16 feet high, bowing in all 
directions when fully developed ; Kurz says sometimes a treelet 
10-15 feet, in which state I have not seen it. Except in the less 
cordate base of the leaflets and the more compound leaves this 
species does not much differ from L. aspera, Edgw., and Kurz was 
very likely right in uniting it therewith (Kurz, not having Wallich's 
Herbarium to consult, supposed L. aspera. Wall., to be the same as 
L. aspera, Edgw.) The leaflets are particularly free from bristles 
on the smface, and this was perhaps the reason why Prof. Lawson 
placed it with L. crispa, from which I believe it well distinct. It 
is frequently burnt down in the jungle-fires of the lower hills, and 
the shoots from the old roots (unlike the young shoots of the truly 
arboreous species) frequently flower ; it is one of these shoots which 
Buchanan-Hamilton named L. herhacea. 

Sect. 5. PAUCiFOLioLosiE, Leaves simple, or 1-pinnate with few 
large leaflets. Herbs or undershrubs. Primary nerves not close 
as in the Sect. Pycnoneura-, much fewer than the serrations of the 
margin. 

14. L. MACROPHYLLA, Homcm. Hort. Hafn. i. 281, not of DC. ; 
leaves large cordate ovate simple mealy white beneath from minute 
clustered pubescence, lobes of the staminal tube entire or slightly 
emarginate. Eoxb. Hort. Beng. 18, Ic. ined. in Herb. Kew. 
Fl. Ind. ed. WaU. ii. 466; Wall. List. 6818; Wight, Ic. t. 1154; 
Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. Fl. 41 ; Laws, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 654:, partly ; 
Brand. For. Fl. 102 ; Kurz For. Fl. i. 278, in Journ. As. Soc. 44, 
ii. 178.— L. siwpIicifuUa, Griff. Notul. iv. 697, Ic. PL Asiat. t. 645, 
fig. 1, not of Zoll. 

Scattered nearly throughout India, alt. 0-2000 feet ; but not 
abundant anywhere. Terai of the North-west Himalaya, Falconer, 
liotjle ; Sikkim Terai, C. B. Clarke; Assam, Jenkins; Bengal, near 
Furidpore, C B. Clarke; Monghyr, Lockivuod : Chota Nagpore, ('. 
B. Clarke. Ncclgherries, Win/it. Mergui, Grij/ith. Frequent in 
the mixed forests of Pegu and Martaban, fide Kur::. 

Herbaceous, 1-3 feet higli. Lowest leaf sometimes 2 feet diam., 
upper leaves 6-9 in. ; loaves acute, margin toothed often irregularly; 
primary nerves 8-10 on each side the midrib (in the upper loaves), 
often some of them 1 in. apart; mealy pubescence of the surface 

T 



138 A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

nearly disappearing with age (as see Wight and Dalzell) ; petioles 
often 2-5 in., stij)ules very large, subpersistent. Cunjinhs sessile, 
mealy pubescent, large or small, liemj \-^ in. diam., black, 
4-G-ccllod. — From a note in Herb. Wight, L. viacroplnjUa, DC, 
was L. siDiihucina, Willd. 

15. L. LATiFOLiA, Wall. List. 6821 ; leaves pinnate with 5-3-1 
lealilets, leaflets cordate elliptic acute mealy white beneath from 
minute clustered pubosconce, lobes of the staminal tube notched. 
Kurz For. Fl. i. 278, in Journ. As. Soc. 4'i, ii. 178. — L. mcuro- 
phijlla, Laws., in Fl. Brit. lud. i. GG4, partly, not of Hornem. L. 
cinerea and coriacca, Laws., in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 665. 

Prome, Wallich. Concan, Stocks; Malabar, Palghat, Wit/ht. 

Leaflets usually 3-5, the upper sessile, the lower shortly 
stalked ; simple leaves would appear rare, but all the material at 
London and Calcutta does not amount to much. This plant has 
every appearance of being the full form of L. macrophijUa, and I 
suspect Prof. Lawson was right when he united it therewith. Kurz 
has attempted to separate L. latifolia by the deeper notching of the 
lobes of its staminal tube, but I can make nothing definite out of 
that character. The distribution of the two species at once suggests 
that one is merely a form of the other. L. coriacea, Laws., is 
merely the fruiting state of L. cinerea, Laws. ; the difference in the 
mealy indumentum of the two (each founded on a single fragment) 
being exactly that seen in the pubescence of flowering and fruiting 
examples of L. macrojihi/lla ; noi* is there any difference in the 
toothing of the margin of the two. Prof. Lawson called the 
3-foliolate examples of L. latifolia (in Herb. Wallich) L. macro- 
phijlla, Pioxb., and he placed the species of L. latifolia with L. 
macroplujlla rather than with his L. cinerea and coriacea at the same 
time that he diagnosed L. macrophylla as having simple leaves. 
But the whole set is perhaps but one species. 

16. L. GRANDiFOLiA, Kurz in Journ. Bot. 1875, 325; glabrous, 
leaflets 3-5 petiolulate coriaceous ovate-oblong acute very large, 
corymbs stout short-peduncled. 

Nicobars, Katchall, Knrz. Distrib. " Tace and Trick," fide 
luirz in Journ. As. Soc. 45. ii. 124. 

A treelet, 8-20 feet high. Leaflets 11 by 4|- in. ; primary 
nerves 12 on each side the midrib f in. apart, crenations very 
shallow or irregular, often 2 or more for each primary nerve ; 
petiolulos f in. Peduncle 1 in. stout; corymb 4 in. diam. ; bracts 
and bracteoles early deciduous ; flowers rather larger than in the 
preceding species. Berry (ex Kurz) size of a large pea, lead- 
coloured, 6-3-celled. — Description copied mainly from Kurz, who 
has communicated an example to Kew which shows it to be a fine 
new species. 

Sect. 6. Sambucin.e. Leaves 2-3-pinnate, glabrous or very 
nearly so ; primary nerves not very close and parallel as in Sect. 
Pycnoneune. Trees and shrubs. 

17. L. coMPACTiFLORA, Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 42, ii. 65 ; 44, 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 139 

ii. 179 ; For. Fl. i. 279. — Treelet, all parts glabrous or the cyme 
rusty tomentose glabrescent, leaves bipinuate, flowers small 
greenish white sessile between broad short scaly bracts. 

Martaban Hills, in the moister forests east of Tounghoo, alt. 
3000-4000 feet, Knrz. 

Height, 12-15 feet. Petioles long, terete; leaflets 4-6 in., 
linear to oblong-lanceolate long-acuminate, blunt at the base, 
serrate, chartaceous ; petiolules ^ — ^ in. sharply 4-angled. Cymes 
corymbose, shorter than the petiole, floAvers in small clusters. 

The foregoing is copied from Kurz. There is no authenticated 
example of this species in London, but from the strongly-marked 
characters I identify with it a fruiting example of Griffith's, from 
which the following additional particulars are taken : — 

Petiole 5|- in. ; stipules 2f in., siibpersisteut. Leaflets 
glabrous; primary nerves sixteen on each side the midrib, not more 
than -^ in. apart, parallel, carried not quite to the margin, serra- 
tures somewhat sharp, 2-5 for each primary nerve ; secondary 
nerves close, parallel, conspicuous. Peduncle ^ in. Cdr)jwl) (in 
fruit) 4-5 in. diam., bracteoles ovate, acute, ^-^ by ^ in., per- 
sistent (some of them) among the ripe fruits ; pedicels nearly 
glabrous. Berries \ in. diam., pyrenes 6-4. — The leaflets and 
their venation are at first sight much like those of L. herhacca, 
Ham. ; but their serration, their glabrousness, and the bracts to 
the corymb are quite different. The plant is perhaps really allied 
to L. bracteata, but it is glabrous, and the venation is totally 
different. 

Naga Hills, Griffith (Herb. Propr. n. 1297. From the date on 
Griffith's original ticket it appears that this plant was collected in 
the true Mishmee country. 

18. L. PARALLELA, Wall. List. 6828. — Shrubby, leaves 2-pinnate 
or the uppermost 1-pinnate, leaflets elongate-oblong acuminate, 
j)rimary nerves very oblique, peduncles or primary corymb-rays 
very long. Laws, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. GGG; Kurz in Journ. As. 
Soc. 44, ii. 178 ; For. Fl. i. 278. — L. amjustifulia, Laws, in Fl. 
Brit. Ind. i. 666. 

Burma, WallicJi ; Hsnigoon, M'Lelland; Asssun, ]\[asters. Bengal 
(? Assam), Jenkins. 

Leaflets 9 by If in., rhomboid at base, chartaceous, glaucous 
above; primary nerves 12 on each side the midrib, ^ in. apart, 
sloping and curving much towards the apex of the leaf; secondary 
nerves close, parallel, distinct; margin shallowly toothed; petio- 
lules very short. Panicle lax, 8 in. diam. ; glabrous, the pedicels 
minutely puberulo-pubescent. Flowers and berries nearly as in L. 
Sionbucina. 

19. L. sAMBuciNA, Willd. 8p. PI. i. 1177. — Shrubby, leaves bi- 
or tri-pinnate, leaflets elliptic acuminate crenatc glabrous not 
setulose on the nerves beneath, corymbs subsessile rigid, somewhat 
dense glabrous or only most minutely ]iubescent upwards, buds 
longish, petals green, staminal tube yellow-white, the lobes dis- 
tinctly notched, berry black. Eoxb. Hort. Beng. 18, Fl. Ind. cd. 



140 A REVISION OF THK INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

Wall. ii. 470; DC. Prodr. i. G33 ; Wall. List. 6823, a, C, part B ; 
Blume, Bijd. 196; Griff. Notul. iv. 698, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 644, 
fig. 1, t. 645, fig. 6, 8; Decne in Ann. Mus. d' Hist. Nat. iii. 445 ; 
Miq. Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. ii. 611, in Ann. Mus. Lngd. Bat. i. 98, 
only in part, and perhaps not at all; LaAvs. in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 666, 
partly; Brand. For. Fl. 102 ; Knrz. in Journ. As. Soc. 44, ii. 179, 
For. Fl. i. 279 ; not of Benth., nor of Baker. — L. Staphylea, Koxb. 
Hort. Beng. 18, Fl. Ind. ed. Wall. ii. 471 ; Wall. List. 6824, F, I; 
AV. & A. Prodr. 132; Wight, Ic. t. 78; Dalz. & Gibs. Bomb. 
Fl. 41 ; ThAvaites Enum. PI. Zeyl. 64.— L. Ottilis, DC. Prodr. i. 
636. — Leea viridiflura, Planch. Hort. Donat. 6. — Aqnilicia Scnn- 
bucina, Linn. Mant. 211 ; Cav. Dissert, vii. t. 218, optime. — 
Staphiilea indica, Burni. Fl. Ind. 75, t. 24, fig. 2. Aqnilicia Ottilis, 
Gaertn. Fruct. i. 275. — Ottilis Zej/lanica, Gaertn. Fruct. t. 57. — 
Gastonia Xalwja, Lamk. Diet. ii. 611. — Gilihcrtia Xaluija, DC. 
Prodr. iv. 256. — Eumph. Herb. Amb. iv. t. 45. Eheede Hort. 
Mai. ii. t. 26. 

India ; from Gurwhal and Assam to Ceylon and Singapore ; 
abundant in the plains of Bengal, and ascending the hills to 4000 
feet. But the Ceylon and Malabar examples belong nearly all of 
them to the variety called occidentalis below. — Distrib. Malaya 
(scarce). No example at Kew from Australia, Africa, or its islands. 

A stiff, branching shrub, 4-10 feet high. Kurz says that in 
Burma it is sometimes a treelet 15-20 feet high ; I have never 
seen it with anything like a trunk. Leajiets 4 by 2^ in., ]-homboid 
or rounded at the base; primary nerves 12 on each side the midrib 
I in. apart, curving much near the margin of the leaf, crenatures 
(rarely acute or subscrrate) 1-3 to each primary nerve ; secondary 
nerves less distinct than in most species; petiolules ^-^ in.; 
stipules caducous. Corymbs 8-6 in. diam. ; bracts and bracteoles 
inconspicuous, early deciduous. Berrij i-^ in. diam. ; pyrenes 
4-6.^Some of the Malay Peninsula examples have very large 
leaflets, or very stout corymbs. The species appears to become 
rare towards Malacca, and to be very scarce in Malaya. Miquel 
attributes to his L. sawbucina red berries ; it could, therefore, not 
have been the Bengal sambucina. The Malay '' sambucina'" is nearly 
all of it red-petalled, is the same as the Australian sainbucina of 
Bentham, and belongs to Series liubrifivnr. The Madagascar sa)n- 
bucina and the tropical Afiican sainbucina also have red petals. 

Var. occidentalis. — Corymb-branches stout, buds much shorter 
and broader than those of the Bengal sambucina. — This appears to 
be the common Malabar form, from the Coiican to Ceylon ; here 
belong Wall. List. 6824, A, B, D, H. It would appear from the 
jjlants of Roxburgh found in Wallich's Herbarium that Roxburgh 
considered the Bengal and Malayan plant to be L. sambucina, the 
Malabar plant L. Staphylea ; but his two Ic. Ined. preserved at 
Kew do not agree well with this theory, I do not know this var. 
ocidentalis alive ; it is a form not found eastwards; I cannot, there- 
fore, hazard any opinion regarding its sj)ecific separability. 

20. L. GiGANTEA, Griff. Notul. iv. 697, Ic. PI. Asiat. t. 645, 
fig. 3, not of Kurz. — Shrubby, with a single trunk, glabrous, leaves 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 141 

2-3-pinnate, leaflets large, corymbs in fruit half a yard in cliam. 
lax, petals green rubescent towards the base, lobes of the staminal 
tube conic-subulate, berry black, seeds grooved without tubercles. 
L. samhucina, Wall. List. 6823, B. (chiefly).— L. Staplujha, Wall. 
List. 6824, K. 

Malay Peninsula, from Moulmeiu southwards, and in Penang ; 
Wall it'll, Grilfith. 

Wallich has noted " large tree " on his specimens. This species 
resembles much the large forms of L. samhucina, but the lobes of 
the staminal tube are acute entire. The seeds, which I have 
examined in all the available examples of Griffith and Wallich, are 
exactly as those of L. samhucina. The leaflets are sometimes as 
much as 11 by 3|^ in. 

21. L. TUBERcuLosEJiEN, C. B. Clarke. — As L. r/it/antea, but the 
" seeds tubercled-kceled, the edges tubercled-ribbed." L. f/it/avtea, 
Km-z m Journ. As. Soc. 42, ii. 65 ; 44, ii. 178—179 ; For." Fl. i. 
280, not of Grifl". 

From Moulmein to Tavoy, apparently frequent, Kurz. 

I have given this most obscure species a horrible name, as no 
other Leea has troubled me so much. The seeds of all my Leeas, 
which I had supposed L. ciigantea, have a r-shaped groove down 
the back, instead of a tubercled keel ; and therefore both Kurz and 
Dr. King have always told me that I was mistaken about L. 
gic/antea, Grifi". I now find that, in all Griffith's material and in all 
his pictures, there is but one form of seed which is tubercled 
neither on the keel nor on the sides. I have sometimes imagined 
that by a slip it was meant that the pyrenes were tubercled on the 
keel and sides. Such an imagination can hardly be hazarded with 
regard to two such botanists as Kurz and King ; and, moreover, 
the pyrenes in Griffith's gigantea are not tubercled on the keel and 
sides ; they are somewhat rugged, just as in other species. The 
present species must be left for future extrication. 

22. L. UMBRACULiFEEA, C. B. Clarke. — Tree, glabrous, leaves 
2-3-pinnate, leaflets (not large) narrow lanceolate acuminate 
caudate, corymb very large lax 2-3 feet wide in fruit, petals green, 
staminal tube white lobes bifid, otherwise as L. samhucina. — L. 
acuminata. Herb. Kew, not of Wall. 

Sikkim, Bhotan, Khasia, alt. 1000-2000 feet, frequent; J. D. 
Hooker, Wallich, Booth, Masters, Jenkins, C. B. Clarke. 

A tree, with a trunk as thick as a man's body, often 20 feet to 
the first branch, and attaining sometimes 60 feet in total height. 
Leaflets very narrow and caudate, so far resembling L. acuminata, 
Wall. The duplicate example of L. acuminata communicated from 
Herb. Wallich to Kew is without flowers or fruits, but I feel pretty 
sure it is L. uuthraculifera ; and by matching with it, all the Kew 
L. ximhraculifera has got named L. acuminata. Wall. This is that 
L. acuminata. Wall., which Lawson has sunk in />. samhucina, and 
I am not siu-e that he is wrong in so doing. There arc many 
trees which are shrubby in the plains of Bengal, but which appear 
as large trees, with considerable leaf-difterences, in the hills. /,. 



142 GENERIS ASARl SPECIEM NOVAM. 

inuhraculifcra docs not differ from L. samhucina cither in its flowers 
or fruits ; it is separated by its very large size, narrow caudate 
leaflets, and very sj)rcading panicle. 

23, L. iNTEGRiFoijA, Eoxl). Fl. Ind. cd. Wall. ii. 472. — Glabrous, 
leaves 3-pinnate, leaflets lanceolate caudate entire or sometimes 
very slightly serrate, corymb peduncled large, flowers and fruits as 
in L. sambucina. W. & A. Prodr. 132 ; Laws, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 667. 

Circars ; in moist valleys, Roxhun/Ji . 

This was either an accidental variety of L. samhucina with 
unusually entire leaflets, or it must have been a species that no 
one but Roxburgh has ever seen. The excellent Ic. Ined. of Rox- 
burgh shows the flowers and fruits ; and represents either a highly 
developed form of L. samhucina or a species very close thereto. 

24. L. Mastersii, C. B. Clarke. — Glabrous, leaves bipinnatc, 
leaflets elliptic acuminate setulose on the nerves beneath, corymb 
large lax in fruit nearly glabrous. 

Assam, Masters, n. 400. 

Leaflets 4f by 3 in., minutely setulose on the upper surface; 
primary nerves 12 on each side the mich'ib, serratures 2-3 for each 
primary nerve ; secondary nerves reticulated, only obscurely 
parallel. Berries 2-4-seeded. — I cannot guess from the buds 
whether the petals wex'c red; they may have been, and the leaves 
resemble somewhat those of L. rubra. This is a very puzzling 
specimen; it was in Herb. Bentham, and there named L. robusta, 
Roxb., and has since been named by Lawson L. aspera, Wall. It 
may be near L. samhucina or L. lata, but, so far as I can judge, 
not near L. robusta or L. asi^era. 

(To be continued.) 



GENERIS ASAIU SPECIEM NOVAM 

OFFERT H. F. HaNCE. 

AsARUM CAUDiGERUM, sp. nov. — Foliis binis oppositis carnosulis 
flaccidis supra obscure lucidis prteter nervos pilis raris consitos 
glaberrimis subtus opacis pallidioribus puberulis petiolo laminaB 
tripollicari cordato-reniformi acutffi sinu basali lato lobis diver- 
gentibus tequilongo, flore nutante pedunculo glanduloso-piloso 
longiore, perigonii luridi glanduloso-puberi carnosuli sesquipolli- 
caris tubo campanulato fauce non constricto intus baud nervoso 
limbi lobis subovato-lauceolatis medio leviter constrictis apice in 
acumen filiforme iis jequilongum productis, antheris processu 
parvo globoso coronatis, stylis 6 in. columnam cavam stamina 
adaequantem fere ad apicem usque coalitis, stigmatibus terminalibus 
recurvis, ovario subinfero. 

In prov. Cantonensi, secus fl. East River, coll. Dr. C. Gerlach, 
m. Novembri, 1880. (Herb, propr. n. 21366.) 

Species iusignis, a propinquis A. caulescenti, Maxim. !, A. hima- 
laico, Hook, fil., et praecipue, ut videtur, A. Hookeri, Field. & Gardn., 
variis notis, imprimis anthcrarum appendicis forma, perigoniique 
lobis longissime filiformi-caudatis optime distincta. 



143 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 
By William E. Beckwith. 

(Concluded from p. 4(i.) 

Digitalis jmrpurea, L. I have found the white variety about the 
Wrekin, and near Coudover, for several years in succession. 

Linaria Cijinhalaria, Mill. Old walls in towns very frequent ; 
near Cound I have found it on ditch banks, 

L. Ehitine, Mill. Very frequent m ploughed fields under the 
Wrekin ; I have also found it, near Charlton Hill, Berringtou, 
Pitchford, and Almond Park, usually growing on stiff clay soils. 

Liinusella aquatica, L. In a pool on Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

Veronica polita, Fries. Corn-fields, often very plentiful. 

F. Biu-haumii, Ten. In 1877 I found several plants of this 
Veranica near Eaton Constantine, but I have never seen it since. 

T'. viontana, L. Very frequent in woods about the Wrekin and 
on Wenlock Edge. 

V. scuteUata, L. Pools near Berringtou ; near the reservoir 
under the Wrekin ; boggy ground on the Longmynds ; near 
EUesmere Mere. 

V. Anagallis, L. Frequent on the banks of the Tern, and in 
ditches near Eyton-on-the-Wealdmoors ; occurs also near Shifnal, 
Hawkstone, Wroxeter, Eaton Constantine, and Cressage. 

Pedicidaris palustris, L. Boggy ground near the Wrekin, on 
the Longmynds, and by Colemere Mere. 

Melampyriua pratense, L. Very frequent in woods round the 
Wrekin. 

Lathrcea Squamaria, L. Mr. R. M. Sergeantson has obtained 
this species by a brook on Cound Moor. 

Oruhanche rapum, ThuiU. On broom near Brockholes Bank, 
Leighton ; near Acton Buruell. 

O. minor, L. In the summer of 1880 I found this species, 
growing plentifully, in a field of red clover between Berrington 
and Cound. 

Verbena ofjicinaUs, L. Near Shineton ; Spoul Lane, Leighton ; 
Haruage, Cound, Buildwas, Berrington, and Attingham. 

LycoiMs enroj}CBus, L. Pool near Eaton Constantine; very 
frequent about Berrington, Bomere Pool, and EUesmere. 

Mentlta viridis, L. Right bank of the Severn, below Coalport. 

M. piperita, Huds. Near Cantlop Cross, Berringtou. 

M. sativa, L. Boggy ground near Eaton Mascott. 

Tlujyniis SerjnjUuiii, L. Very plentiful about Much AVenlock 
and Ludlow ; occurs also on Charlton Hill and the Longmynds. 

Orii/anuiii vulyare, L. Brockholes Bank near Leighton, and 
near Moel-y-golfa Hill, just on the borders of Shropshire. Mr. R. 
M. Sergeantson has also brought me specimens from Frodeslcy. 

CaJainintlia Cliitopudiniii, Spenn. Very frequent in woods and 
hedges about the Wrekin. 

('. Acinos, Clairv. Frequent about Much Wenlock; near 
Whiteraere Mere. 



144 NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PL.\NTS. 

C. menthifolia, Host. Near Bridgnorth and Uffiugton. 

SaJcia Verbenaca, L. Rather frequent about Bridgnorth ; near 
Harnage, Cound. 

Scutellaria (jalericulata, L. Frequent near Leighton, Eaton 
Mascott, Berrington, EUesmcre, and along the banks of the 
Shroj)shh-e Union Canal. 

iS. minor, L. Mr. li. M. Sergeantson has found this species 
near the Caradoc Hill and Frodesley. 

Marruhium nilt/arc, L. On Charlton Hill, but probably an 
escape from a garden. 

Stachi/s Betimica, Benth. Very abundant in fields near the 
Wrekin, Charlton Hill, and Cressage Park. 

Galeopsis ani/ustifolia, Ehrh. Eather fi-equent about Much and 
Little Wenlock, and round the base of the Wrekin. 

G. versicolor, Curt. Near Berrington, Bomere, and Dryton 
"Wroxeter. 

Lamium amplexicaule, L. Near Dryton Wroxeter. 

L. alhiun, L. Frequent near villages; very common in the 
parish of Wroxeter. 

L. Galeobdolon, Crantz. Moist woods about the Wrekin, 
Leighton, Buildwas, and Cound, very frequent. 

Teucrium (Junnadnjs, L. I had a specimen of this plant, sent 
me by Mr. W. Phillips, in 1877, from near Bridgnorth. 

Echium vulfjare, L. Fields and hedges near Cound and Much 
Wenlock ; a variety with pink flowers growing near the latter 
place. In the summer of 1878 this species was most abundant, 
in a clover-field between Upton Magna and Withington, probably 
brought in impure clover-seed. 

Lithospermum officinale, L. Woods between Cound and Even- 
wood ; banks of the Severn near Buildwas ; woods in Farley 
Dingle, about Tickwood Hall, and near Coalport; hedges near 
Blackmere Mere, Ellesmere. 

L. anensis, L. Near Garmston, Leighton ; and Hardwick near 
Ellesmere. 

Mjjosotis collina, Eeich. Charlton Hill and Tentree Hill, 
Wroxeter ; Arkoll Hill ; High Piock, near Bridgnorth. 

M. versicolor, Eeich. Frequent on high ground, especially 
about the Wrekin, Much Wenlock, Bridgnorth, and Church Stretton. 

Anvhma arvensis, Bieb. Fields about Wroxeter, Cound, Much 
Wenlock, Bridgnorth, and Grinshill, frequent. 

A. sempervirens, L. In 1878 I found this plant growing 
luxuriantly near the Leopard Inn, Broseley, a locality given by 
Mr. W. P. Brookes in Leighton's ' Flora.' 

Symphytum ojficinalf, L. Very frequent about Shifnal ; occurs 
also along the banks of the Tern, and near Leighton, and Cound. 

Cynoylossum ojficinale, L. By the Shropshire Union Canal, 
near Ellesmere, and Bettisfield. In Attiugham Park, and near 
Cound, Much Wenlock, Bridguoi-th, and Berrington. 

Finyuicula vulyaris, L. Very frequent on the Longmynds ; a 
few plants also grow in a boggy field at the south-west base of 
the Wrekin. 



NOTES ON SHKOPSHIEE PLANTS. 145 

Utricularia minor, L. Very frequent iu a deep ditch, running 
parallel with the Cambrian Railway, about the middle of Whixall 
Moss. 

Hottonia palustris, L. Frequent near Cound, Berrington, 
Bomere, Wroxeter, and Attingliam ; abundant in ditches near 
Oteley, and Blackmere, Ellesmere. 

Primula vulgaris, Huds. In 1878 I found a variety, with dark 
sulphur-coloured flowers, in the Devil's Dingle, Buildwas. 

P. olJicinaH-indgaria, Syme. Not unfrequcnt in woods near 
Spout Lane, Leigliton, and between Little Wenlock and Buildwas. 

Lysimachia vulgaris, L. Bogs near Coalport, Leigliton, Cound, 
and Eaton Mascott. By Berrington and Almond Pools; very 
frequent about the Ellesmere Meres, especially Colemere and 
Whitemere. 

L. Xummularia, L. Abundant about Coalport ; frequent near 
Buildwas, Shineton, Harley, Cressage, Leigliton, Berrington, and 
EUesmere. 

Anagallis arvensis, L. The variety cterulea of this species has 
grown for several years in some fields south of Eaton Constantino 
village. 

A. tenella,!^. Very frequent on the Longmynds ; occurs also 
on Tentree Hill, and in boggy ground under the Wrekin. 

Plantago media, L. Abundant about Much Wenlock and Build- 
was ; frequent near Craven Arms. 

P. Coronopus, L. Eocks on Charlton Hill, Wroxeter. 

Scleranthus annuus, L. Near Acton Buriiell, on Charlton Hill, 
and Tentree Hill, Wroxeter, on the Cambrian Railway, over 
Whixall Moss. 

Chcnopodium Bonus-Henricus, L. Wenlock Abbey ; near Build- 
was, Cound, Berrington, Stokesay, and Ludlow. 

Ruinex maritimus, L. By EUesmere Mere. Field near Acton 
Burnell. Plentiful in a bog between Eaton Mascott and Cound. 

Pi. Hydrolapathum, Huds. Tern river. Pools near Tong 
Shifnal. By Colemere Mere. 

Polygonum Bistorta, L. Near Eaton Constantino ; White Ladies 
and Boscobel, Shifnal ; Sheltoii Rough, Shrewsbury ; and Fapley. 
Very frequent by the River Worfe, near Rindleford ; and near 
Ellesmere. 

Daphne Laureola, L, Frequent near Much Wenlock, Buildwas, 
and Little Wenlock. I have also found it at Harley ; and Mv. R. 
M. Sergeantson near Acton Burnell. 

Empetruvi nigrum, L. Frequent on Welshampton Moss. 

Juijdiorhia avnjgdaloidcs, L. Abundant about Much Wenlock ; 
and Shinewood, Shineton ; frequent near Ludlow, Craven Arms, 
Almond Park, and Buildwas. 

E. exigua, L. Cultivated fields near Little Wenlock, Leigliton, 
Buildwas, Harley, and Eaton Constantine, frequent. 

CaUilriche peduncnlata, DC. Pools and ditches about Charlton 
Hill, Eyton-on-Severn, Leigliton, Cound, and Berrington, frequent. 

C'erato/du/lluiii dcnwrsiim, L. Rather frequent in EUesmere 
Mere, more rarely in Wliitoniere Mere. 

u 



146 NOTES ON SHROPSHIEE PLANTS. 

ParieU trill (li[J'tisa, Koch. Weiilock, Buildwas, and Hauglimond 
Abbeys. Eocks and walls in Bridgnorth, Ludlow, Oswestry, and 
Morcton Corbet. 

JIuiindns Liipulus, L, Hedges very frequent, and certainly 
quite wild. 

Carpinus BetnJm, L. Frequent at the base of the Wrekin, 
above Wenlock Wood. 

Myrica (ialc, L. Boggy ground near Lee, Croesmere and 
Blackmere Meres, Ellesmere. 

Populus alha, L. Near Buildwas, Cound, and Attingham Hall. 

P. trciiiula, L. On the banks of the Severn near Buildwas. 

Salix pentandra , L. In a small wet wood near Whitemere Mere. 

Ta.vus baccata, L. Several very fine trees on the sides of the 
Wrekin, and one very large one in Acton Burnell Park. 

Typlta latifi)H((, L. Frequent about Ellesmere, Leighton, and 
Willey ; Hencott and Almond pools ; Kiver Tern at Attingham. 

T. aiuiHstifolia, L. Hencott pool. Pool near Berwick Hall, 
Berringtou, and Bomere pools. 

Sparganium simplex, Huds. Acton Burnell park; near Eaton 
Constantino, Eyton-on-the-AVealdmoors, and Blackmere Mere. 

S. minimum, Fries. Pool near Eaton Constantino. 

Aconis Calamus, L. Pools at Tong, near Shifnal. 

Lemna tvisulca, L. Pools near Eaton Constantine and Ber- 
rington. In Ellesmere and Whitemere Meres. 

Fotamo(/eton rufencens, Sclirad. In the Shropshhe Union Canal, 
between Blackmere and Colemere Meres. 

P. hetcrophijUus, Schreb. Frequent in Bcrrington Pool. 

P. p)erfoliatus, L. Frequent in the Shropshire Union Canal 
and Betton Pool, near Berrington. 

P. crispus, L, Pool near Leighton Mill. Pool near Buildwas 
Abbey. 

P. pusiUus, L. Shropshire Union Canal, near Bettisfield. 

P. pectinatus, L. Shropshire Union Canal, near Upton Magna, 
and Eyton-on-the-Wealdmoors abundant. Pools near Smethcott, 
Wroxeter. 

Trifjlochin palustre, L. Near Eaton Constantine, Belswardyne 
Hall, Leighton, Tentree Hill, Charlton Hill ; Ellesmere, Colemere, 
and Whitemere Meres. 

Sagittaria sa;iittifulia, L. In the Shropshire Union Canal near 
Upton Magna, and UtHngton ; in Sundorne Pool, Tern Kiver, and 
ditches on the Wealdmoors near Eyton. 

Alisma ranunculuides, L. Berrington Pool, Ellesmere and 
Whitemere Meres. 

A. natans, L. In 1880 I found this species abundant in the 
Shropshire Union Canal, near Colemere Merc, and Upton Magna. 
I also obtained specimens from Ellesmere, Whitemere, and Newton 
Meres. 

Butdiiius umJiclJatnm, L. In the Severn, near Leighton ; in Acton 
Burnell Park ; the pool at Sundorne, and canal at Uffington. 

Hi/ilrocharis Morsus ran<£, L. Abundant in ditches on the 
Wealdmoors, near Eyton. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 147 

Elodea canadensis, Eicli. Abundant in tlie Slirop shire Uuiou 
Canal, the Ellesmere Meres, and pools near Berrington, Acton 
Burnell, Leighton, Eaton Constantine, and Wroxeter, During 
the last few years this plant has spread most remarkably through 
many parts of Shropshire ; fragment of it must, I think, be tran- 
sported by wildfowl, as it often occurs in small pools entirely fed 
by springs, and unconnected with any stream. 

Orclds pyramidalis, L. Very frequent about Much Wculock, 
Buildwas, and the Arkoll Hill. 

0. Morio, L. Frequent near Buildwas, Leighton, Eaton Con- 
stantine, Wroxeter, Harley, and Shiueton. 

0. incanuita, L. In the summer of 1880 Mr. W. Philhps and I 
found this Orchis in an open wood near Colemere Mere. 

Gymnadenia conopsca, E. Br. Near Spout Lane, Leighton, and 
in Farley Dingle. Mr. Pi. M. Sergeantson has also gathered it 
near Church Preen. 

Habenaria viridis, E. Br. Fields at Longwood ; Eaton Con- 
stantine ; and Spout Lane, Leighton. 

H. chlorantha, Bab. Woods near Much Wenlock, Farley, 
Buildwas, Leighton, the Arkoll Hill, Cound, Craven Arms, and 
Whitemere. 

Ophrys apifem, Huds. Fields round Much Wenlock, in Farley 
Dingle (where it grows in open places in woods), and between 
Buildwas and Little Wenlock. 

Spiranthcs autnmiiaUs, Eich. Fields on Charlton Hill ; near 
Little Wenlock, and at the base of Tentree Hill. 

Listera ovata, E. Br. Damp woods and in fields about the base 
of the Wrekin, and round the Arkoll Hill ; near Little Wenlock, 
Buildwas, Much Wenlock, Eaton Constantine, and Ellesmere. 

Epipactis latifoUa, All. Woods near the Wrekin, Condover, 
Bomere, Sundorne, and Ludlow. 

E. paJiistris, Crantz. Mr. E. M. Sergeantson has found this 
plant in a bog near Church Preen. 

Crocus nudiflorus, Sm. In fields in the Quarry, Shrewsbury, 
where it has grown for many years. 

Xarcissiis Pseudu-narcissus, L. Fields about Leighton. Near 
Cound, and on Cound Moor. 

N. poeticus, L. Quite naturalised in a field near Cound Lane, 
where it has grown for forty years at least. 

Galanthus nivalis, L. Woods near Cound, Leighton, and Cole- 
mere Mere. 

Tamils communis, L. Hedges very frequent. 

Paris quadrifolia, L. Woods in Farley Dingle, wet boggy wood 
near Leighton, wood near the Caradoc Hill. 

Coiivallaria majalis, L. Woods near Cound, Buildwas, and 
Colemere Mere. 

Scilla nutans, Sm. A variety with white flowers is frequent in 
Acton Burnell Park, and about the Wrekin. 

Allium vincale, L. Near Acton Pigott. The variety compactwn 
grows in two places near Berrington, and near Leighton. 

A. oleraceum, L. By the road leading from Cressage to Cound 
Moor. 



148 NOTES ON SHEOPSHIRE PLANTS. 

A. wmiutn, L. By streams flowing from the Wrekin, by 
Coimd and Shineton brooks, often growing in birge masses. 

Xarthcciuiii 0.ssLfrai/uiii, Iluds. Bhomere Moss, near Bomere 
Pool, Wbixall Moss, Welshampton Moss. 

Golchmiin autnmnale, L. Fields near Bridgnorth, Much Wen- 
lock, Craven Arms, Buildwas, Harley, Acton Pigott, bhincton, 
Berrington, Little Wenlock, and Charlton Hill. 

Luzida sylvatica, Bich. Woods near Ironbridge, Coalbrook- 
dale, and Ludlow, most abundant. 

Jimcus ohtiisi/lorus, Ehrh. Canal banks near Berwick Wharf. 

Fihynchospora alba, Vahl. Shomere Moss, Whixall and Welsh- 
ampton Mosses. 

Blysmus cowpressiis, Pauz. Mr. E. M. Sergeantson obtained 
specimens from Church Preen in 1878. 

Scirpus acicularis, L. Sides of Ellesmere Mere. 

iS. jH(Ji(stris, L. Abundant in pools on the Longmynds, near 
Church Strettou. 

S. setaceus, L. Mr. K. M. Sergeantson has found specimens 
near Acton Burnell, and it is very frequent round the base of the 
Wrekin, and near Ellesmere. 

S. Jaciistris, L. Tern Eiver ; pools in Willey and Acton Bur- 
nell Parks, Almond Pool, Colemerc and Whitemere Meres. 

S. sylcaticus, L. By Tern Eiver ; round Sundorne Pool, and in 
ditches near Coalport, very frequent. 

Eriophorum raginatiim, L. Very abundant on Whixall Moss. 
I have also found it near Welshampton, Berrington, and on 
mosses near Bomere Pool. 

E. aiujustifulium, Eoth. Whixall Moss, very abundant ; bogs 
near Bomere Pool, Berrington, Leighton, and Tentree Hill. 

Carex pulicaris, L. Bog at the south-west base of the Wrekin ; 
boggy ground on the Longmynds, and near Ellesmere Mere. 

C. paniculata, L. Near Tong ; Eenn's Bank, Whitchurch; and 
Colemere Mere. 

C. vulpina, L. Frequent in ditches and wet places, especially 
near Leighton, Ironbridge, Coalport, Uckington, Cound, Ber- 
rington, Acton Burnell, and Ellesmere. 

C. viuricata, L. Dry banks frequent, especially about Eaton 
Constantino, Berrington, Cound, and Ellesmere. 

C. stellulata, Good. Near Garmston, Leighton ; Berrington, 
Ellesmere, and on the Longmynds, frequent. 

C. rcmota, L. Frequent near Leighton; the White Ladies, 
Shifnal ; the W'rekin, Buildwas, and Ellesmere. 

C. elonyata, L. In 1880 I found several examples of this species 
near Whitemere Mere, some of which I forw^arded to Professor 
Oliver, who most kindly identified them. 

C. curia, Good. Near the Cambrian Eailwayon Whixall Moss. 
Frequent on Welshampton Moss. 

C. ovalis, Good. Frequent near Eaton Constantino, Leighton, 
the Wrekin, Berrington, Belswardyne, Buildwas, and Sundorne. 

C. vulgaris, Fries. Frequent about the reservoir near Wel- 
lington, Cound, Berrington, Bomere Pool, and Ellesmere. 



NOTES ON SHROPSHIRE PLANTS. 149 

C. glaiica, Scop. Wet fields, very common. In 1880 Mr. E. 
M. Sergeantson showed me specimens nearly three feet high, 
which were afterwards identified by Mr. Carruthers. 

C. pallesccns, L. Bogs at the south-west base of the Wrekin ; 
below Charlton Hill, and near Leighton Mill. 

C. j^endula, Huds. Frequent near Leighton and Buildwas. I 
have also found it near Shineton, Coalbrookdale, Iroubridge, and 
Coalport. 

C. sylvatica, Huds. Frequent near Buildwas, Leighton, the 
Wrekin, Eaton Constantine, and Acton Burnell. 

C. hincrvis, Sm. Mr. E. M. Sergeantson sent me specimens oi- 
this from near the Caradoc Hill, and the Longmynds, in 1880. 

C.fulva, Good. Bog at the south-west base of the Wrekin ; 
Mr. E. M. Sergeantson has also found it near the Caradoc. 

[I have very carefully searched two localities, given in Leighton's 
' Flora,' for C. distaus, \iz., " moist meadows about Eaton Mascott " 
and " under the Wrekin," but without success.] 

C. fiava, L. Near the Caradoc Hill, Berrington, the Wrekin, 
Arkoll Hill, Ellesmere, and on the Longmynds, frequent. 

C.Jiliformis, L. By Berrington Pool, and Colemere Mere. 

C. hirta, L. Very frequent in wet boggy places in fields ; one 
of the most common Carices in Shropshire. 

C. Pseudocy perils, L. By the side of the Shropshire Union Canal ; 
and about Ellesmere and Colemere Meres, very frequent ; it also 
occurs near Acton Burnell, Condover, Cound, Eaton Constantine, 
Willey ; and Smethcott, Wroxeter. 

6'. rostrata, Stokes (C. ampuUacea, Good.) Near Tong ; Elles- 
mere, Colemere, and Whitemere Meres; Cound, and Berrington. 

C. vesicaria, L. Pools near Berrington, Cound, Leighton, and 
Ellesmere, very frequent. 

Phrar/mites coiniinmis, Trin. Abundant by Almond and Heucott 
Pools, and by Colemere and Croesmere Meres. 

Milium effusum, L. Woods near Buildwas, and about the 
Arkoll Hill. ' 

Mclica unifiora, Eetz. Very frequent near Leighton. Near 
Sundorue Castle. 

Glyceria fluitans, E. Br. Very common in the neighbourhood 
of Ellesmere, and along the banks of the Shropshire Union Canal. 

(t. aquatica, Sm. By the Severn beloAV Buildwas Bridge; by 
the Tern ; near Upton Magna ; near Ufiington, Eyton-on-thc 
Wealdmoors, and Colemere Mere. 

I am indebted to Colonel Cooke, Director of the Ordnance 
Survey, for the following heights and areas of mountains and 
meres in Shropshire : — Feet above moan level of the sea at 
Liverpool : Brown Clce Hill, 1788 ; Titterstone Clee, 1751 ; Long- 
mynds, 1842; Wrekin, 1342. Acres: Ellesmere Mere, 115; 
Colemere Mere, 71 : Whitemere Mere, 64 ; Croesmere Merc, 88 ; 
Newton Merc, 21 ; Blackmcre Mere, 20. 



150 

ON A NEW CHINESE SENECIO. 
By Henry Fletcher Hance, Ph.D., F.L.S., etc. 

The enormous extent of the genus Senccio, which now com- 
prises upwards of 1000 species, would probably have made me 
hesitate to describe as new a Cliiuese species in my herbarium, 
had not those of India and the extreme east of Asia and Japan 
been recently most carefully and thoroughly reviewed, the former 
by Mr. C. B. Clarke," the latter l)y my friend M. Maximowicz,f 
and by Messrs. Franchet and Savatier.| The plant of which I 
subjoin a diagnosis, drawn up from a careful examination of living 
specimens, sprung from the rhizomes originally collected, is a 
very distinct, and, I may add, somewhat remarkable one, on 
account of its unusually convex recej^tacle and the entire absence 
of pappus ; but I have not the slightest hesitation in regarding it 
as a genuine Senecio, belonging to the section Li(jnlaria, a quite 
natural group, though one not readily defined by verbal cliaracters. 
In the normal species of IJgularia the pappus is as long as, and 
frequently considerably exceeds, the achene ; j but in one occurring 
in Poland and the Carpathians, || separated generically by many 
authors, under the name of Senccillis, and only known to me by 
Gaertuer's analytical figures, 1' the pappus is reduced to a few very 
short paleiform bristles, united at the base into a ring. There is a 
second Kashmir species, which usually has a similar pappus, but, 
according to Maximowicz,''''^' it is sometimes rather elongated, and 
this is also habitually the case in a third, from Manchuria and 
Japan, founded by himself ;f+ Avhilst, according to Mr. Bentham,JJ 
in the original species it is sometimes altogether deficient. Hence, 
the decision of the last-named author, facile princeps amongst 
synantherologists, who merges this subdivision in Ligulaiia, seems 
unimpeachable, and Maximowicz, indeed, speaks of SeneciUis as a 
' genus vix servandum.' The present plant, by its very convex 
receptacle, and the absence of pappus, may also be regarded as 
approaching Doronicum, which, however, has a biseriate iuvolucrura, 
and in the tyj)ical species the achenes of the ray-florets only 
ej)appose. There is an Indian species, Senrcio hehjawncnds, agreeing 
with our plant in the entire want of pappus, which Mr. Clarke 
places under a separate section, Madacaiyus, but I do not think 

* CompositiE inclicaB, 177 sqq. 

+ Mel. biolog. Acad. St. P6tersb. viii. 12 sq., ix. 292 sqq. 

I Enum. pi. .Japon. i. 246 sqq. 

§ Sieb. & Zucc. Fl. Jap. tt. :J5, -36. 

I I The Carpathian plant is considered distinct from the Polish one by Schott, 
Nyman & Kotschy (Analecta bot. 5.) 

If De fruct. et sem. plant, t. 173. 

** Mel. biolog. Acad. St. Petersb. viii. 16. 

+ + A not ill-executed figure of this species, with magnified drawings of the 
florets, will be found in the ' S6-Mokou-Zoussets' or Illustrated Flora of Jajian 
(vol. xvii. t. 26), a most interesting and encouraging specimen of the progress of 
•Young Japan' in western science, of which a second edition, with a French pre- 
face and a separate English index, was published in 1874. In this edition the 
Latin generic and specific names are printed on each plate. 

+ J Gen. plant, ii. 419. 



SHOET NOTES. 151 

the solitary character justifies such a course,'' and from "Wight's 
plate,! aud hoth his and Mr. Clarke's remarks, it is evidently much 
more like the true Doronica in hahit, whilst the Chinese species 
certainly rather resembles the LujuUiruc ; they are not, I think, 
naturally very closely allied, though technically, taking this 
peculiarity alone into consideration, they would come together. 

Senecio phalacrocakpus, sp. uov. — Totus j)lus minus araneoso- 
tomentosus, rhizomate descendente fibras crassiusculas undique 
edente bulbillosque subrotundos pullulante, caule erecto robusto 
fistuloso ramoso 1^-2 pedali plurisulcato purpurascente, foliis sub- 
rotundo-cordatis vel reniformibus angulatis calloso-denticulatis 
supra viridibus pilosis subtus candido-araneosis pedatiuerviis radi- 
calibus longe caulinis mediocriter summis breviter petiolatis petiolis 
profunde canaliculatis basi dilatatis, corjanbis caulem ramosque 
terminantibus subramosis fastigiatis 5-10 cephalis, capitulis longe 
pedunculatis basi ebracteolatis campanulatis diametro 1^ poUi- 
caribus, involucri bracteis 13 uniseriatis lanceolatis acutis 3-nerviis 
margine hyalinis 3 lin. longis demum reflexis, receptaculo liemi- 
sphferico fimbrillis brevibus ex achfeniorum delapsorum cicatricibus 
consperso, ligulis 13 oblongis flavis apice 3-dentatis 6 lin. longis 
If lin. latis, florum radii tubo angusto parti campanulatae circiter 
tequilongo, antheris ecaudatis, ach^nio oblongo fusco obtuse 
10-striato glandulis brevibus oblongis hyalinis obsito, pappo tarn 
flosculorum disci quam radii omnino nullo ! 

Secus fl. Lien-chan, prov. Cantonensis, m. Januario 1879, coll. 
Eev. E. Faber, societatis rhenanse missionarius. (Herb, propr. 
n. 20924.) 



SHOET NOTES. 



A State of Carex pilulifera, L., APPROAcmNG var. Leesii. — 
The account in the 'Journal of Botany' for April of the variety of 
C. pilulifera, L., therein named Leesii by Mr. Eidley, has redirected 
my attention to a state or condition of this species which I have 
occasionally come across when botanising on commons near Ply- 
mouth. I have now a couple of specimens of it before me, 
gathered respectively on Vinerdou Down, E. Cornwall; and 
Eoborough Down, S. Devon. Having compared them with Mr. 
Eidley' s description and the accompanying plate, I find, with a 
considerable amount of general resemblance, the remarkably long 
glumes as in the variety. The Plymouth plants, however, I regard 
as simply a state or condition of C. jnlulifern dependent on disease, 
for with their peculiar features I have always found aborted 
fruit, and in its place a fungus, to the in-esence of which I 
conclude all the dift'ercnces between them and typical jiilulij'cra are 
due. I have no doubt they constitute the Carex Ijuslardiana, DC, 
described by Boreau in his ' Flore du Centre de la France,' under 

* Cfr. Messrs. Franchet & Savatier's noto on the variableness of tlie pappus 
in some genera of Coiiiiiosita^ (Enuin. pi. Jiip. ii. .'in?.) 
t icon. pi. lud. or. iii. 1102. 



152 



SHORT NOTES. 



C. pilulifem, thus: " Obs. Le C. liastanUana, DC, parait n'etre 
qu'uno deformation a ecailles plus graucTes, longuement acuminees 
et a fruits et etamines souvent remplacees par un Uredo " (p. 672, 
ed. 3). If Dr. Arnold Lees's Yorkshire specimens of the variety 
are quite free from disease, it is remarkable tliat in the neighbour- 
hood of Plymouth disease in certain examples of C.jjiluli/era should 
lead to the production in tliem of points of agreement with that 
variety. — T. R. Arcuek Dkiggs. 

Mr. Briggs has sent the specimens referred to in his note to 
the British Museum Herbarium, where I have had an opportunity 
of examining them. I cannot, however, perceive any very great 
resemblance between them and C. pihdifem, var. Leesii ; the lower 
bract, so remarkable in that variety, is in Mr. Briggs's specimens 
quite similar to that of the typical form, as is also the general 
habit of the plant. It is almost impossible to make out the shape 
of the fruit in the specimens sent, owing to its destruction by the 
Vredo ; the glumes are narrower and taper more gradually to the 
point. There is no trace whatever of any disease due to fungus or 
any other cause in C. pilidifera, var. Leesii. — H. N. Eidley. 



SONCHUS PALUSTRIS IN CAMBRmGESHIRE. TllC EeV. W. W. NeW- 

bould has directed my attention to a specimen of this plant in the 
British Museum Herbarium, to which is attached a ticket, of which 
the following is a copy : — " Bottisham Fen, opposite to the Knave 
of Clubs. August 26, 1843." This is in the handwriting of Mr. 
Samuel Hailstone, and is of interest as bringing down the occur- 
rence of the plant in Cambridgeshire to a much later period than is 
generally assigned to it. Prof. Babington says, "Near Stretham 
Ferry; Mr. J. Lyons. Not found there for many years ; Pielh. in 
1820." (Fl. Camb., p. 143.)— James Britten. 



HERTPORDsmRE Oaks.* — It has been stated by the Eev. H. 
Cooper Key, in a paper in the Transactions of the Woolhope 
Naturalists' Field Club (1866, p. 178), that he had never yet met 
with a single specimen of the sessili flora oak in the more eastern 
counties, as Hertfordshire and Middlesex, and that the oaks in 
Moor Park popularly supposed to have been pollarded by Anne, 
Duchess of Monmouth, after the execution of her husband, were 
all Qnercus pedunculata, Ehrh. Q. sessiliflora, Salisb., has been 
recorded in the ' Flora Hertfordiensis ' from several localities, 
among others the " woods by Pinner Lane;" and the late Rev. W. 
H. Coleman, more than thirty years back, w^as at considerable pains 
to discriminate the two Hertfordshire forms, and would apx^ear to 
have exhibited illustrative examples, with accompanying notes, at 
a meeting of the Hertford Horticultural Society in the autumn of 
1842. I have, however, examined Mr. Coleman's original speci- 
mens, and consider that they do not belong to the true sessili/lura 
of Salisbury and Smith, but must be referred to Q. intermedia, D. 



* [This note and the following had been prepared by 'Sir. 1'ryor for this 
Jouriuil, luul were found among his papers. — Ed. Joukn. Box.] 



SHORT NOTES. 153 

Don, of Avliich Martyn's figure (Flora Rustica, t. 11) is an excellent 
representation. It is probable, therefore, that the Durmast Oak 
of the NeAV Forest does not occur in our county. On the other 
hand, it is not altogether unlikely that our second species or 
variety, the sessili/iora of Messrs. Webb and Coleman, may be iden- 
tical with the Bay Oak of Ray, the " Quercus latifolia mas, qu^ 
brevi pediculo est " of the ' Synopsis ' (ed. 2, p. 286) : " Folia huic 
obscurius viridia & minus profunde siuuata quam vulgaris, unde a 
vulgo circa Newberry oppidum The Bay-Oak, id est, Lauro-quercus 
dicitur ;" a description that accords very well with the tree of 
Don. The whole question is worthy of careful examination ; the 
timber, which seems to be very different in the true Durmast, and 
the position and arrangement of the buds, a point on which con- 
siderable stress has been laid by ffirsted (Aper9u sur la classification 
des Chenes), may help to throw some light on a subject on which 
both botanists and practical foresters are as yet very far from 
comhig to an agreement. — E. A. Pkyor. 



An Eaely Notice of the Introduction of Seeds into England 
WITH Foreign Wool. — The following quotation is extracted from 
the ' Observations in Husbandry ' of Mr. Edward Lisle, of Crux- 
Easton, in Hampshire ; although published posthumously in 1776, 
the work dates from about 1693 to 1722, the year of the author's 
death. A practical agriculturist by predilection, and thoroughly 
acquainted with the literature of the subject, while he availed 
himself largely at every opportunity of the experience of others, he 
was also an original thinker, and even at this distance of time 
there is much that is suggestive in his remarks. I do not know 
whether the JSledicaiju mentioned has held its ground in AViltshire ; 
but Mr. Lisle's statement is sufficient to show that the introduction 
of foreign seeds in imported wool has by no means been an occur- 
rence of only recent date : — " Mr. Holyday, a considerable clothier 
in Wiltshire, was giving me an account, in the year 1707, that the 
Spanish wool was always troubled with a burr, and that, in 
cleansing some of the foulest of it, there came off more coarse foul 
wool than ordinary, so that he was tempted to lay it on his meadow 
ground to improve it, which brought forth a strange sort of grass, 
that had lasted ever since, it being many years ago. It was, he 
said, a three-leaved grass, and brought forth yellow flowers, and 
abundance of burrs, with seeds in them. I found this to be one of 
the annual medics I had in my garden, with burrs for the seed 
vessels, and by its seeding every year, I suppose, it maintained 
itself in his ground ; but what I take notice of it for is this, he 
assured me, in picking the Spanish fleeces there were none but 
what had more or less of the burrs in them, which is an argument 
to me that the Spaniards sow much of this trefoil, it not being a 
native of their country, but brought from Persia. Quaere if it may 
not be a very sweet seed to breed fine wool. It seems to me in 
the leaf to taste sweeter than hop-clover. I went to sec this 
trefoil, and found it to be the lesser medic trefoil that had small 
burrs; but I shice find by the clothiers that the Spanish wool has 



1;j1 extr.\cts and notices. 

hu^n coarser for thirty years last past than formerly, wliicli may 
be occasioned by their sowing these grasses. "^ — Lisle's ' Observa- 
tions in Husbandry,' p. 293. — K. A. Pkyor. 



Development of Heat in Flowers of Phytelephas. — It has 
long been an admitted fact that many plants at their season of 
flowering exhibit apprecial^le elevations of temperature : Lamarck, 
rather more than a century ago, was, I believe, the first to notice 
the phenomenon. As the few books I have had the time or oppor- 
tunity of thus far consulting contain no mention of the behaviour 
of the Ivory Palm [Phytelephas macrocarpa), I now write to put 
briefly on record two or three observations respecting that plant. 
A fine example (female) was recently in flower in the House No. 1 
at Kew. On April 20th, at 1 i).m., the temperature of this house 
was 68'^ Fahr. ; the bulb of the thermometer, which had been 
suspended for some time near the plant in question, was placed in 
the centre of the cream-coloured inflorescence, and the mercury 
almost instantly rose to 92'\ showing an increase in temperature of 
24°. It is probably fair to assume that the normal temperature 
of a plant like the Phytelephas, with such a large surface for 
evaporation, &c., is considerably lower than that of the surrounding 
air; in any case the actual increase in temperature is remarkable. 
The following day, at the same hour, the thermometer registered 
72^ in the house, and, when placed in the same position in the 
centre of the infloresence, only rose to the same height as that 
reached the preceding day, viz., 92^. As the drawn-out end of the 
bi;lb prevented it from actually touching the convex ovaries, a 
small incision was made in one of these, and the thermometer then 
rose to 94"'. Within the last week Philodendruii sayittifulium, with 
its anthers nearly ready to dehisce, showed a rise from 69° to 81°, 
and 1\ e.vimiu)ii, at a time when by sun heat the house had risen 
to 82"^^, exhibited a further increase of lO'^. Carhuloeica Plumieri 
rose from 73° to 90", but this last was certainly not in good 
condition, for the long barren stamens had already changed from 
creamy-white to cinnamon colour, and the spathe had commenced 
to decompose, although not three hours had elapsed since the 
flowers had opened. — George Nicholson. 



iiXtvacts tint! Xoticcfs of IjooUs antJ iHcmotvs. 



THE FLORA OF COLONS AY AND OIIANSAY. 

[In the last part (vol. xiv., part 1) of the ' Transactions of the 
Botanical Society of Edinburgh ' is an interesting paper by Mr. 
Symington Grieve on the Flora of these islands of the Lower 
Hebrides. The islands seem not to have been previously 
examined botanically, tlie only record of plants from them being 
that in Lightfoot's 'Flora Scotica,' in which ten species are 
included. AVe extract the enumeration of species, referring our 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 



155 



readers for Mr. Grieve's introductory remarks to the paper itself. 
Those marked with an asterisk are new to vice-county 102 (Ebudes 
South) of ' Topographical Botany. 

Thahctrum minus, car. mariti- 

mum; (v^r. flexuosum. Both 

found growing on sandy 

banks on shore of Iviloran 

Bay. 
Ranuncuhis Fhimmula. Com- 
mon. 
E. acris. 
R. repens. 
Caltha pahistris. 
Nymphfea alba. Loch Fada. 
Papaver Argemone. Cultivated 

field, Scallasaig. 
Sinapis arvensis. 
Cardamine pratensis. 
C. hirsuta. 
Arabis hirsuta. 
Nasturtium officinale. Ditches, 

Kiloran and Scallasaig. 
Viola sylvatica, car. Riviniana. 
Drosera rotundifolia. Common 

near Loch Fada. 
Poly gala depressa. 
Silene maritima. On cliffs near 

ScaUasaig and ruins Oran- 

say. 
Lychnis dim-na. 
L. Flos-cuculi. 
Cerastium tetrandrum. 
C. triviale. 
Stellaria media. 
S. uliginosa. 
Sagina procumbens. 
Spergula arvensis. 
Hypericum Androsaemum. 
H. humifusum. 
H. pulchrum. 
Malva sylvestris, rar. Under 

cliffs near ruins, I. Oransay. 
Linum catharticum. Common, 

apparently wild. 
L. usitatissimum. On quay at 

Scallasaig. 
'•'Geranium sylvaticum. 
G. pratense. 
G. molle. 
G. Robertianum. 
Erodium cicutarium. 
Oxalis Acetosella. 



-Ed. Journ. Bot.] 

Ulcx europiBus. Kiloran and 
Kilchuttan. 

Anthyllis Vulneraria. 

Medicago lupulina. 

Trifolium pratense. 

Lotus coiuiculatus. 

Vicia Cracca. 

V. sepium. 

Lathyrus pratensis. 

L. sylvestris. 

Spirtea Ulmaria. 

Alchemilla arvensis. 

A. vulgaris. 

Potentilla Tormentilla. 

P. Anserina. 

Comarum palustre. Loch Fada. 

Fragaria vesca. 

Geum rivale. 

liosa spinosissima. Near Scal- 
lasaig. 

R. tomentosa. 

Pyrus Aucuparia. 

Lythrum Salicaria. Near Scal- 
lasaig. 

"'■'Epilobium obscurum. 

*Myriophyllum alternifdium. 
Loch Fada. 

Sedum Rhodiola. Cliff* west of 
island. 

S. anglicum. Common. 

S. acre. Not plentiful, but found 
near Scallasaig, and on 
Oransay. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium. 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris. Near 
Loch Fada. 

*Sanicula europfea. 

Pctroselinum sativum. 

Oenanthe crocata. 

Ligusticum scoticum. 

Angelica sylvestris. Near Scal- 
lasaig. 

Heracleum Sphondylium. 

Daucus Carota. 

Hedera Helix. 

Louicera Periclj'mcnuui. Near 
Kiloran. 

Galium verum. 

G. saxatile. 



156 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 



G-. Apariue. 

Slierardia arvensis. Near Scal- 
liisaig. 

*Valcriaiiella olitoria. Near 
Scallasaig. 

*Scal)i()sa arvensis. 

Carduus lauceolatus. 

C. palustris. 

C. arvensis. 

Arctium minus. 

Centaurea nigra. 

Chrysanthemum segetum. 

C. Leucauthemum. 

Matricaria inotlora. 

Achillea Millefolium. 

Gnaphalium dioicum. Eocks on 
hill north of Scallasaig. 

Senecio Jacobtea. 

S. aquaticus. 

Bellis pereunis. 

Tussilago Farfara. 

Taraxacum officinale. 

Campanula rotundifolia. 

Vaccinium Myrtillus. 

Arctostaphylos Uva-ursi. Com- 
mon. 

Erica Tetralix. 

E. cinerea. 

Calluua vulgaris. 

Erythrasa Centaurium. 

Menyanthes trifoliata. 

Digitalis purpurea. 

'■'Veronica hederifolia. 

V. arvensis. 

V. officmalis. 

V. Chamffidi'vs.f 

Euphrasia officinalis. 

Pedicularis palustris. 

P. sylvatica. 

Khinanthus Crista-galli. 

Melampyrum pratense . 

Mentha hirsuta. 

M. arvensis. 

Thymus Serpyllum. 

Prunella vulgaris. 

Lamium purpureum. 

Ajuga reptans. 

Teucrium Scorodonia. 



Anclmsa arvensis. f 

Pinguicula vulgaris. 

Primula vulgaris. 

Lysimachia nemorum. 

Anagallis tenella. Common. 

Samolus Valerandi. 

Armeria maritima. 

Plantago maritima. 

Salicornia herbacea. On shore 
near the quay, Scallasaig. 

Eumex Acetosa. 

E. Acetosella. 

Polygonum aviculare. 

Empetrum nigrum. 

Euphorbia Helioscopia. Corn- 
field, Scallasaig. 

Urtica dioica. 

Myrica Gale. 

Salix aurita. 

S. rej)ens. 

Juniperus communis. Common. 

Potamogeton polygonifolius.f 

Orchis pyramidalis. Kiloran 
Bay. 

0. mascula. 

0. latifolia. 

0. maculata. 

Habenaria viridis. 

=^=H. bifolia. 

*Listera cordata. 

L. ovata. 

Iris Pseudacorus. Near Scalla- 
saig, common. 

"■''Scilla verna. Common near 
the coast. 

S. nutans. Common. 

Narthecium Ossifragum. 

Luzula sylvatica. 

Juncus efi'usus. 

J. lamprocarpus. 

J. supinus. 

Sclicenus nigricans. 

'■'Scirj)us lacustris. 

Eriophorum angustifolium. 

Carex stellulata. 

C. vulgaris. 

C. binervis. 

"■'C. flava, var. lepidocarj)a. 



t [Veronica montmta, Myosotis 2^alustris, and Potamogeton lucens are given 
liy Mr. Grieve in his preliminary ennnieration of species new to the vicr-ronnty, 
but tlicy do not appear in tl'e body of the list. — Y.X). JovuK. B(rr.] 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 



157 



Alopecurus geniculatus. 

Agrostis vulgaris. 

A. vulgaris, var. ]pumila. 

Aira caryopliyllea. 

Avena pratensis. 

A. elatior. 

Holcus mollis. 

Koeleria cristata. 

Catabrosa aquatica. 

Glj'ceria fluitaiis. 

Cyuosurus cristatus. 

Dactylis glomerata. 

Festuca oviua. 

Bromus mollis. 

Bracliypodium sylvaticum. 

Nardus stricta. 

Hymenopliyllum uuilaterale. 

Pteris aquiliua. 

Lomaria Spicant. 

Asplenium Tricliomaues. 

A. marinum. 

A. Adiautum-nigrum. 

Athyrium Filix-foemina. 

Scolopendrium vulgare. 

C^'stopteris fragilis. 

Aspidium aculeatum. 

A. aculeatum, var. lobatum. 

Nephrodium Filix-mas. 

*N, spinulosum. 

N. dilatatum. 

*N. jemulum. 

Polypodium vulgare, 

Osmuuda regalis. 

Lycopodium selaginoides. 

Equisetum sylvaticum. 

E. limosum. 

Sphagnum acutifolium," Dill. 

Scallasaig. 
S. cymbifolium. Near Loch 

Fada. 
"Weissia viridula (coutroversa), 

Heclw. 
Dicrauum scoparium, Hedw. 
Campylopus flexuosus, Biid. 

Rocks ou hills, Scallasaig. 
Leucobryum glaucum, lliuitpe. 

Common. 
Barbula muralis, Ilcdir. 
Racomitrium hetcrostichum, 

Brill. 
R. lanuginosum. 
R. cauesceus, <vn-. ericoidcs. 



Ptychomitrium polyphyllum, 

B. & S. 
Ulota crispa (Orthotrichum), 

Mohr. 
Bartramia pomiformis, Hedw. 

Near Scallasaig. 
Philonotis fontana, Brid. Near 

Loch Fada. 
Brentelia arcuata, Schpr. Near 

Loch Fada. 
Bryum ctespiticium, Dill. 
B. capillare. 
B. pseudo-triquetrum. 
B. roseum. On bank at side of 

roadbetAveen Scallasaig and 

Kiloran. 
Muium hornum, L. 
Aulacomuion palustre, Schwg. 

Near Loch Fada. 
Polytrichum piliferum, L. 
P. juniperinum. 
P. commune. 
Fissideus adiantoides, Hedw. 

Near Loch Fada. 
Pterygophyllum lucens, Brid. 

Near Loch Fada. 
Thuidium tamarisciuum, Sch]^-. 
Pterogouium gracile, Sivartz. 
Thamnium alopecurum, ScJqn-. 
Climacium dendroides, Brid. 
Isothecium myurum, Brid. 
Homalothecium sericeum, ScJipr. 
Brachythecium rutabulum, 

ScJipr. 
Eurhynchium striatulum, Schpr. 
E. prfelongum. 
E. pumilum. Walls of the new 

cave, Kiloran Bay. 
Rhynchostegium rusciforme, 

Schpr. 
Plagiothecium deuticulatum, 

Srhjjr. 
P. undulatum. 
Hypnum commutatum, Dill. 
H. cupressiforme. 
H. cuspidatum. 
H. Schreberi. 
H. purum. 

Ilylocomium splcndcns, Schpr. 
H. squarrosum. 
H. loreum. 
J \. triquotrum. 



158 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

Les Characi'pii Genevoises. By Dr. J. Mullkr (Mull. Arg.) 

The second iiuiuber of the ' Bulletin do la Socicte Botanique 
do Geneve' (February, 1881) contains, under the above title, an 
account of the Charas which have been, are, or may be expected 
to be found in the neighbourhood of Geneva. Twenty-two species 
are described, under the two genera — dhara and Xitclhi ; but it is 
a pity that the five species not yet found in the district slKnild 
not 1)0 more clearly separated from the others than by a remark 
at the end of tlie description. The naming of forms of the common 
species of Cluira is carried to excess, thirty-two varieties of C. 
fcetida (C. ndi/aris), for instance, are described, at least two of 
which Avould probably occur in any gathering of the plant. Had 
some of the time spent in attempting to discriminate these forms 
been devoted to more carefully examining the literature of the 
subject, Ave should probably not have to regret that the references 
to the original descriptions of eleven out of the twenty-two specific 
names used should be more or less incorrect, and that several 
previously described varieties should be given as new. 

H. & J. G. 

The ' Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society ' 
for December last contains a paper by the Eev. G. Henslow on 
the ' Homology and Analogy of Plant Organs.' It is a compre- 
hensive summary of numerous and varied observations ; but, as it 
appears to us, is somewhat out of place in the Transactions of a local 
Society. 

The ' Transactions of the Epping Forest and County of Essex 
Natiu'alists' Field Club,' issued last December, contains papers on 
' The Preservation of Plants with their natural colours,' by James 
English; and a 'Note on an abnormal form of Canlaniine pro- 
tcnsis,' by John Gibbs : the latter monstrosity is one so well kiu)wn 
that it hardly deserves special prominence. 

Dr. Braithwaite is pushing forward his ' British Moss-Flora ' 
with commendable energy ; the fourth part, containing the Fissi- 
(lentaceic, with three plates of characteristic excellence and accom- 
panying text, is now before us, containing also a useful glossary of 
the terms emi^loycd in the book. This completes the first section 
of the work ; and subscriptions for the second section (to comprise 
the Leucohrijaceid and Dicranacc(c) are invited. There must be 
many avIio could well afford to encourage so important and useful 
an undertaking, and half-a-guinea could hardly be more profitably 
spent than in so doing. We are sorry that Dr. Braithwaite adheres 
to a method of nomenclature which w^e can but regard as founded 
upon a misconception: " Fissidens Oirii, Lindb.," is not an 
accurate statement of the name of this moss, which Lindberg 
published as a Schistophylhun. We note a description and figure 
of Fissidcm rufHliis, a species (from Westmoreland) new to the 
British moss-Hora. 



EXTEACTS AND NOTICES. 159 

The Keport for 1880 of the Scieuce-Gossip Botanical Exchange 
Chib, pubHshed in ' Science-Grossip ' for February last, contains 
one or two statements with regard to critical plants of sufficient 
importance to make it desirable that the authority upon which 
these rest should be made public ; little value can be attached 
to the anonymous determination of such plants as Thalictrum 
Kochii, which, we believe, has not been satisfactorily shown to be a 
native of Britain. We have now three botanical collecting clubs; 
and we cannot refrain from once more expressing our conviction 
that the cause of science would bo furthered by the amalgamation 
of these into one organisation, more especially as we find that some 
botanists already belong to more than one, if not to the Avhole of 
them. 

New Books. — B. D. Jackson, ' Guide to the Literature of 
Botany ' (Dulau, 31s. 6il.) — Ch. Conte.jean, ' Geographic Botanique ' 
(Paris, Bailhere). — P. Brousse, ' L'Etude des Fruits' (Montpellier, 
Hamelin). — L Low, * Aramaeische Pfianzennamen ' (Leipzig). 



Articles in Journals. — March. 

Annales drs Scievri's X((turclh's (Botanique, Ber. vi. t. x. n. 5). — 
E. Bescherelle, ' Florule Bryologique de la Reunion ' (contd.) 

ButaniscJie Zcittou/. — H. Hoffman, ' Cultural Experiments upon 
Variation' (concluded). — E. Giltay, 'On the Collenchyma.' — E. 
Zacharias, ' On the Chemical Composition of the Cell-nucleus.' — 
A. F. W. Schimper, ' Researches on the growth of Starch- 
granules ' (1 tab.) 

Bulletin of Torreij Botanical Cluli.— {Jan.) F. Wolle, 'New 
American Desmids ' (1 tab.) — E. L. Greene, 'A new Asclepias [A. 
pinifoUd) from Arizona.' — (March) E. L. Greene, 'Emendation of 
the genus Fendlent.' — J. B. Ellis and W, H. Harkness, 'New 
North American Fungi.' ' The Herbaria and Botanical Libraries 
of the United States' (contd.) — W. R. Gerard, ' JEcidhoii llnsbi/i, 
u. sp.' (New Mexico). 

[Coulter's] Botanical Gawttc. — J. C. Arthur, ' Trichomes of 
Echinocijstis lobata ' (1 tab.) — E. L. Greene, ' New Plants of New 
Mexico and Arizona' [Talinum Jnnnile, Linum neomexicanuni, 
Bigclocla rupcstrin, B.jnncca, Hieraciiuii carneum, EupJtorhia vcnicolor, 
Tradescantia tuhcrosa, spp. nn.) — J. W. Chickcring, ' lludbcckia 
riipestris, n. sp.' ' Flora of Indiana' (contd.) 

Flora. — (Feb.) C. Kraus, ' Researches on the course of the sap.' 
— G. Limpriclit, ' On (jipiinomitriuin adiistiun.' — 0. Bocck( br, 
' Critical Remarks on Wright's Cuban Ctjperaccw.'' — J. Midler, 
' Lichenological Contributions,' no. xii. 

Grevillea. — M. C. Cooke and W. H. Harkness, ' Californian 
Fungi ' (contd. : IJarlnicusia, gen nov.) — M. C. Cooke, ' Notes on 
British Desmids.' — Id., 'On J'hrlcphora Lijcii.' — Id., 'Some Exotic 
Fungi.'— Id., 'New British Fungi.'— ' Id. and J. B. Ellis, 'New 



160 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

Jersey Fungi.' — Id. and AV. Pliillips, ' Eeliquiae Libcrtianas.' — C. 
Kalchbrenner, ' Fungi Macowaniani.' 

H('(Iuif/ia. — E. Kehm, ' Ascomycet<t,' fasc. xii. — R. Wolluy, 'On 
the fructification of Chcctnptcn's /iIiDimsa.' 

Jiiurnal (if Quekett Microsc()]iical Cluh. — 'Desmids new to Britain 

in 1880.' 

Midland NcituraliM. — J. E. Bagnall, 'Flora of Warwickshire' 
(contd.) 

(Estcrr. Hot. ZeitschriJ't. — H. Wawra, ' New Plants ' (Sivain- 
sdiiid Miirraijana, Scutelhiria mitssooriensis, Hyptis Itatiaiai, Hedeoma 
Itatiaur, Falicoiircd hrasiliensu, Coccocypselum fieopldluides, spp. nn.) 
M. V. Sarda.gna, ' Flora of Trentino.' — E, Flek, ' Crocus venius in 
the Carpathians.' — M. Gandoger, 'Pugillus plantarum novarum' 
(forms of ^Kyilaps triaristata and (Taudinia fraijilis). — P. G. Strobl, 
'Flora of Etna' (contd.) 



Botanical Ncius. 



Mr. L. J. K. Brace, of New Providence, Bahamas, has been 
appointed to the Curatorsliip of the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Calcutta. 

Dr. S. Berggeen has been appointed Professor at the University 
of Upsala. 

Mr. F. a. Lees has offered the MS. of his West Riding Flora 
to the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union for publication. 

Jacob Boll, the author of a small work on the Flora of Brem- 
garten, Switzerland (18G9), died on the 29th September, 1880, in 
Texas, whence he had twice sent collections of mosses and lichens. 
He was born in 1828. 

A collection of mosses and lichens made by Richard Warner, 
the author of ' Plantfe Woodfordienses,' has been presented to the 
Epping Forest and County of Essex Naturalists' Field Club. 

The death is recently announced of John Francis Drege, at 
the advanced age of eighty-seven. He was a native of Altona, in 
Prussia, and in 182G commenced his extensive botanical investi- 
gations in South Africa. These lasted for eight years, during 
which time he traversed the interior of Cape Colony, making col- 
lections which are estimated to have contained 200,000 specimens, 
belonging to 8000 species. A full account of the country investi- 
gated by him, and descriptions of a large number of his novelties, 
will be found in the ' Commentariorum de plantis Africfe Aus- 
tralioris,' by his friend Ernest Meyer (published in 1835 — 1837), 
among them the genus Drcf/ea, with the graceful dedication — 
" Amico cui tantas Flora; divitias exquisitissimas debemus, dicatum, 
spero fore, nt et duret et accrescat," 



IGI 



(l^vtguual .^vticics. 



NOTE ON CAREX FLAVA, L. :.; 

By F. Townsend, M.A., F.L.S. 

" Carex Jiava var. an/illacca, MS. Pavkliurst Forest, Isle of 
Wight." — I contributed specimens, thus labelled, to the Botanical 
Exchange Club last year, and they are noticed in the Eeport as " a 
luxuriant form of C. lepidocarpa, Tausch." 

The plant is certainly C. lepidocarpa of Syme, Eng. Bot. Ed, 
III., but it is not C'. lepidocarpa of Tausch, the original describer of 
that supposed species, and though, in a sense, it may be con- 
venient, yet I think it incorrect to apply Tausch's name to a 
, plant with characters so opposite to those given by him for his C. 
lepidocarpa. What is C. lepidocarpa, Tausch ? Let the aiithor of 
the species speak for himself. He supposed that two distinct 
species were confounded under the name C. jiaca, L., and in the 
' Allgemeine botanische Zeitung,' No 12, p. 179 (Eegensburg, 1834), 
he described both as follows : — 

"5. C. lepidocarpa. Spica ^ solitaria louge exserta, 5 2,3 
remotis ovatis, infima pedunculata bractea lineari elongata 
vaginante suffulta, stigmatibus 3, fructibus inflato-tumidis sub- 
orbiculatis compressis nervosis rostro 2-dentatis retrorsum dense 
imbricatis, culmo subfiliformi scabro." C. Jiava, Host, germ. 
[Gram.] 1 t. 63 (pi. florifera)." 

"6. C. Jiava. Spica ^ solitaria subsessili, ? 2, 3 subconfertis 
ovatis, infima pedunculata bractea foliacea elongata vaginante 
suffulta, stigmatibus 3, fructibus infiatis tumidis ovatis nervosis 
rostro 2-dentatis reflexis, culmo lajvi. Hac C. patida. Host, 1 1. 69 
[64] . This last varies with large and small fruit, and there is 
also a dwarf var. C. CEderi, auct. pi. (C. Jiava, y. Willd. Spec. pi. 4, 
p. 269). C. Jiava and C. lepidocarpa grow intermingled, and are 
easily distinguished fi'om one another, both in flower and in fruit ; 
therefore, I have myself always recognised them as distinct 
species.'"'' 

The specimen figured by Host, and referred to by Tausch as repre- 
senting his C lepidocarpa, is 15^j inches in height from the collar 
of the root to the apex of the male spike ; the leaves are somewhat 
narrow and not half the length of the stem, the latter is rather 

* The quotation is translated from the German. Tausch could not have 
known true C. (llderi ; he probably mistook for that species, or included in it, 
a dwiuf form of C. Jiava, which boLaiiists now usually label C. lepidocarpa 
ill herbaria. 13illot distributed as C. (Kdcri similarly dwarf fdrms of C.jlava, 
and I have seen them labelled C. (.Kderi by continental botanists : instances 
occur in the British Museum Herbarium. 

N. s. VOL. lU. [June, 1881.] Y 



162 NOTE ON CAREX FLAVA. 

slender ; the bracts are reflexed, the lower one exceeding the long- 
stalked male spike ; the two female spikes are distant and oval- 
oblong; the fruit is rather large, and has a long and strongly 
deiiexcd beak. In the loUowhig year (18y5) Hoppe published a 
lengthened description of C. lepiducarpa, Tausch, with a plate 
(H. 57, No. 8), in Sturm's ' Deutschland's Flora.' He describes the 
leaves as half the length of the stem, and as narrower than those 
of C.jiiiva, L. In 1838 Bluff and Fingcrhut give a description 
which is almost word for word that of Tausch, and add " Crcscit 
iisdem in locis, ubi (J. jlava et in ejus consortio . . . [C. Jiavic 
proximo affinis, distiuctam esse ferunt : culmo tenuiore simubjue 
longiore ; fohis angustioribus ; spica <? lougius peduuculata, pedun- 
culo sc. spicam ? fructiferam longe superante ; spica $ ima exserte- 
pedunculata ; fructibus minoribus magis rotundatis ; squamis apice 
rotundato-obtusis obsciirius coloratis spadiceis. Distinctas pro- 
ponere placnit C. flavam, (Ederi et banc, quamquam unius typi 
forte nonnisi forma? siut, ut ulterioribus institutis observationibus 
characterum differential! am pretium satius statuatur)." Bluff' and 
Fmg., pp. 648-9. 

To recapitulate, it will be seen that Bl. & Fmg. distmctly state 
that Tausch's plant is taller than C.jiava, and that the stem is 
scabrous. Hoppe, and also Bluff' and Fingerhut, state that the leaves 
are narrower. Tausch further states that the male spike is long 
stalked, that the female spikes are distant, and that the beak of 
the fruit is reflexed. He says nothing about the size of the fruit, 
but under C.jiava ha states that the latter varies with large or 
small fruit. 

Now the Parkhurst Forest Carex has very broad leaves, as long 
as or even longer than the stem, a short sessile male spike, 
approximate and even crowded female spikes, and the fruit has a 
short and nearly straight beak — characters so opposed to those 
quoted above by Tausch and others for C. lepidocarjia that I could 
not justly apply that name, and as the Parkhurst Forest plant 
represents a form of C.jiava which I have only seen on clay soils, 
I thought it well to distinguish it by a varietal name. My own 
observations of C.jiava, as seen growing in England and Scotland 
and on the Continent,* lead me to beheve that it is a very variable 
species, variable in height, in the length and width of the leaves, 
in the length of the peduncle of the male spike, and in the length 
of the spike itself; in the number, position, and form of the female 
spikes, these being crowded or more or less distant, oval, ovate, or 
oblong in form ; m the size of the fruit, in the narrowing at its 
base, in the length and direction of the beak, this being more or 
less deflexed, and even sometimes straight. 

Dr. Boswell's description of C.jiava as an aggregate is an ex- 
cellent one, but the characters given by him for his a ijeiiuina and 
/j lejjidocarjia are not altogether in accordance with the views of 
continental botanists or with my own observations, and in con- 
formity with these I would describe the varieties proper thus : — 

♦Notably iu the upland boggy pastures of the Jura. 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEE A. 163 

Var. a genuina. — Leaves shorter than the stem, male spike nearly 
or quite sessile, female spikes contiguous, lowest bract much exceed- 
ing the male spike ; fruit considerably narrowed towards the base, 
and gradually narrowing above into a much deflexed beak, which is 
as long as the rest of the fruit. 

Var. ft C. lepidocarpa, Tauscli.— Stem scabrous; leaves narrow, 
shorter than the stem ; ]nale spike long-stalked, female spikes 
distant, ovate ; fruit crowded, suborbicular, beak long, strongly 
deflexed. A rare and local form. 

Var. y minor. — Stem shorter than in var. a ; leaves commonly 
as long as or even longer than the stem, male spike usually stalked, 
female spikes usually distant ; fruit smaller, suborbicular, more 
suddenly contracted into a less deflexed or straight beak, which is 
shorter than the rest of the fruit. This is the common British 
form. 

Var. ^ ar<iillacea. — Leaves broad, as long as or longer than the 
stem ; male spike short sessile, female spikes contiguous ; fruit 
suborbicular, beak short, straight. On clay soil. This var. I have 
observed to flower twice in the year. 

In the case of so variable a species as C. flava, where the 
varieties " shade so imperceptibly into one another that it is 
merely an arbitrary line which can be drawn between them," it is 
a question whether it be not advisable to refrain from giving 
varietal names. The last quotation is from Dr. Boswell's con- 
cluding remarks on this species, and I can fully endorse them. 



A EEVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

By C. B. Claeke, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Concluded from p. 142.) 

Sect. 7. iEQUAT^. Leaves 2-3-pinnate, hairy beneath; 
primary nerves not very close and parallel as in Sect. Pi/cnoncnrie. 
Trees and shrubs. 

25. L. iEQUATA, Linn. Mant. 124 ; leaflets lanceolate beneath, 
with hairs and scattered flat circular discs, corymbs 2-4 in. diam. 
stout hairy, bracts deciduous early or inconspicuous. — Miq. in Ann. 
Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 98 ; Kurz in Journ. As. Soc. 44, ii. 178, 180 ; 
For. Fl. i. 281.— L. hirta, Horncm. Hort. Hafn. i. 237 ; Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ed. Wall. ii. 409 ; Blume, Bijd. 197 ; Wall. List, G822 ; Decno. 
in Ann. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. iii. 440 ; Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. ii. 
012 ; Laws, in Fl. Jirit. Ind. i. 008. — L. hirauta, Blume, Bijd. 197 ; 
Miq. in Fl. Ind. Bat. i. pt. ii. 612. 

From Sikkim and Bhotan to Tenasscrim, alt. 0-3000 feet ; 
common throughout ]3cngal Plain. — Distrib. Malaya. 

A shrub, 4-10 feet, branchlcts villous. Lcailcta 7 by l:'! in., 
acuminate, obtuse at the base, hairy on the upjier surface at least 
when young, primary nerves 12-15 on each side tlio midrib, i in. 



164 A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

apart ; denticnlations of the margin shallow iiTcgular ; secondary 
nerves parallel, distinct; petiolules often \ in. Jicni/ ] in. diam., 
black ; pyrenes 6-3. — In Linnasus' Herbarium the single sheet of 
L. cBquata contains one piece of the true plant, with a fragment of 
L. samhticina. L. ccqiinta is rarely mistaken, as every example has 
the flat glandular discs which are found on no other L.eea. 

2G. L. ROBusTA, Eoxb, Hort. Beng. 18, Fl, Ind. ed. Wall. ii. 
468. — Leaflets broadly lanceolate i:)ilose on the nerves beneath 
without flat glandular discs, corymbs 6-12 in. lax with many thin 
branches puberulo-pubescent, bracts deciduous early or incon- 
spicuous.— Wall. List, 6826 ; W. & A. Prodr. 132 ; Kurz in Jouru. 
As. Soc. 44, ii. 178, 180, For. Fl. i. 279, not of Laws.— 7.. mpcra, 
Wall. List, 6825, not of Edgw. — L. difusa, Laws, in Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 
667. 

Bengal, Bm-ma, Tenasserim, scattered widely in the lower hills, 
alt. 500-2.500 feet, nowhere abundant. Nepal, Wallich ; Sikkim, 
C. B. Clarke; Khasia, if. /. c^- T., C. B. Clarke; Mudhopoor Jungle 
(East Bengal Plain), C. B. Clarke; Circars, fide Roxbim/h : Chota 
Nagpore (in Singhblioom), C. B. Clarke; Meera Donger Cnear 
Bombay?), Dalzell ; Tenasserim or Andamans, Heifer, Kew Distrib. 
n. 1294, 1295. Pegu and Tenasserim, frequent, fide Kurz. 

Kesembling generally L. cequata, but with a very compound 
slender-branched panicle scarcely villous, the leaflets without 
glandular discs. Leaflets thinner, glabrous above or with sparse 
hairs when young. Berry steely black, pjTcnes 6-4. — There can 
be no question that Kurz and King have got Pioxburgh's L. robiista, 
and that Lawson has not, as Pioxburgh's Ic. ined. of his rohusta is 
at Kew. 

27. L. BRACTEATA, Herb. Kew. — Leaflets large broadly or ovate 
lanceolate shortly caudate hispidulous on the nerves beneath, 
corymbs 4-6 in. dense, bracts J-^ in. ovate and lanceolate very 
persistent, ripe berries brownish yellow. — L. rohusta, Laws, in Fl. 
Brit. Ind. i. 667, in chief, excluding all syn. ; not of Eoxb., nor of 
Blume. 

Sikkim and Khasia, alt. 500-4000 feet, very common, Griffith, 
H. f. d T., Dr. Treutler, C. B. Clarke; Oudh Terai, CoL R. 
Thompson. 

A large stragglmg shrub, 6-16 feet; or sometimes (in the 
Teesta lower gorge) a tree 30 feet high, with a clean trunk 15 feet. 
Leaves 2-pinnate (never, so far as I recollect, 3-pinnate) ; upper 
often 1-pinnate ; leaflets often 9 by 3J in. Petals green ; staininal 
tube yellow to orange, lobes subentire. — This can be confounded 
with no other species except L. compactijiora, Kurz, which is 
glabrous. It is remarkable that so marked, plentiful, and accessible 
a species should have escaped Wallich and all the older collectors, 
until H. f. & T. secured a large quantity of it in every stage. The 
berry is fully ripe when orange-yellow, withers only to dull black. 
Kurz (in Journ. As. Soc. 44, ii. 180), identifies this species with 
L. Snndaica, Miq., which must be altogether wrong, for neither in 
Wiquel's description nor in his authentic examples of that species 



A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 165 

are there any bracts, L. Snndaica, Miq., really is L. rnhnsta, 
Blume, and Kurz perhaps jumped to a conclusion. 

28. L. KuRzn, C. B. Clarke. — Leaflets large oblong-lanceolate 
closely denticulate thin softly pilose, corymbs 2-4 in. dense stout, 
bracts J in. narrowly oblong. 

Andamans, Watercove, Kurz. 

Kurz marked this L. hirta, i.e., L. aquata, Linn., and it maybe 
a variety of that plant ; but in the very thin leaves and absence of 
glandular discs on their lower surfaces it certainly differs from 
every other example of L. lurta. It seems indeed quite as near as 
L. hracteata, from which, however, it is well distinct by the secon- 
dary nervation, which is open reticulate, not closely parallel. 
Kurz's single specimen is in fragments ; the terminal shoot is 
densely shaggy, with brown hairs standing out on aU sides ; I can 
find nothing hke it in Leea. 

29. L. jAVANicA, Blume, Bijd. 197. — Leaflets elliptic-lanceolate 
acuminate pubescent on the nerves beneath, corymb divaricate 
wide-spreading rusty-pubescent upwards, bracts small caducous. — 
,Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 100. 

Singapore, Sir It. Schomhuri/k, n. 8G. — Distrib. Java, Celebes. 

A large shrub. Upper leaves bipinnate ; so much resembling 
those of the Bengal L. sainhncina that Schomburgk's example has 
been named sambucina / But not only are the leaves pubescent 
beneath ; the very wide and rusty-pubescent corymb is unlike that 
of L. sambucina. 

Species Excluded from the Genus. 
Leea odontophylla, Wall. List, G820, from theL'rawaddy Bank. 
— The Wallichian example consists of two detached leaves, which 
are, I believe, the common Khasi Vitis arranged by Lawson as a 
glabrous form of Vitis lanata, Eoxb. 

Leea cordata. Wall. List, G819, from Ava, is a Vitis in half- ripe 
fruit; a species erect, without tendrils (so far allied to T'. spectabilis, 
Kur^), but with the peduncles exactly intra -a.villuri/ between the 
persistent lanceolate stipules. 

APPENDIX. 
Species of Leea, not included in the forefjoiny CataJoijnc of Indian 
Species, which I have seen at Kcw or the British Museiuii, but 
have onhj noticed cursorili/. 

Sect. 2. L.'ET^. 

30. L. serrulata, Miq. in Ann. j\[us. Lugd. r>iit. i. 99.— The 
imperfect example communicated cannot be separated from L. 
acuminata, W^all. 

Sect. 3. EuBR^. 

31. L. linkarifolia, C. B. Clarke. — Nearly glabrous, u]ipor 
leaves 3-piunate, leaflets 2^ by ^-^ in., peduncles long slender, 
corymbs small, petals red. — Cambodia, Lebeuf, n. 214. — Closely 
allied to some Lidian forms of /.. rubra, I'lume. 



1G6 A REVISION OF THE INDIAN SPECIES OF LEEA. 

82. L. CuMiNGii, C. B. Clarke, — Stems very rufous shaggy, 
leaves large 3-pinnate, leaflets elliptic-lanceolate rufous-villous on 
both surfaces. — Philippines, Cuming, n. 1379. 

33. L. Manillensis, Walp. in Nov. Act. CaBs. Leop. xix, 
Suppl. i. Sll. — Nearly glabrous, leaves 3-pinnate, leaflets elliptic- 
lanceolate acuminate serrate, corymbs peduncled large compound, 
petals rose-red. — Manilla, Meyen, Cuming u. 607. 

84. L. Brunoxiana, C. B. Clarke. — Nearly glabrous, upper 
leaves 2- (or often 3-) pinnate, leaflets elliptic very shortly acumi- 
nate, primary nerves numerous continued nearly to the margin 
often setulose, corymbs glabrous. — Australia, R. Broun, n. 5272 ; 
Port Darwin, Schultz, n. 627. — Called L. mmlmrina by Benth. (Fl. 
Austral, i. 451), but not merely the colour of the flowers, but the 
nervation of the leaves totally differs from L. sambucina, Willd. 
The present species is like a very handsome well-developed L. rubra 
or L. setuligera. 

35. L. GuixEENsis, G. Don, Gen. Syst. i. 712. — Shrubby, 
flowers sessile small, petals deep-red, staminal tube yellow-white. — 
L. sambucina, Thonn. in Schum. Guinea PL 134 ; Baker in Oliv. 
Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 415, not of Willd. — L. coccinea, Bojer Hort. 
Maurit. 61 ('? of Planch.) — Sierra Leone, Niger, Congo, Angola, 
Abbeokuta, Monbotto-Land, Zambesi, Mam-itius, Madagascar. 

Var ? arhorea, Bojer Hort. Maurit. 61, n. sp. — Arborescent, 
flowers less capitellate much larger, petals rose, staminal tube 
yellow-white. — Mauritius, Bourbon, Madagascar, Comoro Isles. 

Sect. 5. Paucifoliolos^. 

86. L. simplicifolia, Zoll. ; Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 
101. — Sumatra. — A distinct species, but the flowers are perhaps 
red. 

37. L. Zippelliana, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 101. — 
New Guinea. — Nearly allied to L. simplicifolia. 

38. L. Celebica, C. B. Clarke. — Uppermost leaf (at least some- 
times) 1 -pinnate with at least 7 leaflets, leaflets very large ovate 
lanceolate acute sparsely patently pilose beneath, corymb spreading 
rusty-pubescent. — Celebes, Eiedel. — Leaflets 6 by 4 in. This seems 
related to L. grandifolia, Kurz, much as L. latij'ulia, Wall., is to L. 
macruphylla, Eoxb. 

Sect. 6. Sambucina. 

89. L. biserrata, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 99. — There 
treated as a var. of L. Hamhxicina, Willd., which appears the true 
affinity. The imperfect example coiumunicated looks exceedingly 
like L. gigantea, Griff. 

40. L. horrida, Teijs. & Binn. Cat. Hort. Bog. 1866, 169.— 
Stem prickly, otherwise much like L. sambucina. — Java. 

41. L. axgulata, Ivorth. ; iliq. in Ann. Mus. Liigd. Bat. i. 97. 
— A prickly stemmed species ; the fragments communicated cannot 
be distinguished from L. horrida, Teijs. & Binn. 



NOTES ON IRISH PLANTS. 167 

Sect. 7. MovxTJE. 

42. L. SuNDAicA, Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 96. — Leaves 
large bipiuuate rusty hairy beneath, corymb peduncled very com- 
pound rusty villous, without prominent bracts or bracteoles. — L. 
rohusta, Blume, Bijd. 198, not of Eoxb. — Java. — This species is 
much more closely allied to L. rohusta, Eoxb., than to any other 
species ; not much differing therefrom, save in the rusty villous 
corymb. — L. fuliijinusa, sp. Miq. in Fl. lud. Bat. Suppl. 518, is 
reduced as a var. of L. Sundaka by himself in Ann. Mus. Lugd. 
Bat. i. 96, and does not appear to differ, except by the 3-pinnate 
leaves, which are not common in the allied Indian species. 

43. L. PUBESCENS, Zipp. ; Miq. in Ann. Mus. Lugd. Bat. i. 97. — 
Timor. — The authentic example of this seems very near L. 
Javanica. 

Entirely different from every other species in the genus is — 

44. L. TiNCTORiA, Lindl. ; Baker in Oliv. Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 416. — 
Flower-buds i in. long and upwards. — Isle of St. Thomas ; West 
Tropical Ahica. 



NOTES ON lEISH PLANTS. 
By H. C. Hart, B.A. 



During a short visit, in the summer of 1880, to my friend Mr. 
Chas. B. Barrington, of Glenstal, who takes much interest in the 
flora of his county, we made several excursions together in the 
surrounding neighbourhood ; and, as that part of Ireland has been 
very little explored botanically, my notes record many additions to 
the flora of Districts VI. and VII. of Moore and More's ' Cybele 
Hibernica,' which I now proceed to enumerate. A day upon Keeper 
Mountain yielded us no varieties, but a slight sketch of the vertical 
range of its plants may be useful to those botanists who take an 
mterest in this subject. 

At the summit, 2278 feet, occurred : — PoUntUla TormentiUa, 
GalUim sa.ratilc, Yaccinimn Mj/rtillus, Callima ruhjaris, Humex 
Acetosa, Eiuiietniin, nviruiii, Luzula cmiipestris, Jiincxm scptarrosus, 
Srtrpus (■//s/iitosus, Luzula si/h-atira, F.riophor^im auf/ustifdliuv), 
Antlioxai(tlin)i\ oddratmii, Aira jlexuosa, Af/rostis ru((jaris, Festuca 
uvina, Aspidium dilatatum. At 2200 feet: — Solidaijo Vinjaurea, Erica 
rinerea, Ja.sione montaiia, MelaiiipurH})! pratense. At 2000 feet : — 
Cerastiuin tn'viair, Varciniuni ]'itis-l(Uia. 

Although there is a suitable range of cliff's, with a northern 
aspect, on the north side of Keeper Mountain, I failed to gather 
any alpine plant there, excepting Varrininvi Vitix-Iddn, which also 
occurs near the summit on the south side. In a glen, flanking the 
upper side of Ballyhourigan Wood, upon the south side of Keeper, 
Ci/stojderis fragilis occurs sparingly, and witli it fMtJii/rus macror- 
rluzus ; on the moorland a little above the wood, ('arcx oralis may 



168 NOTES ON IKIHH PLANTS. 

bo gathered ; while at its lower extremity I noticetl Lnstrea Orenpteris. 
These last three plants were not previously recorded from District 
VII. 

I will now give a list of the localities for the rarer plants 
noticed. When a plant is an addition to the district in which it 
occurs, the expression " District 6 " or " District 7 " will he found 
inserted after the locality given. Where the discovery is due to my 
friend Mr. Barrington, his initials C. B. B. follow. 

Meconojms camhrica, Vig. Frequent about Six-mile Bridge, 
Co. Clare. C. B. B. 

'^- Chelidnnium majus, L. Glenstal ; District 6. 

Cerastituii (jlotiicratuin, Thuil. Eoadside between Keeper and 
Newport ; District 7. 

[Malva horcalis, Wallm. Waste ground near a gate lodge, 
Glenstal; District 6. C. B. B.] 

M. vioschata, Li. Glenstal; Districts. 

[Geranhan phmtm, L. Naturalised in waste ground, Glenstal; 
District 6. C. B. B.] 

l(jr. si/lvaticiDii, L. In several places at Glenstal, where it has 
been known for the last twenty years ; District 6, C. B. B. 

IViamnus catharticus , L. Near Newport b}^ the roadside. 

Ulex. (jrallii, Planchon. Clare Glen, near Glenstal; District 7. 

Lathi/rus macrorrldzus, Wimm. Ballyhourigan Wood, Keeper 
Mountain ; District 7. 

\Prunns Pacliis, L. Glenstal, where it is called " Mazzard." 
C. B. B. 

Rosa arvensis, Huds. Eoadside between Newport and Keeper 
Mountain ; District 7. 

IPijrus Malm, L. Glenstal; District 6. C. B. B. 

Callitriche haviulata, Kutz. Glenstal ; District 6. 

Pimpinella magna, L. Between Boher and Glenstal by the side of 
the road ; at Anna Cotty ; and roadside near Newport ; District 7. 

Siiim aiKjustijuliuw, L. Ballymackkeogh Bog, between Glen- 
stal and Castle Connell ; by the railway near Drumkeen Station. 

Oenanthe crucata, L. Glenstal ; District 6. 

■■'•Dipsacus sylvcstris, L. Eoadside between Boher and Glenstal. 

Scahiosa arvensis, L. Glenstal, and roadside between Limerick 
and Glenstal ; District 6. 

■''Tanacctum vuhjair, L. Eoadside near Glenstal. 

■'"Cichorium Intijhus, L. Glenstal; District C. C. B. B. 

Grepis jxdudosa, Moeuch. Glenstal, by the Mulcaher Eiver ; 
District 6. 

Jasione nwntana, L. Keeper Mountain ; District 7. 

lAjcopus europa^us, L. Eoadside between O'Brien's Bridge and 
Castle Connell where the railway crosses. Little islands and 
eastern shore of Lough Derg, near Killaloe ; District 7. 

I'iwiuiculd vuhjaris, L. In one place at Glenstal. C. B. B. 
I saw it nowhere else in Limerick or Tipperary. 

liumex Hi/(lrolap(iihwii, Huds. In a bog where the Limerick 
and Killaloe Eailway crosses the road from O'Brien's Bridge to 
Castle Connell, and in the neighbourhood around. C. B. B. 



'o 



NOTES ON IRISH PLANTS. 169 

Euphorbia hyherna, L, There is a record in tlie ' Cybele 
Hiberuica ' — " It grows abundantly near Anakirk, in the county of 
Limerick ; K'Eogh (1736) " ; their habitat has never since been 
verified, nor is there any other known Limerick locality. Mr. C. B. 
Barrington cannot find out any place named "Anakirk" in his 
county. 

Juniperus nana, Willd. Along the shore of Lough Derg at the 
northern point of Youghal Bay; District 7. C. B. B. 

Potamor/eton densus, L. Dromiueer Bay, Lough Derg ; and 
along the shores of islands and both sides of Lough Derg at Killaloe ; 
District 7. 

P. lucens, L. Both shores of Lough Derg near Killaloe ; Dis- 
trict 7. 

P. perfoliatus, L. With the last ; District 7. 

Butomus innhellatus, L. Shores of island in Lough Dei'g, near 
Killaloe. C. B. B. 

Orchis pi/rainidalis, L. Dromiueer, Lough Derg. 

Gymnadenia conopsea, Brown. With the last. 

Car ex oval is, Good. On Keeper Mountain, a little above the 
upper border of Ballyhourigan Wood; District 7. 

Carex Pseudoci/perus, L. Ballymackeogh Bog, near Newport ; 
District 7. 

Phalaris arundinacea, L. Dromiueer Bay, Lough Derg. 

HymenophyUwn tunbridyense, Sm. Glenstal, Capperculleu stat. ; 
District 6. 

Trichomanes radicans, Swartz. This fern was shown to me in 
four distinct localities, all near Glenstal. C. B. B. : two of them 
cross the boundary into Tipperary. The Tipperary localities were 
found by my friend Mr. Croker Barrington. They form an im- 
portant addition to the flora of District 7. 

Cystopteris fray His, Bernh. In a glen on the borders of Bally- 
hourigan Wood, Keeper Mountain, sparingly. 

Lastrea Oreopteris, Presl. In Ballyhourigan Wood, Keeper 
Mountain ; District 7. 

Equisetwn sylvaticum, L. Near Glenstal, by the Dooglasha ; 
District 6. 

E. maximum. Lam. Roadside between Newport and Glenstal, 
in two or three places; Districts 6 and 7. 

The above list of additions to the flora of the Counties Limerick 
and Tipperary includes several conspicuous and not uncommon 
plants, and it is obvious that the Botany of this part of Ireland is 
very imperfectly known. Some common plants, which undoubtedly 
occur in these districts, are still unrecorded, and it is probable 
some varieties await further exploration. I do not think the flora 
is a rich one, but I would specially direct observation to the shores, 
islands, and waters of Lough Derg, whose eastern side seems to 
have been hardly visited by a botanist. Imda salicina in its only 
British locality, Teucrium Scordiiun, and the more than dubiously 
native Sisyrhynchium anceps (Pcrmudianum), all three occur on the 
western shores of this neglected lake. 



170 



NOTES ON EADN OK SHIRE PLANTS. 
By Henry N. Ridley, M.A., F.L.S, 

In August of last year I made a few botanical excursions into 
Radnorshire, a county hitherto but little visited by botanists, and 
cue of the nine counties omitted almost entirely from "Watson's 
' Topographical Botany,' on account of the scantiness of the records 
of its flora. 

The flora differs somewhat remarkably fi'om that of the 
adjoining county of Hereford, and this I consider to be to a consider- 
able extent due to the difference of the geology of the district, 
Herefordshire being almost entirely composed of old red sandstone 
and clay, whereas the localities visited in Radnorshire were either 
Silurian or volcanic rocks. The Stanner Rocks are remarkable to 
a geologist from their being charged with hypersthene, a mineral 
found in only one or two other localities in Britain ; they are also 
remarkable for their very peculiar flora, especially for the presence 
of Sclerant/ius jjerennis and Veronica lujhrida : the former of these 
plants appears to be only known in Britain fi'om Norfolk and Suffolk 
and this locality ; the latter occurs on the carboniferous limestones 
of the West of England, as at the Great Orme's Head and St. Yin- 
cent's Rocks, and again in Norfolk. 

Radnor Forest consists of a considerable area of low hills, none 
more than 2166 feet in height; they are clothed with short grass, 
Pteris aquilina, Lastrea Oreopteris, Ulex Gallii, Vaccinium Myr- 
tiUus, &c., and quite bare of trees, except for a few larch planta- 
tions ; they are composed of Upper Silurian rocks. The remainder 
of the country over which I collected was Lower Silurian, except at 
Builth, where the Carneddau range is composed of volcanic grits. 
The following plants, abundant in the neighbouring county of 
Hereford, were remarkable for their rarity or absence : — Sijniphytum 
ojficinale, Ccntanrea Scabiusa, Tanacctnm vuhjare, Viscwn album, and 
Linaria minpr : of these, Tanacetum vuhjare was the only one I 
actually saw ; but it must be remembered that my excursions were 
limited, and by no means exhaust the flora of the southern parts 
to which I chiefly turned my attention. 

I will noAV give a list of the more interesting plants met with, 
most of which have not been previously recorded as occurring in 
this county. 

Ranunculus Lcwniiiandi, F. Schultz. In a stream near Pains- 
castle. 

/.'. Flaiinnula, L. Streams in the Radnor Forest. Abundant. 

R. auricomus, L. In a copse near Aberedw. 

R. arvensis, L. In the cornfields about Clyro. 

Fnmaria confusa, .Jord. In a potato field near the railway, 
Aberedw. 

Cardamine impatiem, L. A rocky wood on the left bank of the 
River Edw, at Aberedw. 

Arahis hirsnta, Br. New Radnor, and between Builth Wells 
Station and Llanellwedd, ou walls. 



NOTES ON KADNOKSHIRE PLANTS. 171 

Lepidiuni campestre, Br. Koaclside near Biiilth. 

L. SmitJiii, Hook. Oil the Staiiiier Eocks. On rubbish heaps 
by the side of the road between C1}t.-o and Paiuscastle. 

Viola tricolor, L. With purple flowers, Aberedw Hill. With 
yellow flowers, cornfields. 

V. arvensis, Murr. Cornfields. 

F. lutea, L. Above Water-break-its-Neck Waterfall, about a 
mile fifom New Radnor. 

DiantfiKs deltoidcs, L. Mount Carneddau, not far from a farm- 
house, but without doubt native. 

Stellaria aqnatica, Scop. Near Cl}To. In a stream between 
Dolyhir and New Eadnor. 

Spergula arrensis,Ij. Cornfields about Clyro ; and Graer, near 
Llansaintfread. 

Scleranthus perennis, L. Is still to be found in the well-known 
locality, viz., at the foot of the Staiiner Eocks, but is by no means 
abundant there. 

Hijpericum tetrapteruiu , Fries. In marshes on the hills above 
Llanelwedd. 

H. humifusuin, L. On the Stanner Eocks, east side, and by the 
side of the road between Builth and Aberedw. 

Malva moschata, L. Is very abundant about the roadsides and 
elsewhere. 

Geranium pratense, L, In the hedges between Llanbadan and 
Aberedw; and on the Aberedw Mountain. 

G. molle,h. Aberedw; and above the stream Edw, together 
with G. pudllum, L. 

G. columbinum, L. By the side of the road running through 
Aberedw village, 

G. lucidum, L. At W^ater-break-its-Neck fall ; among the 
stones in Aberedw churchyard. 

Ulex Gallii, Planch. Hillsides. Spread over a large extent of 
country in the Eadnor Forest and Aberedw mountains. 

Genista tinctoria, L. A few plants near Gaer. 

Trifolium medium, L. Eoadside near Clyro. 

T. filiforme, L. Eoad near Clyro. 

Ayrimonia odorata, Mill. On the bank of a stream at Gaer, 
near Llansaintfread. 

Poteriiim Sanfiuisorha, L. Eoadside, Llanelwedd. 

Alchcmilla vuU/aris, L. Fields and hilly places, Eadnor Forest, 

Kosa sjnnosissiDia, L. Stanner Eocks. 

Pynis Aria, Hook. Aberedw Eocks, above the railway. 

P. Ancvparia, Gaort. Aberedw Woods and Mountain. I be- 
lieve it to be truly wild here, though in many other localities it lias 
certainly been introduced. It seems widely scattered over the low 
mountains of this part of Wales, occurring also in Breconshire on 
Mynydd Troed and other mountains. 

PepHs Portula, L. Ehos Common. In a little pool on Llandeilo 
Hill. 

Epilobium angusti/olium, L. Native on Ehos Common. It has 



172 NOTES ON KADNORSHIRE PLANTS. 

been planted or escaped iu many other places in Radnorshire, 
especially about the railway banks. 

Circcea intermedia, Ehrh. Among loose stones, on the Aberedw 
Mountain, between Aberedw and Llandeilo Hill. The plant appears 
to me identical with specimens marked as true C. intermedia by 
Aschersou in the British j\Iuseum Herbarium. 

Bryonia dioica, L. Eoadside near Eadnor. Not common. 

Sedum Telephinm, L., var. Faharia. Abundant on the Car- 
neddau mountains, above the road from Builth to Aberedw. A 
few plants also occurred on the Stanner Rocks. 

('otijledon Umbilicus, L. Stanner Rocks ; roadside, Clyro, on 
a wall. Only one or two plants in each locality. This 
scarcity is remarkable when the great abundance of the plant 
in the neighbouring county of Herefordshire is contrasted 
with it. 

Cicuta virosa, L. Rhos Common ; in a stream on Mount 
Carneddaii. 

Oenanthe crocata, L. Rhos Goch ; Aberedw, near the River Edw. 

Silaus pratensis, L. Radnor Forest. 

Asperula udorata, L. Bushy places near Clyro. Woods, 
Aberedw. 

Dipsacus pilosus, L. Thickets on the right bank of the River 
Edw. Aberedw, near the railway. 

Carlina vulrjaris, L. Stanner Hill ; Carneddau Mountain ; 
Aberedw Hills. 

Serratula tinctoria, L. Foot of the Stanner Rocks. 

Matricaria inodora, L. By the roadside. Pains castle. 

Tanacetum vnlgare, L. A single plant on the road to New 
Radnor, near Dolyhh- ; certainly far less abundant than in Here- 
fordshke. 

Artemisia Absinthium, L. Occurs, doubtless as an escape, on 
the roadside near Rhos Goch Mill. 

Seneciu si/lraticus, L. Hills above the road from Aberedw to 
Builth. 

Lactuca muralis, Fresen. Bushy places near Clyro. 

Jasione muntana, L. Stanner Rocks. 

Campamda rapuncidoides, L. On the side of the road near New 
Radnor, probably escaped. 

C. latifoUa, L. In a wood on the banks of the Edw, Aberedw. 

C. patula, L. One specimen, roadside near Clyro. 

Calluna vidyaris, Salisb. Radnor Forest. Rhos Common. 

Solanum Dulcamara, L. Near Llanelwedd, on the road to 
■ Aberedw. 

Veronica montana, L. Stanner Rocks. Aberedw Mountain. 

V. hybrida, L. Stanner Rocks, south side, sparingly. 

Pedicidaris pahistns, L. Rhos Common. 

Oriyamun ruhjare, L. Foot of Stanner Hill. 

Scutellaria minor, L. In a bog, Carneddau Mountain. 

Stachys Betonica, Benth. Roadside near the village of Clyro ; 
near Llanelwedd. 

Lialeopsis Ladanum, L. Roadside near Llanelwedd. 



NOTES ON RADNORSHIRE PLANTS. 173 

Myosotis 2}(tlustris, With. A few specimens on Elios Common. 

Utricularia vuh/aris, L., and U. minor, L. In peat pools on 
Rhos Common. 

Kmpetrum nujnou, L. Eadnor Forest; on the mountains 
Whimble and Foeh 

SiHinjaniuii) mmosuni , Huds. Ditches on Ehos Common. 

Potamogeton natans, L., and P. crispus, L. Peat pools, Rhos 
Common. 

Triglochin palustre, L. Rhos Common. 

Xeottia Xidus-avis, Rich. Wood above the Edw, near Aberedw. 

Tamm communis, L. Roadsides between Llanelwedd and 
Aberedw ; and between Dolyhir and New Radnor. 

Allium ursinum, L. Wood on the left bank of the River Edw, 
near Aberedw. 

Narthecium Ossi/mf/iim, Huds. Bogs, Carneddau Mountain. 

Luzula Hijlvatica, Bich. Aberedw Woods. 

L. multijiora, var. cont/csta, Koch. Bogs, Carneddau Mountain. 

Juncus conglomeratus, L. Marshes near Painscastle. 

J. ohtusiflorus, Ehrh. ; -/. acuti^flurus, Ehrh. ; J. hufonius, L. : 
Rhos Common ; marshy ground between Clyro and Rhos Goch. 

J. squarrosus, L. Bog, Carneddau Mountain. 

Scirpus }iahtstris, L. Rhos Common. 

S. pauciflorus, Lightf. Rhos Common. 

Eriophorum angustifolium, Roth. Rhos Common. 

E. angustifolium, var. minus. Bog, Carneddau Mountain. 

Cared' pauiculata, L. Carneddau Bog. 

C. stellulata, L. Stanner Hill. Marshes above the road to 
Aberedw from Builth. 

C. remota, L. Aberedw Woods. 

C. ovalis, Good. Carneddau Bogs. 

C. flava, L. Stanner Hill. 

AlopecAirus geniculatus, L. Stream on Carneddan Mountain. 

Arundo Phragmites, Trin. Rhos Common. 

Melica uniflora, Retz. Foot of Stanner Hill. 

Glyceria Jiidtans, Br. Streams, Carneddau. Rhos Common. 

Festuca oviiia, L. Widely distributed over the Carneddau and 
Radnor Forest Hills. 

Bromus asper, Murr. Aberedw Woods ; woods above Llan- 
faredd. 

li. sterilis, L. Roadside between Builth and Aberedw. 

Xardus stricta, L. Bogs, Carneddau Mountain. 

Lomaria Spicant, Desv. Hillside, Radnor Forest. 

Scolojintdriiim rulgarc, Sm. Apparently very local ; in one 
spot in Aberedw Woods. 

Asplenium liuta-niuraria, L. Walls, New Radnor. 

A. Trichomanes, L. Water-break-its-Neclc, on the rocks on both 
sides of the cascade. 

A. Adiantuiii-nigrum,'h. Stanner Rocks ; Water-break-its-Neck, 
on the rocks on both sides of the cascade ; rocky places above the 
road from Builth to Aberedw, near Llanelwedd. 



174 SHORT NOTES. 

Cystoptcris fniifilis, Bernh. On a shed in a farmyard near 
Water-break-its-Neck, and on the rocks near the fall. Var. dentata. 
Aberedw Woods, in the dry bed of a stream. 

AspiduDii acuh'atum, Sw. Banks of the Edw. 

Xephrudiwn dilatatum, Desv. Woods near Llanfaredd and 
Aberedw. 

Osmunda reyalis, L. Khos Common, on the edges of peat pools. 

Equifsctiaii si/lvaticii)ii, L. Near Painscastle. 

K. liuiosuin, L. Ehos Common. 



SHOKT NOTES. 



Thlaspi axpestre, L., in Somersetshire. — The Eev. E. P. 
Mm-ray has brought to the British Museum Herbarium a spe- 
cimen of the above-named plant, collected by him on the 5th 
ult., between Shipham and Rowberrow, near Axbridge, Somerset, 
growing among herbage on a bank by the roadside, on mountain 
limestone. This extends the range of the plant, of which 
Glamorgan was previously the southern limit. — Jajies Britten. 



Lescur^a mutabilis, Ferg. — At p. 114 1 stated that the Lescurcea 
from Ben Lawers was not Schimper's variety saxicola, but the 
type. This view was expressed after comparison with very few 
specimens, and after learning the opinion of a bryologist of ten 
times my experience. It has now been examined, and compared 
with authentic specimens by Dr. Braithwaite and Mr. E. M. 
Holmes, and they both refer it without doubt to Schimper's variety 
saxicola. This variety is regarded by Molendo, Milde, Lindberg, 
and Braithwaite as a species. Mr. Holmes has kindly sent me a 
note to make use of in this correction. He says: — '^ Lcscur(Ba 
mutabilis, Fergussou ... A specimen of a moss forwarded to 
me under the above name for exhibition at a recent meetmg of the 
Linneau Society proved on examination to be L. saxicola oi Milde — 
L. striata, Br. & Sell., var. saxicola of Schimper's Synopsis. This 
variety is distinguished from the typical plant by its longer stems 
more regularly pinnate at the extremity, by its larger and broader 
subsecund leaves, more shortly acuminate and serrate at the apex, 
and by its yellowish brown colour. It also grows on stones on 
mountains, more particularly of the northern zone, wdiere, ac- 
cording to Schimper, the typical plant is rare, the habitat of the 
latter being on the branches and twigs of dwarf shrubby beeches 
on the loftier mountains of the middle and southern zone, from 
the Alps to the .Jura. In such situations it usually grows with 
Brachi/thecium rcflexitm. From Pteri<iynandnim jilifurme, Lcscurua 
saxicola is distinguished at sight by its striated leaves, and under 
the microscope by the nerve which almost reaches the apex of the 



SHORT NOTES. 175 

leaf. In the herbarium at Kew a specimen of the rare plant 
occurs, collected by Don in Scotland; but some of the localities he 
gives for other plants being regarded as doubtful, his discovery does 
not appear to have been published." — W. West. 



Spring-flowering Form of Colchicum autumnale [see Journ. 
Bot., 1880, pp. 145, 185] . — I think it should be put on record that 
the Colchicum plants which floAvered in the early spring of last 
year in two habitats near Bristol have resumed their normal con- 
dition. This season there has not been found a single flowering 
specimen. It appears to me that the explanatory hypothesis 
offered at p. 145 of last year's Journal was a new one. The func- 
tion of the plants was temporarily disordered by the rigorous 
autumnal frosts of 1879 ; and climatic influences in the following 
season being no longer adverse, they have been enabled to fulfil 
their natural economy. — Jas. W. White. 



Notes on Eeport of Botanical Exchange Club for 1879. — 
Cardamine dentata, Schultz. This plant occurs abundantly, and 
is the only form, in wet meadows by a tributary of the Stour, west 
of Heme Bridge Station, near Christchurch, Hants. — Herniaria 
hirsuta, L. In December last I visited the locality where I had 
found this plant in June, 1879. [See Journ. Bot., 1880, p. 51.] 
It occurs in plenty over about an acre of ground, being part of a 
large field, portions of which have been let to difi'erent persons for 
the cultivation of various crops. The acre in question had been 
out of cultivation for about three years, and I was informed the 
last crop was potatoes. I could not find the plant in other por- 
tions of the field, and until it has been found elsewhere its position 
as an indigenous species must, I think, be held with suspicion. — 
VuJpia ciliata, Link., var. riJahra (J'\>stur(( touhif/ua, Le Gall.) A 
notice of this plant having been found by me in Sufl'olk in 1846, 
and again by Mr. Bennett in 1879, will be found in ' Journal of 
Botany ' for 1879, p. 195.^ — ()phio(jlosmni vidtjatu)}!, L., var. am- 
bi(jnnm, Coss. & Germ. The first published record of this variety 
as an English plant was in my ' Contributions to a Flora of the 
Scilly Isles,' published in this Journal for 1864 (p. 120), and I 
distributed specimens at the time. Dr. J. T. Boswell states, in Eng. 
Bot., ed. iii. (1870), that he had found it in Orkney seventeen years 
before. — F. Townsend. 



TuLiPA sYLVESTRis, LiiiH., IN FLOWER. — Wliilst botanisiug about 
Harefield, Middlesex, on May 7tli, a fine specimen of the above 
Avas found by my sister in the grove behind the church, and, on 
carefully searching, three more flowering specimens were discovered, 
but all, except the first, more or less withered. The locality is a 
well-known one, but I believe the plant is so seldom met with in 



176 SHORT NOTES, 

the flowering state that the above record may be of interest. 
Dentaria was flowering in profusion, and at Pinner we found the 
Fritillaria still abundant in one meadow. — Frederick J. Hanrury. 



SiLiciFiED Trees. — [Dr. Otto Kuntze requests us to insert the 
following note referring to the notice of his paper ' Uber Geysirs,' &c., 
at p. 27 of this Journal.] " Petrified trees have originated from 
stems which were (1) sunk erect in the mud of the sea (2) gradually 
covered by sediment ; and (3) when these have disappeared by 
decay (4) the hollow of the stem has been filled with sediment. 
The silicification of trees in situ by capillarity is not the mode 
in which they may become silicified ; and I myself mention 
in my paper another mode of the silicification of leaves, branches, 
small stems, and fi-uits in the neighbourhood of geysirs and hot 
springs. Lyell's hypothesis is not confirmed by facts which I have 
observed ; for all silicified trees which I have seen are silicified 
equally all round. Heavy showers occurring to trees on the lee- 
ward side of geysirs would cause a partial silicification of one side only ; 
besides which, it is stated that the bark of the trees cannot be pene- 
trated by the silica-holding hot water of the geysirs." — 0. Kuntze. 



Introduced European Plants in Chile. — Mr. Thomas King 
writes as follows in the ' Proceedings of the Natural History 
Society of Glasgow,' vol. iv., part i., p. 44 (1880): — " Our com- 
mon Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis) is now one of the worst 
Chilian weeds. Mentha piperita and M. citrata, the Yerhabuena of 
the Chilenos, were introduced by the Spaniards to season their 
dishes, and are now found in every damp place in the country. 
Hemlock [Conium 7iiacutatui)t), novf so common that it is used to 
thatch booths, comes from a few seeds which an apothecary had 
sent to him from Spain fifty or sixty years ago. Trifoliiim repens 
is now common on the hills behind Valparaiso; Viola odorata 
grows by the sides of streams, and little boys sell bunches of them 
in the streets. I saw the Dandelion for the first time in June, 
1872. Dr. Philippe had seen it six months earlier, but by December 
I saw it growing in the streets of Santiago. I tried to introduce 
the Field Daisy ( Bellis perennis), and got some seed sent me from 
the West-end Park. It grew well enoitgh and flowered, but did 
not spread. I suppose it is extinct by this time. But the most 
remarkable introduction of all is perhaps the Cardon [Ctjnara Car- 
dnnculus), a plant from the south of Europe. It now covers large 
tracts in Chile, and is, I believe, the same thistle that has overrun 
the plains of the Argentine Eepublic." 



177 



iExtvacts antr Notices of ji^oolis anS iiXcmoivs. 



THE PROPOSED REMOVAL OF THE BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS 
OF THE FLORENCE MUSEUM. 

[We liave received the following letter from Mr. Jolm Ball, 
F.E.S., enclosing a translation of a memorial recently circulated 
and signed by Italian botanists of eminence. The letter and 
memorial speak for themselves ; and we gladly give to them such 
publicity as the pages of this Journal can afford. — En. Jouen. Bot.] 

"I think that you will render a service to the interests of 
Botanical Science by publishing the enclosed protest of the 
botanists of Florence against the proposed removal of the Her- 
barium and annexed Botanic Garden in that city. The Herbarium 
is not only one of the richest in Europe, but is of exceptional 
importance, from the fact that in the collections bequeathed by the 
late Mr. Barker Webb are included the type specimens of the 
Canarian Flora and of his other works, as well as those of the 
classical works of Desfontaincs, Labillardiere, and Ruiz and Pavou, 
whose Herbaria all passed into his hands. The building in which 
it is lodged is admirably adapted for the purpose, while the site to 
which it is proposed to remove is in all respects objectionable, and 
would entail the certain injury and probable loss of these priceless 
collections. — John Ball." 

When, in the month of May, 187-1, botanists from all parts of 
the world were assembled in Florence in the building containing 
the Botanical Museum founded by the late Professor Parlatore, 
Monsieur Alphonse DeCaudolle, in presiding over the lirst meeting, 
observed "that one of the most remarkable objects calling for the 
attention of the Congress was the Botanical Museum, with the 
spacious and convenient halls and galleries in Avhich its meetmgs 
were held." 

No one at that time would have supposed that what excited the 
admiration of the most competent judges would have been con- 
demned and sentenced to destruction only seven years after these 
emphatic words were pronounced. To justify the abandonment of 
the present museum, the only plausible reason alleged is the in- 
convenience to the students attending the lectures of the Institute 
of Higher Studies in the Piazza San Marco, in having to go so far 
as the museum in Via Bomana in order to follow the lectures given 
there ; and, with a view to centralise the buildings devoted to 
students, nothing less is proposed than to transport all the 
botanical collections, and to abandon the garden attached to the 
present museum, with its hothouses and other appurtenances. In 
rL'turn, it is proposed to restore to its old destination the small 
ancient Garden of Simples adjoining the building, where it is pro- 
posed to lodge the herbarium. But the question which requires 
consideration is how far the proposed arrangumcnls are conducive 

2 A 



178 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

to the safety and good preservation of the collections, and how far 
the new localities proposed are suited for the intended purpose. 

The building proposed to receive the Herbarium was formerly 
used as the stables of tlie Grand Dukes of Tuscany, and more 
recently occupied by the cavalry of the Italian army. For three 
hundred years it has been constantly occupied by a large number 
of horses, and it is in this building that it is now proposed to lodge 
the priceless collections of di-ied plants that form the National 
Herbarium, so peculiarly liable to injury from damp. It is true 
that with a very heavy outlay that would be necessary for the 
rebuilding of a great part of the present structure, it might be 
possible to eradicate the eflects of the long usage to which it has 
been applied; but, even if this were done, it may be doubted 
whether there is any chance of obtaining a building comparable in 
beauty, convenience, and suitability to its hitended purpose as the 
present museum. 

The project in question supported by influential men personally 
worthy of respect, but having no familiarity with botanical science, 
and therefore not competent judges, appearing to be on the verge 
of final adoption, the undersigned residents in Florence interested 
in botanical studies think it their duty to protest against the pro- 
posed removal of the museum ; and to give more weight to their 
protest, they invite all the botanists who were present at the Con- 
gress of 1874, as well as all others who are personally acquainted 
with the museum, to join us in endeavouring to prevent the 
execution of a project which we believe to be highly injurious to 
the branch of natural science to which we are devoted. 

We, therefore, address ourselves to the botanists of all 
countries, to request they will use their influence to obtain the 
abandonment of the projected removal of the National Museum, and 
the application of the large sum required for that purpose, or a 
sufflcient portion of it, to the further improvement of the present 
collections, by the purchase of living or di-ied plants (especially 
cryptogams), to supplying deficiencies in the botanical library, to 
providing additional cases for dried plants now inaccessible for 
want of space in which to arrange them, and, finally, to the repairs 
and improvements urgently needed in the plant-houses of the 
Botanical Garden. 



NOTE ON MIL J. THOMSON'S CENTRAL AEPxICAN COLLECTION. 

[We are indebted to ]\Ir. Baker for the following note, which 
he has drawn up for Mr. Thomson's recent work, ' To the Central 
Ah-ican Lakes and back.' Mr. Baker has kindly added diagnoses 
of the two new species indicated in the note. — Ed. Journ. Box.] 

The collection contains altogether nearly 200 species. Amongst 
the plants fifom an elevation of 6000 to 8000 feet are a certain 
number of characteristically Cape types. Amongst these are 
Dierama (Sparaxis) penJula, a common Cape plant long known in 
English gardens ; Bupliane toxicaria, the well-known " poison-bulb " 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 179 

of Natal and the Transvaal, which was found also by Captain 
Cameron on the shores of Lake Tangauika, and by Welwitsch in 
Angola; Silcne Burchellii, Clentati.s T/iunhen/ii, Htjpoxis villosa and 
ohtusa, Berklieija Zeyheri, Domheya Bur<jcssi(i' and Flectronia Gueinzii 
of Natal, Ascolepis capensis, and Alepidea anatijmhica. There are a 
considerable number of characteristically Cape genera, of which 
one or more species, not identical with those of the Cape, are found 
in Abyssinia or other regions of Central Africa. These are repre- 
sented in Mr. Thomson's collection by a Protea, probably con- 
specific with abjjssinica, a Pelargunium, two species of Selayo, 
Mortpci divcrsi/olia, Felicia abyssinica and a second species, three 
species of Helichrysum, Liyhtfootia abyssinica, and a second species 
apparently new, two Gnidias, a Chiytia, Ehus ylaucescens, two Disas, 
and a new (Jladiolus of the section Hcbea. Of widely-spread tem- 
perate types we have Scabiosa Columbaria, a common British plant, 
a Cerastium, a Hypericum, Sola)ium iiiyra))i, a Lotus, and a Cala- 
mintha. Ayauria salicifolia and Geranium simense, both of which Mr. 
Thomson has gathered, are common to the Cameroons and the 
mountains of Abyssinia and Madagascar, Caucalis melanantha is 
common to the mountains of Abyssinia and Madagascar, and 
Rumex maderensis, which was also gathered by Speke and Grant, is 
a plant of the Atlantic Islands. The greater proportion of the col- 
lection from the lower levels consists of species of widely-spread 
tropical and subtomperate genera, some of which are confined to 
the old world, whilst others belt the whole globe in the warmer 
zones. To this class belong a new tree-fern of the genus Cyathea 
(C. Thomsoni, Baker, MSS.j, a new scapigerous Torenia near T. 
Schweinfurtliii, a new Tecoma [T. Xyasstc, Oliver, in Hooker's 
' Icones,' t. ]351), Margaretta rosea, the only known species of a 
genus discovered by Colonel Grant, and named after Mrs. Grant, 
Euphorbia Grantii (Oliver), a curious broad-leaved species with 
very large hand-like glands to the involucre, Paronia Schimperiana, 
a Mimidopsis, a Burmaimia, an Eriocaulon, a Triumfetta, two Ochnas, 
a Crotalaria, four Indigoferas, a Tephrosia, a Smithia, a Cassia, a 
Combretum, a very fine Loranthus, with broad leaves and tubular 
flowers densely clothed with yellow hairs, a Spermacoce, eleven 
Vernonias, three Buchneras, five Ipom;eas, an Acalypha, three 
Ocymums, and three species of Plectrantlius. Universally difi'used 
tropical species are represented in the collection by Dodomea viscosa 
and Bidens pilosa. The specimens arc deposited in the herbarium 
of the Koyal Gardeiis at Kcw, and have nearly all been examined 
and determined by Professor Oliver. 

Gladiolus (Hebea) Thojisoni, Baker, n. sp.-— Bulb and root- 
loaves not collected. Stem short, slender, glabrous. Spike secund, 
rather lax, 4-G in. long; outer spatlie valve deltoid-cuspidate, 
brownish, veined, moderately firm in texture ; inner ratlier sliorter, 
oblong, membranous. Whole flower under an inch long, bright 
red ; ovary oblong, ,\ in. ; tube {- in.; and upper segments of the 
limb |-:V in. broad, oblong, subacute, cuneate at the base; three 
lower oblanceolate-unguiculate, -J in. broad, acute, with a claw 
about as long as the lamina. Stamens A ni. lung, falling rather 



180 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

short of tlie tip of the upper segments ; anthers as long as the 
filaments. Style reaclimg as high as the top of the anthers ; 
branches falcate, cuneate, with a stalk as long as the stigmatose 
portion. — Upper plateau of Lake Nyassa. — Allied to G. pulchellus 
and G . Junnosus of the Cape. 

Cyathe\ Thomson:, Baker, n. sp. — Frond ample, decompound, 
tripinnatifid, dull green, upper surface glabrescent, lower hau-y all 
over. PinuiB lanceolate, 15-18 in. long, 3^-4 in. broad, their 
rachis pale dull brown, densely furfuraceous above, slightly so on 
the under side. Pinnules lanceolate, sessile, ^-2 in. long, \ in. 
broad, cut down to a broad wing into oblong entu-e tertiary seg- 
ments ^ in. broad. Veins pinnate in the tertiary segments ; veinlets 
9-8-jugate, forked. Sori costular. Involucre large, fragile, 
breaking up irregularly. — Lower plateaux, round Lake Nyassa. — 
Near C. Drei/ei, differing in its pilose frond, and involucre breaking 
up irregularly, &c. 



Guide to the Literature of Botany : heitig a classified selection of 
Botanical Works, including nearly 6000 Titles not yiven in 
PritzeVs ' 'Thesaurus.'' By Benjamin Daydon Jackson, Secre- 
tary of the Linuean Society. London : published for the 
Index Society. Longmans; Dulau and Co. 1881. 

In this handsome volume of more than 650 pages we have the 
results of a long and laborious undertaking — results which have 
ended in the production of an indispensable companion to botanical 
literature. Those who know the conscientious care with which Mr. 
Jackson has laboured — we use the word advisedly — at this ' Guide ' 
will find in its completion a double cause for congratulation ; they 
will congratulate the author upon the comp)letion of his task, and 
they will also felicitate those for whose benefit the task was 
undertaken. 

The title-page of the work suggests at once the idea of an 
undertaking of considerable difficulty : an examination of its con- 
tents Avill show how well the author has attained his object. Mr. 
Jackson tells us :— " The 'Guide' is meant to be suggestive, not 
exhaustive ; it does not claim to be a complete bibliography of the 
subject, but to indicate the general drift of the 9000 and odd books 
enumerated." With respect to the mam principles that have 
guided him in his selection he says : — ' ' The aim I set before 
myself was to give all the works likely to be wanted by my fellow- 
countrymen, either for a knowledge of theii" own botanical litera- 
ture, local and colonial floras, or for trade; keeping specially in 
view those districts likely to be visited by the traveller from these 
shores." There is, however, much in the ' Guide ' beyond these 
somewhat narrow limits. The classification of the list is without 
doubt a great advantage, and well worth the trouble that has 
been spent upon it, though this has been so great that the author 
declares: — " I would never again attempt a catalogue which was 
primarily a classified list." 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 181 

Tlie general account of the scope of the work, from which we 
have made the above quotations, contains also an explanation of 
the contractions used, the method pursued with respect to " trans- 
lations or transliterations from Euss, Greek, and other languages 
not using the Eoman letters," with several amusing illustrations of 
difficulties and ambiguities that have arisen from the whims and 
eccentricities of authors, forming an interesting Preface of twenty- 
six pages. This is followed by a brief Historical Introduction of 
thirteen pages, which is remarkably concise — more so, indeed, than 
we could have wished; the unfortunate "Arabs," for example, 
though they, for three hundred years as we are told, " alone bore the 
lighted torch of learning, and to them Western nations owe a deep 
debt of gratitude, for the discovery of many species and drugs of 
vegetable origin," are despatched from first to last in ten luies, and 
are heard of no more excepting in the Index. 

The ' Guide' is founded on Pritzell's ' Thesaurus,' to which, as 
we have seen from the title-page, many additions have been made. 
Many of these, as examination will show, are additions of con- 
siderable importance, of works published before 1870 ; of a great 
number that have appeared since that date ; and of many which, 
though of great interest, do not appear to have fallen within the 
scope of Pritzel's intention. The list of publications is arranged 
in consecutive sections from 1 to 124. Many of these are grouped 
into divisions with much judgment, making reference easy, and also, 
it must be admitted, pointing out deficiencies to those who have 
studied any particular branch of Botany. The first nine sections 
are : — 1. Bibliography; 2. History; 3. Biography, Avhich "must be 
considered as strictly supplemental to Pritzel ;" Indexes, in two sec- 
tions, viz., 4, Terminology ; 5. Plant Names — we miss here, by 
the way, the much used, if not quoted, ' Glossaire de Botanique,' by 
Alexandre de Theis, Paris, 1810 ; G. Encyclopaedias ; 7. Keys to 
other books ; 8. Nomenclators ; 9. Systems. These nine sections 
occupy eighteen pages. Pre-Linnaean Botany follows in three sec- 
tions : 10. Biblical Botany; 11. Classical Botany; 12. Early 
Modern (pp. 19-32). Perhaps Mr. Jackson has but exercised 
sound discretion in cutting this chapter short ; but there are pro- 
bably some readers who would desire more information than is to 
be found here. We have Theophrastus, Dioscorides, and Pliny, 
but of the last the English translation by Philemon Holland, and 
the translation by Bostock and Eiley in Bohn's Library, which 
includes in its ample notes the researches of Fee and others, are 
not mentioned, though of mterest to English students of botanical 
literature. Mr. Jackson remarks of Pliny, "his laborious com- 
pilations on plants have no original value whatever." This, how- 
ever, is not the case with Cato and Varro. Perhaps if they were 
admitted, Virgil's Georgics and Columella's works would also have 
to find a place, and Paulus vEgineta, who is also unnoticed, though 
we have an English translation of his work, as well as the Aldiue 
edition of 1528. We always meet with Apuleius, too, in botanical 
history, though his botanical woil- may not bo of mucli conse- 
quence. It is true that mformation about all these — the originals, 



182 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

not the translations — may be had from Lempriere ; but even so 
much as this cannot be said with respect to the Arabic writers. 
A list of such of the works of these as have been translated into 
Latin is a desideratum. If we may form an opinion of tlie interest 
attaching to the early Natural History works, at the time when 
modern learning began, by the date of their appearance after the 
invention of printing, Serapiou, who Avas published in 1473, is 
second only to Pliuy in order. Besides Serapion, Eazis, Avicenna, 
and Averroes, just mentioned by Mr. Jackson in his Historical In- 
troduction, we meet with some other Arabic writers in our 
libraries, translated into Latin. Perhaps none of these old books 
would be of very general interest, but their introduction would not 
have occupied much space ; it would have been useful to some 
readers, and the chapter would have been more complete if they 
had been there. Whether the "overhauling of the more than 
2200 volumes of the [British] Museum Catalogue," which the 
author has not attempted, as he believes " the results would hardly 
be proportionate to the formidable task," would have supplied 
many interesting additions to this division there is no telling. 
'Lonitzer (A.) Kreuterbuch, Frankfurt, 1557,' appears, but his 
' Natiu-alis Historic Opus novum, 1551,' is not noticed. 

After Pre-Linnean Botany are Introductory Works (5 13-15, 
p. 33-66), a great number of which are recent, published since 
1870; Physiological and Morphological Botany ( j 16-43, p. 67-109). 
Descriptive Botany (j 44-55, p. 110-175); Paleobotany ( .^ 56-57, 
p. 175-191); Economic Botany (§ 58-66, p. 191-211).' These 
divisions, with their several sections, are very clearly arranged, so 
that the inquirer may find without difficulty in one place the 
literature of any particular branch that he may want. For in- 
stance, Cryptogamic Botany has received much attention of late ; 
here are § 49- Ferns; 50. Mosses; 51. Hepaticie ; 52. Characese ; 
53. Algse, Desmids, and Diatoms; 54. Lichens; 55. Fungi. Again, 
Economic Botany is generally supposed to be rather a neglected 
branch of the science ; but a reference to this division will disclose 
such a number of works on the subject as to prove that it has re- 
ceived its full share of attention. We find the following sections : 
— 58. General Works; 59. Food-plants; Grain, Forage, Food- 
plants of Insects; 60. Luxuries; Sugar-yielding Plants ; 61. Medi- 
cinal Plants; 62. Dendrology ; 63. Textile Plants ; 64. Perfumery ; 

65. Dye Stufts, Sec, Tanning Materials, Gums, Starches; 

66. Weeds. 

With respect to the classification of the titles some difficulties 
are apparent. As the author points out, " many books treating of 
several departments of Botany might fitly have gone in several 
sections," and though this has been generally avoided, in a few 
cases books are placed in more than one. In some instances this 
plan might probably have been extended with advantage. Again, 
the author says : — " As titles are often insufficient and even mis- 
guiding, I may have placed some books in sections different from 
those I might have chosen had I been able to refer to the books 
themselves." Many of these would no doubt be altered in a second 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 183 

edition. For instance, we find on p. 77, § 17, " The Cell and Cell 
Contents," and the paragraph, or sub-section, " Crystals, &c." 
Under this is placed " Bonders (F. C.) Der Stoffwechsel, als Quelle 
der Eigenwaerme bei Pflanzen und Thieren. "Wiesbaden, 1847. 
8°." This work would be more at home in " § 18. Nutrition and 
Vitality" — say next to Thorey's " Beitrag zur Lehre vom Pflanz- 
lichen Stoffwechsel," on the same page, or even more so next to 
Schmitz's work, 'Ueber die Eigenwaerme des PHanzen,' on p. 78. 

After Economic Botany follow Eniblematic Works ; Practical 
Botany ; Local Works, under the three sections, Directories, Geo- 
graphical Distribution, Voyages ; and then Local Floras, which is 
the largest, if not the most important division in the book 
(pp. 225—495). It seems to be very complete, and gives a compre- 
hensive collection of "Floras" of all parts of the world, in the 
mass and in detail ; thus, after looking over the Floras of Europe, 
we may pass on successively to those of Great Britain, of England, 
of Middlesex, and of London ; and it is the same with the other 
quarters of the globe, so far as there is material, and the material 
is very abundant. The division Botanical Gardens (pp. 405-453) 
is arranged in a similar manner to the last, and supplies a list of 
works in reference to them in all parts of the world from 
Gerard's Catalogus (159G), the earliest published garden catalogue, 
to Seboth's Alpine Plants painted from Nature, 1880. 

Serial Publications occupy thh-ty pages, divided into two sec- 
tions, Transactions and Journals. The first of these, occupying 
eighteen pages, is all but new ; for out of the 267 publications 
included in it, only fourteen are given in Pritzel. Of the 160 
Journals, sixty-three are given in Pritzel. It may be noticed that 
all the works in the list of Serial Publications for America and 
Canada are supplementary to the ' Thesaurus.' W^e think it would 
have been to Mr. Jackson's advantage had he obtained the co 
operation of some American botanist. It is almost certain that 
many American books of the popular order must be in existence 
which an American botanist would be acquainted with ; just as 
there are numberless works of this kind published in England 
which are not likely to cross the Atlantic. A search through the 
files of botanical periodicals alone would have yielded additions : 
as an instance of this we notice in the ' Bulletin ' of the Torrey 
Botanical Club (begun in 1870) notices of works omitted by Mr. 
Jackson. 

" The Addenda includes the titles of such books as came to 
hand too late for incorporation in their proper places, new pub- 
lications, and a few which had been accidentally misplaced." These 
are classified in sections corresponding in name and number with 
those of the main portion of the book, and bring the work down to 
the end of 1880. 

The Index is extensive, occupyhig 111 pages, and as complete 
and accurate probably as is in the nature of indexes. Trifiing slips 
seem inevitable to them. Thus the Epitome of Camerarius (p. 27 1, 
has somehow found no place in the Index ; Lankester's translation 
of Schleiden's 'Grundi'iss' is not found under Lankcster, though it 



184 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

is under Sclileiden as "Principles." Besides being of tiie fullest 
character as to references, and at the same time as succinct in terms 
as clearness would allow, the Index has the merit also of supplying 
us directly with some useful information. The years of birth and 
death of deceased writers arc included in parentheses when known 
to the author ; if of birth or death only, the distinctive initial is 
prefixed. This useful feature might have been even more fully 
carried out ; several additional dates may be gleaned from the 
volumes of this Journal. In the secondary but not unimportant 
characters of convenient size, clear type, and ample margin the 
volume leaves nothing to be desired. 

On one or two mmor points there is room for a difference of 
opinion. " The plan of spelling oxit the common diphthongs and 
modified vowels," to which we are becoming accustomed in Latin, 
looks odd when applied to German words. Mr. Jackson, however, 
is " quite ready to defend " what he considers as " merely a 
common sense practice ;" and he is probably right in saying that 
any objections made to it arise from want of familiarity with this 
mode of writing. His use — or rather disuse — of capitals in the 
titles of books is a little strange. ' Flora bathoniensis ' and ' Flora 
bristoliensis ' look odd to English eyes, although this may be the 
correct Latin form. When we remember that the work was 
originally expected to consist of about two hundred pages, we shall 
not complain that the Christian names of the authors are not given 
instead of their initials. In many instances this might have been 
done without occupying additional space ; but Mr. Jackson has 
chosen, for the sake of uniformity, to omit them altogether from 
the body of the book, although some are given in the admirable 
Index. 

The "Monographs" to which § 46 is devoted are of a mis- 
cellaneous character, including works descriptive of orders, genera, 
species, and even hybrids. Mr. Jackson seems to have expected 
some adverse criticism upon this section, and has ua his Preface 
endeavoured to forestal it. It is indeed not easy to suggest an 
improvement ; but we thmk something might have been done in 
the way of cross-reference. For instance, under the heading of an 
order, one might find some reference to the genera belonging to it 
which appear under a separate heading — e.fj., under Orchided. 
might have been added " see also Uduntoglussiun ;" while one is sur- 
prised at first to find no allusion to the CrassidacecB, which form an 
important part of DeCandolle's ' Plantes Grasses,' that work being 
placed under the heading " Cactucecc, &c." Wade's paper, ' De 
BuddJea tjlohosa et Holco odorato,' is found under the former genus 
only ; there should at least have been a cross-reference under 
Hulcus : and the same treatment should have been bestowed upon 
Baillon's ' Buxacees et Stylocerees,' which is referred to only under 
the former name. Under " Orchidacea " we should have expected a 
cross-reference to Bateman's ' Orchidacete of Mexico and Guate- 
mala," which is placed in the section devoted to Central American 
Botany. 

We would especially urge upon all who wish to use the book in 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 185 

the most advautageons manner to read carefully the author's Pre- 
face, — a useful practice too often neglected, — and to remember that 
the works which they may expect to find are " books especially 
noteworthy," books given in Pritzel's 'Thesaurus,' ed. 2, but here 
corrected or added to, and books omitted by Pritzel ; only such re- 
prints as have separate pagination and a full title-page are included. 
Mr. Jackson's ' Kemarks on Botanical Bibliography,' published in 
this Journal for 1880 (pp. 167-177), may be read with profit in con- 
nection with the ' Guide.' We imagine that many will regret that 
Mr. Jackson did not at once give us a new edition of Pritzel's 
' Thesaurus ;' he could certainly have done so with very little more 
labour than he has expended upon this work ; but it would then 
hardly have come within the scope of the publications of the Index 
Society, to which body botanists are indebted for this most useful 
volume. We occasionally miss a distinctly noteworthy book — e. g., 
Gaudichaud's 'Organogenic des Vegetaux;' but on the whole Mr. 
Jackson has been singularly satisfactory in his selection of im- 
portant books. 

Much care has evidently been taken in ascertaining when pos- 
■ sible the authors of anonymous or pseudonymous works ; thus the 
"eminent botanist" who was advertised as having revised the 
second English edition of Figuier's ' Vegetable World ' is identified 
with Mr. Dyer, of Kew ; "Johannes Senilis," who is actually quoted 
under this pseudonym by the authors of the ' Genera Plautarum,' 
is shown to represent " J. Nelson;" and many other works of less 
note are traced to their authors. Further information in this 
direction will doubtless be forthcoming: e.g., the little work 
'Botany for Novices,' published under the initials "L. E.B.," 
was, we believe, written by Miss Lydia E. Becker. 

This is an incomplete notice of a very complete book : but we 
trust that enough has been said to show that Mr. Jackson's ' Guide ' 
is indispensable to every botanical library of any pretension, as 
well as to every general library in which botanical literature 
occupies a place. K. H. A. 



Butang of California. By Sereno Watson. Vol. II. [Apetalcc — ■ 
Sphagiiacea.] Cambridge, Mass., 1880. 

The Flora of British hulia. By Sir J. D. Hooker, C.B., K.S.I. 
Part VIII. [Ru})iace(C — VacciniacecB.'] London: L. Reeve & Co. 

[1881.] 

Biologia Ccntrali-Aiiirricana Botany. By W. B. Hem- 

sley. Part VII. April, 1881. [C((prifoliac(e — ComposiUc 
(part).] 

The first two works named above are important contributions to 
our list of local floras, each of which may be taken as a type of what 
such works ought to be, excejit perhaps in one or two matters of detail 
to which we may hereafter allude. The first volume of the ' Botany 
of California ' appeared in 1870, the authors undertaking it being 
Prof. Asa Gray, Mr. W. H. Brewer, and Dr. Sereno Watson ; the 

2 B 



186 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

last-named botanist is the autlior of this the second and concluding 
volume, assisted in some families by " specialists of the highest 
authority in their several departments." The 'Flora of British 
India ' is the latest and most flourishing of the series of colonial 
floras which have been subsidised by Jiritish or colonial govern- 
ments, and which owe their existence and to a great extent their 
execution to the energy of Sir .Joseph Hooker and liis colleagues 
at Kcw. We say " the most flourishing,"' because the progress of 
some of these floras has unfortunately been arrested. The last 
volume of the ' Flora Capensis,' for example, bears date 1864-1865, 
the ('ainpmuilaccce being the last family described; the ' Flora of 
Tropical Africa ' came to a standstill in 1877 with the Khenacecr ; 
but the ' Flora of British India,' commenced in 1872, is steadily 
progressing, this progress being in no small degree owing to the 
energetic co-operation of Mr. C. B. Clarke. 

The ' Botany of California ' is a most attractive book ; both 
paper and type seem to us as good as it is possible to procure, and 
the descriptions of the various groups leave nothing to be desired. 
Dr. Engelmann has undertaken the Lorant/iaci'a and Abietinecc, as 
well as the genus Quercus ; Mr. Bebb has elaborated the SctUces ; 
the Carices have been entrusted to Mr. William Boott (son, we 
believe, of the eminent caricologist), the Grasses to Dr. Thurber, 
and the Ferns to Prof. Eaton ; the bulk of the work thus falling 
upon Dr. Sereno Watson, who is second only to Prof. Asa Gray in 
his devotedness to North American Botany, The greatest care is 
manifested upon every page, and nowhere perhaps more promi- 
nently than in the Index, which is a model of what such things 
should be. There is an Appendix consisting of a good glossary and 
an extremely interesting " List of persons who have made botanical 
collections in California," by Mr. Brewer; this title, however, 
hardly ade(|uately conveys to the general reader how much infor- 
mation regarding those to Avhom we are mainly indebted for our 
knowledge of Californian Botany is given in this condensed account 
— from the time of Hfeuke, who collected in California in 1791, 
down to the present date. 

A Avork of this kind is, of course, hardly suited for detailed 
criticism in these pages ; but there are one or two jioints to which 
we would call attention. We note Avith pleasure that Dr. Watson, 
whom we have not previously encountered as a brycologist, names 
mosses on the principles generally adopted by phanerogamic 
botanists, but too often departed from by cryptogamists ; so that 
we have only one authority for a given name, instead of two. On 
the other hand, we notice that such specific names as califonura, 
lapponica, and the like are spelt Avith capital letters, which seems 
to us an midesirable innoA'atiou upon the recognised practice. In 
one respect — that of placing the name of the monoij^rapher of the 
order at the head of each page — we think our English colonial 
floras have the advantage : Dr. Watson's coadjutors do not put 
their names to the ncAV species here described, and this may 
possibly mislead those Avho do not remember that the Avork is not 
all from one ^en. Care must be taken to quote Mr. Boott's ncAV 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 187 

Carices as of W. Boott, not of Boott, or confusion will arise. 
When we consider the fragmentary manner in which the publica- 
tion of American plants has been undertaken, and the difficulty of 
bringing together the scattered descriptions of genera and species 
fi'om the reports, separate papers, catalogues, and journals in 
which they have appeared, we shall appreciate as it deserves this 
complete and readily cousultable account of the Botany of Cali- 
fornia. We hope that Dr. Watson will now have time and oppor- 
tunity to carry on his yet more generally useful work, the 
' Bibliographical Index to North American Botany,' of which we 
anxiously await the completion. 

The ' Flora of British India,' as represented in the part before 
us, is peculiarly open to criticism upon points of nomenclature, 
inasmuch as M. DeCandoUe's '• golden rule " — as Mr. Jackson has 
w^ell styled it (Journ. Bot., 1881, p. 76) — " Never to make an author 
say what he has not said," is, unfortunately, by no means adhered 
to. In the single genus Ldunaa (pp. 415-417) we have the names 
of no less than live out of the seven species expressed as follows : — 

L. aspleniifolia, DC. Prodr., vii., 181 {Micrurhynchus). 

L. chondrilloides, DC. Prodr., vii., 183 (Zotlikoferia). 

L. secunda, Clarke Comp. Ind., 27 [276] [Microrhynchus). 

L. nudicaidis, Less. Synops., 139 (Microrhynrhus). 

L. f/lomerata, Cassini in Diet. Sc. Nat., xlviii., 422 (Lomatolepis). 

Future authors, if they wish to be correct, will cite Hook, f., Fl. 
Brit. Ind. as the authority for all these names. As if to mark more 
forcibly the inaccuracy of the citations given above, we find Micror- 
hynchus asphniifulins, DC, M. nudicaulis, Less., and Lomatolepis 
ylomerata, Cass., cited among the synonyms for the first, fourth, and 
fifth species respectively ; thus making it appear that DeCandolle, 
Lessing, and Cassini gave two names to each plant. Nor can this 
mode of citation be defended on the plea of attributing the species 
to the author who first used the specific name retained ; for the 
name chundril hides was applied to the plant called L. choiidrilioides 
above by Desfontaines (who called it Sonchus chondrilloides) ; the 
specific name of L. midicaulis dates back to Lianffius (who called 
it Chondrilla Jiiidicdulis), and so on. A yet worse form of this 
erroneous mode of citation is the following : — " C'lrepis] glomeratd, 
Dene in Jacq. Voy. Bot., 99, t. 107 (Prenanthes), not of Clarke, 
r'. /7Wi-mrt?2Yf, Clarke, Comp. Ind., 255." Future authors 
will of course cite C. Hookcriana, C. B. Clarke, which dates from 
1876, as the proper name of the plant, in preference to C. i/lommita, 
Hook, f, (1881). 

Another instance of erroneous citation occurs on the o]icning 
page (p. 193j of the present part: " S [aprosmaj teniutuiii, Hook, f., 
in Gen. PL, ii., 131." There are two errors here; in the first 
place, no such name is to be found in the ' Genera Plantarum,' 
where we find only that " PicAeria tcrnata, Wall.," is placed in the 
genus Saprosma, but without specific name. To this point Mr. 
Jackson has already called attention. Secondly, although it 
is, we believe, quite true that Sir J. D. Hooker elaborated tlie 
liubiuceiM for the ' Genera,' wo find lio published statement to this 



188 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

effect in that work, and names contained in it must be quoted as 
of both authors— " Benth. & Hook, fil." Sir J. D. Hooker, in 
the work before us, is similarly not justified in citing " P[li(chea] 
lanreoJata, Oliv. Fl. Trop. AlV., iii., 272;" "0. & H." (Oliver and 
Hiern) is given in that book as the authority of the name. 
" CrepisfuHcipappa, Benth., in Gen. PL, ii., 574" [514] is anotlier 
example of the double error referred to ; made worse by the fact 
that the name is duly published by Mr. Clarke, Avho is therefore 
the authority for it, in his ' Compositse Indica3." 

The bulk of the present part is occupied by the ('ompodtte, 
which have been elaborated by Sir Joseph Hooker, who has mainly 
followed upon the lines laid down in Mr. Clarke's ' Compositae 
Indicfe," noticed in this Journal for 1876 (pp. 317, 318). We note 
in passing that our suspicious there expressed as to the en-oneous 
identification of specimens of an Enghsh FiUvjo with F. arvensis, L., 
are confirmed by Sir Joseph Hooker, who states that Mr. Clarke 
had " confounded it with F. tjermanica'' in the work referred to. 
We find Snnchns mper and S. oleracms retained as distinct species, 
although they are united in the ' Students' Flora,' with a note 
stating°that Mr. Clarke observed " that in India [S. a&per] flowers 
from December to k.m\\, and .S'. oleraceus from April to May " 
(p. 414). By a curious slip, Centaurea Cipnius is called at p. 384 
"the common corn-cockle of England." We trust that nothing 
will occur to interrupt the steady progress of this very important 

flora. 

Mr. Hemsley has commenced the second volume of his hand- 
some work on Central American Botany, and we congratulate him 
upon the steady progress Avliich he is making. In last year's 
' Journal of Botany,' pp. 88-91, we criticised the beginning of the 
work at some length ; and the present instalment of it shows that 
Mr. Hemsley may at least claim the merit of consistency, inasmuch 
as our criticisms of Parts I. and II. apply with equal force to the 
part now before us. We notice, however, that the references to 
any herbarium except that of Kew have entirely ceased ; so that 
it becomes a question whether the work can claim to be more than 
a catalogue, with descriptions of some of the new species, of the 
Central American plants in the Kew collection— supplemented mdeed 
by references to species described in books from that region, but with 
no attempt at completeness so far as the examination of other large 
herbaria is concerned. We abstain from repeating what we have 
already said at some length on this point ; but we fail to under- 
stand why a large collection of Mexican plants, so readily accessible 
as that of Piuiz and Pavon in the National Herbarium at South 
Kensington, should be altogether passed over. Had that Herbarium 
been consulted in the most cursory way, the types of two species 
of Paychotria from Nicaragua— named by Dr. Seemann P. cijano- 
cocca and P. clwnUdemis, and published by him in Mr. W. Bull's 
' Retail Catalogue ' for 1870— would have received some mention ; 
the former appears to be a very distinct species, and was figured in 
the ' Floral Magazine ' (t. 479)'. J- B. 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 189 

The ' Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy ' for April con- 
tains two interesting papers upon Irish Botany — one, ' On the 
Botany of the Galtee Mountains, Co. Tipperary,' by Mr. H. C. 
Hart, whose name is familiar to our readers ; the other, ' On the 
Flora of the Blasket Islands, Co. Kerry,' by Mr, R. M. Barrington. 
Mr. Hart enumerates ten alpine plants as found upon the Galtees : 
— Arahis petrma, CoMearia oficinalis, var. alpina, Sediim Rhodiola. 
Saxifraga stellaris, Hieracium anglicum, Saussurea alpina, Yaccinium 
Vitis-IdtEa, Oxijria reniformis, Salix herbacea, Asplenium viride ; of 
these, the Arahis and Saussurea, as well as Thalictnim viinus, 
Folyyala depressa, Pijrus Auciiparia, and Myosotis repens are addi- 
tions to District 2 of the ' Cybele Hibernica.' Mr. Barrington 
gives a comparative table of the plants found on five distinct 
groups of islands on the West Coast of Ireland. The areas of the 
live, with the number of species recorded from each, are as 

follow : — 

, Total Peculiar 

Acres. o • o ■ 

Species, Species. 

Arran Islands, Galway 10781 372 130 

Aran Island, Donegal 4855 232 23 

Inishbofin, Mayo 2312 303 3G 

Blaskets, Kerry 1560 17i 8 

Tay Island, Donegal 785 145 1 

The papers upon Tay Island and Arran Island, on which the 
abstracts are based, will be found in this Journal for September, 
1879, and January, 1881, respectively. The species peculiarto the 
Blaskets, as contrasted with the other groups, are : — Cardamine 
sylvatica. Lychnis Githayu, Stellaria yraiiiinea, Scilla nutans, Luzula 
sylvatica, C'arex disticha, C. pilulifera, Hi/ineJiophyUum unilaterale. 
One species, Kteleria cristata, is new to District 1 of the * Cybele 
Hibernica.' 

We have received from Messrs. Marshall Japp & Co., two 
little works, to which no writer's name is attached, entitled 
respectively 'Plant-life' and 'Easy Lessons in Botany.' The 
former consists of " popular papers on the phenomena of Botany,'' 
and does not materially dift'er from a large number of similar 
Avorks prepared for general reading, and containing a somewhat 
miscellaneous assortment of facts. The illustrations are very poor. 
The other work is a mucli more satisfactory production, and is 
arranged so as to comply with the requirements of the llcvised 
Code (1880). In forty-eight pages, with illustrations, more 
remarkable for quantity than quality, we have a plain and simple 
description of the parts of a plant, and a sketch of its structure — 
the numerous technical terms, some of which might have been 
omitted as unnecessary, being clearly explained in a few well- 
clioson words. Besides the class for whom it was especially pre- 
pared, tbis little book is well suited for placing in tlie hands of 
young gardeners as a prelude to more advanced works ; and tlie 
"few pence which it costs will be well spent upon a copy. 



190 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

We are glad to see that in the last part (n. s,, vol. iii., pt. 1), of 
the ' Proceedings of the Bristol Naturalists' Society ' an increasing 
prominence is given to local observations. The principal botanical 
paper is a continuation of an enumeration of the Fungi of the 
Bristol district, by Mr. Cedric Bucknall. We note that the 
botanical section of the Society is workhig up the Botany of the 
district, with a view to the publication of a local ' Flora.' 

The ' Keport and Transactions of the Birmingham Natural 
History and Microscopical Society ' for 1880 contains several 
botanical papers, by Mr. J. E. Bagnall and others, reprinted from 
the ' Midland Naturalist ' of last year. 



Articles in Journals. — April. 

Archives dcs Sciences Physiques et Xaturelles (15th April). — C. 
DeCandolle, ' On Phyllotaxy.' 

Botanical Gazette. — J. T. Eothrock, ' On Modes of Work in 
Prof, de Bary's Laboratory.' — H. H. Rusby, ' On New Mexican 
Ferns.' — ' W. K. Higley, 'Carnivorous Plants' (contd.)— M. E. 
Banning, ' Maryland Fungi.' ' Flora of Indiana (contd.) 

Botanische Zeitumj. — A. F. W. Schimper, ' Researches on the 
growth of Starch-granules' (concluded). — H. Vcichting, 'Memoir 
of Hanstein.' — G. Klebs, ' On the lower forms of Altja. ' (2 tab.) 

Botaniska Xutiser. — P. Olsson, 'Flora of Jentlaud.' — E. J. 
Archong, ' Felac/opJiycus, a new genus of Laminar iecc.'' — C. Melander, 
' Journey in Lappmark in the summer of 1880.' — F. Elving, 
' Finnish Botanical Literature for 1873-79.' 

Flora. — (March) G. Holzner, ' Agrostological Studies.' — J. 
Miiller, ' Lichenological Contributions' (concluded). — F. Arnold, 
' Lichenological Fragments ' (contd. ) — ' Botanical Society of 
Munich ' (contains descriptions olHieraciioii. latihracteatum, n. hj'br., 
Peter, and H. rubrum, Peter). — M. Gandoger, ' Salices novte.' — 
(April) W. Behrens, 'Views of the Greeks and Romans on the 
Sexuality of Plants." — A. Geheel, ' On Mosses collected byBreidler 
on the Austrian Alps ' {Didij»iodo)t styriacus, Jur., n. sp.) 

Heda-iyia. — E. Rehm, ' Ascomycetse,' fasc. xii. (concluded). — G. 
Winter, ' Fungi Helvetici novi.' 

Juunial (if Linnean Society 'Botany, vol. xviii., no. 111). — G. 
Watt, ' Notes on Vegetation of Cluimba State and Britisli Lalioul ' 
(^llanii)ieitliis pa)iyit iisis. Arahis jniiiyii'iisis, A. hijinia, Aiidrosace 
jiUHcrcni/ulia, J'edii-itlaris e.ciiiiia, Adiantuiii ]]'<(ttii. (Baker), spp. 
nov., tt. 6.) — M. J. Berkeley, ' Australian Fungi ' [Inudenna, gen. 
nov.) — P. MacOwan & H. Bolus, ' Novitates Capenses ' {Itanun- 
culiis Baurii, MacOw. ; Crassuhi dependens, Bolus ; Athri.via fontana, 
MacOw. ; Senecio hullcfj'olius, MacOw. ; Gazania cmpitosa, Bolus ; 
Kricinella passerinoides, Bolus; Orthosiphun amhiyniis, Bolus; ]>ip- 
cadi, Bakerianiun , Bolus; Uryinea alcaides, Bolus; HerpoUrion 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 191 

capmse, Bolus; GethyUis loiKiistyla, Bolus; spp. nov.) — F. Town- 
send, 'On an Enjthrtea new to England' (1 tab. E. capitata, (3. 
spluTvocephaht : see Journ. Bot., 1881, p. 87). — F.Darwin, ' Theory 
of the Growth of Cuttings.' — W. Phillips, ' Revision of genus 
Vihrissea ' (abstract). 

Magyar Xovenytani Lapok. — C. Demeter, ' On the Sphferaphides 
of Rosanoti' in the tissue of UrticacriV.' — F. Schaarschmidt, ' Chlo- 
rochytrium in Transsilvania.' — A. Kawitz, ' Plantfe Romanife 
hucusque cognitffi ' (contd. ) 

Midland Xaturalist. — J. E. Baguall, ' Flora of Warwickshire' 
(contd.) 

(Esterr. Bot. Zeitschrift. — M. Willkomm, ' Spanish-Portuguese 
Plants' [Saruthamniis cnniniutatiis, sp. n.) — H. Braun, ' Salix 
Heiwerli,' n. hybr. — D. Hire, ' On Crocus cernus.' — M. Gandoger, 
' Pugillus ' (conclusion — forms of (raudinia frayilis). — S. S. von 
Miiggenburg, ' Mj-cological Notes.' — P. G. Strobl, 'Flora of Etna' 
(contd.) 

Popular Science Review. — W. S. Kent, ' The Myxomycetes or 
Mycetozoa ; Animals or Plants'?' (2 tab.) 

Scottish Xaturalist. — J. Knox, ' Life of George Don.' — J* 
Cameron, ' Gaelic Names of Plants ' (contd.) 



iiJvoctctringS) of Societies. 



LiNNEAN Society of London. 

April 21, 1881.— W. S. Dallas, Esq., F.L.S., in the chau\— 
Dr. Chas. Barnard, Jas. Bisset, Wm. Holmes, Dr. W. Marriott, 
John C. Sawer, and S. Stubbs were severally balloted for, and 
elected Fellows of the Society. — The proposed Alterations of the 
Bye-laws, read respectively 17th March and 7th April, were again 
read, balloted for, and negatived ; thereafter the chairman read the 
Alternative Alterations, which motions were balloted for and con- 
firmed. — Several communications on zoological subjects were made, 
the only botanical paper read being ' Note on Hibiscus palustris, 
Linn., and certain allied species,' by B. Daydon Jackson. In this 
evidence was adduced to show that Linnaeus' s description was 
drawn up from the plant now called J I. roseiis, Thore ; that name, 
therefore, must fall into the category of a synonym. Torrey and 
Gray have gone further, and, by combining H. Mosrliaitns and //. 
})alustris, have entii'ely sunk the name palustris. 

May 5. — Arthur Grote, Esq., Vice-President in the chair. — 
Prof. Eichler, Director of the Botanic Garden, ]5erlin, was elected 
a Foreign Member. — There was exhibited for Dr. Maxwell 
Masters a cone of Vinus Grcnrilleu: from Mexico ; a " gnaur " from 
the trunk of the Cedar of Lebanon ; and a series of wall diagrams 



192 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

of Trees, chromo-litliographed by Gerald and Solm of Vienna. — 
Mr. Tlios. Christ drew attention to a new Indiarubber j)lant 
{TahrnKrviimtdnii rrassa) from West Africa. — The following paper, 
by Dr. George Watt, was read by the Secretary, ' Synopsis of the 
Indian Species of Androsace, with descriptions of some new species.' 
In this contribiition the author passes in review twenty-one 
species and live varieties, and he describes as novelties Androsace 
corrugata, A. Strac/icyi, A. (jeranij'ulia, A. viacronifoLia, and A. 
coronata. 



Botanical Nc\u?5, 



The death was announced last month of Dr. B. W. Falconer, 
of Bath, the author of a ' Catalogue of Tenby Plants,' published 
in 1848. 

Mr. Ronald Campbell Gunn, F.R.S., died in March last, at 
Launceston, Tasmania, at the age of seventy-three. To Mr. 
Gunn's exertions we are largely indebted for our knowledge of the 
Tasmaniau Flora; a notice of his travels, coupled with a high 
eulogium of his collections and botanical attainments, will be 
found in Sir J. D. Hooker's ' Flora of Tasmania,' p. cxxv. 

Dr. Anton E. Sauter died on the 6th of April at Salzburg. 
He was born at Grossarl, in Salzburg, in 1800, and early mani- 
fested an interest in various branches of Natural History, more 
especially of Botany. Besides his work upon the Flora of Salzburg, 
he was the author of various botanical papers, contributed for the 
most part to the ' Flora,' the first appearing in 1824. He had a 
large herbarium, estimated to contain 20,000 species. 

The extensive moss-herbarium of the late Dr. Ernst Hampe, 
who died at Helmstedt in November last, has been acquired by the 
Botanical Department of the British Museum. 

The herbarium of M. Genevier, containing the types of the 
numerous Ruhi described by him, has been added to the Herbarium 
of the University of Cambridge. 

At the Anniversary Meeting of the Linnean Society, on the 24th 
ult.. Sir John Lubbock, F.K.S., was elected President of the 
Society, and Mr. George J. Romanes, F.R.S., Zoological Secretary, 
Mr. B. Daydon Jackson retaining the post of Botanical Secretary, 
which he has hlled with signal satisfaction during the past year. 
The other additions to the Council are Mr. Alfred W. Bennett, Mr. 
Francis Darwin, and Prof. E. Ray Lankester. 



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193 



C^vigtnal .^vt(clcs. 



NOTES ON COMMKLINACE.E. 

By C. B. Clarke, M.A., F.L.S. 

(Tab. 221.) 

I HAVE lately put through the press a Monograph of the Order 
ConinidinaceiE, to appear in the forthcoming volume of Messrs. 
DeCaudolle's ' Monographies :' the present paper contains a short 
view of the order, and details some of the considerations which 
influenced me in arranging its divisions, 

1. CommelinacecB are a small order of plants closely allied to the 
Lilies, but differing in their uusymmetric flowers and in their 
seeds. The sepals are three, mOxO or less combined; the petals 
three, alternate with sepals, fi-eeor combined into a tube, distinctly 
petaloid ; the stamens six, in two whorls, whereof several are often 
difform, barren, or suppressed; the ovary 3-celled, the posterior 
cell being often smaller, much reduced or suppressed; the style 
usually long, the stigma small capitate, rarely shortly penicillate ; 
the ovules attached along the inner angle of each cell on two 
vertical placental lines, but often few or solitary. 

The flowers are always unsymmetric ; one sepal being entirely 
without the other two in the bud, and one petal similarly without 
the other two in the bud : when the ovary appears symmetric, or 
very nearly so, the style is declinate. 

In the seeds the embryo is remote from the hilum, and is not 
enclosed by the albumen, its base being applied to the embryostega, 
the small circular depresso-conicoid plate which is conspicuous 
externally on every seed in this order ; see fig. 1 a, which repre- 
sents a section of a seed of Falisota amhujua through the embryo 
(/( the hilum). 

To these two definite ordinal characters, viz., the one entirely 
outer sepal, the embryostega on the seed, there are no real excep- 
tions. In the minute Callisias the flowers are sometimes reduced 
2-mcrous ; then the innermost sepal is suppressed, and the outer 
sepal is entirely without the second one. 

The Australian genus Cartonona difters from the rest of the 
order in its dry wiry habit ; but it exhibits one sepal wholly outside 
the other two and the embryostega on its seeds. FliujeUuria, on 
the other hand, has symmetric flowers, and no embryostega on its 
seeds; and, though by some formerly supposed Commelinaccous, 
is wholly Liliaceous. There is no genus now known concerning 
which there is any doubt whether it should be referred to Com- 
vielinacece or no. 

N. S. VOL. 10. [JULY, 1881.] 2 c 



194 



NOTES ON COMMELINACEiE. 



2. Linnaeus knew three genera of CommelinacecB, viz., Commelma 
and CalUsia with 3-2 fertile stamens, Tradescantia with 6-5 fertile 
stamens. As new genera were founded in the order, those having 
3-2 fertile stamens were placed with Commdina, those with G-5 
fertile stamens with Tradescantia ; the two tribes Cummelinea and 
Tradcscaiitica have thus arisen. These, however, cannot be 
definitely demarcated ; in a large number of Tradescantias, of the 
six fertile stamens three are much smaller, more or less diiform ; 
the three smaller stamens are in Tradescantia triandra sometimes 
rudimentary, sometimes abortive, in which last case the genus of 
the plant would appear (from its characters) CaUisia. Callisia, 
though having but 3-2 stamens, is evidently closely allied to 
Tradescantia itself, and must stand next it ; indeed, it may hereafter 
be considered preferable to treat Callisia as merely a section of 
Tradescantia. On the other hand, in Aveilema Thomsoni the three 
smaller barren stamens are sometimes polleniferous. Fullia (with 
six polleniferous stamens) is so like Aclisia (with three polleniferous, 
three barren), that some of the species of the one cannot be dis- 
tinguished from the corresponding species of the other but by 
examining the stamens ; and the two genera have been, therefore, 
united by Bentham. 

The genera proposed by Hasskarl (who has largely studied the 
CommelinacecB, are founded in the main on fruit-characters, and are 
eminently natural ; but they include only small clusters of species, 
and are equipollent with what Bentham would call sections, or 
perhaps subsections ; nor, so far as I am aware, has Hasskarl put 
out any plan for dividing the whole order into a limited number of 
tribes, or for collecting his small genera into groups. Moreover, I 
have found that if I arrange the genera of Commelinacea. upon 
fruit-characters I should by no means avoid exceptions and 
anomahes. Of this, one strildng example occurs in Tinantia. All 
the true Tradescantias have two ovules (and normally two seeds) 
in each cell; Scheidweiler founded Tinantia (T.fwjax) on the old 
Tradescantia erecta, which has a peculiar inflorescence, and three 
(or more) ovules in each cell. The genus, so far, appears good 
and well limited; but there is a species [Tinantia Sjjrucei, G. B. 
Clarke) which has the inflorescence and habit exactly of Tinantia 
fuijax, but the ovules are in none of the examples more than two 
in one cell. This species must, as Bentham has noted, be placed 
with Tinantia J'n(/ax, whether that be retained as a genus or ap- 
pended (as in Kuuth) as an anomalous section to Tradescantia. 
But, whatever be done with these plants, they will spoil any neat 
delimitation of the tribes proceeding on fruit-characters. 

A further objection to rearranging the genera of this order in 
tribes founded on fruit characters is that it would involve either 
accepting the too numerous small genera of Hasskarl, or founding 
new larger genera, or taking up a certain number of Hasskarl's 
generic names and widening very much then- characters. Any 
one of these plans woidd lead to confusion, and would, moreover, 
afflict nearly half the well-known species of the order with novel 
names. And when this had all buen endured, I found that the 



NOTES ON COMMELINACE.E. 195 

linear sequence of the genera would not be nore natural, nor the 
exceptions fewer than on the old plan. I have therefore adopted 
the two old tribes Commelmecc and Tradesccnitiece, but I have taken 
out first (to form a small separate tribe, Polliccc), three closely 
allied genera, differing from all the rest of the order in their in- 
dehiscent fruit. 

3. The tribes and genera then stand as under : — 

Tribus I. FOLLIES. — Fruit indehiscent ; crustaceous 

or baccate, 

1. PoLLiA. — Panicle without folded bracts. Stamens six, all 
fertile, or three (terminated by gland-like anthers) barren. Leaf- 
margins glabrous or crispedly pubescent. Species 14, Old World. 

2. PaXiIsota. — Panicle without folded bracts. Stamens three 
fertile, 3-2 sterile terminated by bundles of hairs. Leaf-margins 
silky. Species 8, Africa. 

8. Phceospherion. — Liflorescence of 1-2 small racemes almost 
enclosed within a folded bract (as in CommeUna). Barren stamens 
2-8, with hastate triangular anthers. Species 4, America. 

Tribus II. COMMELINEiE.— Capsule 2-3-valved. FertHe 

stamens 8-2. 

* Stamen next the outer sepal sterile ; cells of the fertile anthers 

nearly straight. 

4. CoMMELiNA. — Inflorescence of 1-2 small racemes, almost 
enclosed within a folded or hooded bract. Barren stamens 2-3, 
with cruciform anthers. Species 88, in both hemispheres. 

5. PoLYSPATHA. — lufloresceuce of small racemes almost en- 
closed within folded bracts, which bracts are sessile along the 
branches of a panicle. Species 1, Africa. 

6. Aneilema. — Flowers panicled or clustered, without folded 
bracts. Species 57, in both hemispheres. 

** Stamen next the outer sepal fertile ; cells of the fertile anthers 

twisted like corkscrews. 

7. CocHLiosTEMA, — Flowcrs large, panicled. Species 1, 
Ecuador. 

Tribus III. TKADE SCANTIER. —Capsule 2-3-valved. Fertile 

stamens 6-5. 

A. Old World genera. 

8. Buforrestia. — Capsule 3-cclled, Avitli 4-10 seeds in each 
cell. Species 4, Africa and Guiana. 

9. FoRRESTiA. — Ovary 3-celled, with two ovules in each cell. 
Inflorescence subcapitate, boring through the sheath of the leaf. 
Petals separate. Species 6, Asia. 

10. CoLEOTRYPE. — Capsulc 8-cellcd, with 2-1 seeds in onch 
cell. Inflorescence dense, splitthig the loaf-sheath. CoroUa-iubc 
linear. Species 8, Africa. 



196 NOTES ON COMMELINACE^. 

11. Cyanotis. — Capsule B-colled. Seeds two in each cell, 
vertically superimposed, truncated along their i)lane of contact, 
each carrying its enibryostega to the cud remote from this flattened 
plane. Species 29. 

12. Streptolikion. — Capsule 3-cclled, with two seeds in each 
cell. An extensive twiner, w4th long-petioled cordate-ovate leaves. 
Species 1, India. 

13. Caetoxejia. — Capsule 3-celled, with two seeds in each cell. 
Tufted, Avith rigid-linear leaves. Flowers spicate. Filaments 
short. Species 5, Australia. 

14. Floscopa. — Capsule 2-celled, with one seed in each cell. 
Kacemes paniculate. Species 11, in both hemispheres. 

B. American genera (see also Floscopa and Buforrestia). 

* Petals separate or nearly so. 

f Cells of the ovarij 8~5-oruIdte (in the anomalous species of Tinantia 

2-oviilatej. 

15. Pyrrheima. — Densely rusty hirsute. Capsule papery. 
Species 1. 

IG. DicHORisANDRA. — Anther dehiscing by two apical pores. 
Fruit 3-valved; seeds immersed in pulp. Species 27. 

17. Tinantia. — Peduncle solitary terminal, dividing into two 
or three racemes, scarcely umbellate. Capsule membranous, 
greenish. Species 3. 

ft Cells of the ovary 2-orulate. 

18. Tradescantia. — Umbels simple or compound. Species 32. 

19. Callisia. — Stamens 3-1 fertile, none sterile or rudimentary. 
Species 4. 

20. Spironeha. — Flower-heads dense, scattered sessile in a lax 
panicle. Species 1. 

21. Campelia. — Sepals in fruit succulent, enclosing the thin 
Xmpery capsule. Species 1. 

22. Sauvallea. — Small. Flowers solitary, subincluded within 
folded Co)iniH'lina-like bracts. Species 1. 

fit Cells of the ovary l-oviihite. 

23. Eh.eo. — Flowers in dense umbels, enclosed within boat-like 
bracts. Species 1. 

24. Leptorh.eo. — Flowers loosely panicled. Bracts small. 
Species 1. 

■•'•■''• Petals united into a linear tube. 

25. Zebrina. — Flowers subsessile between the two uppermost 
leaves of the branches. Species 2. 

20. "NYeldenia.- — Flowers sessile axillary, splitting the leaf- 
sheath. Species 1. 

In all 307 species; whereof only three, viz., Commelinanudiflora, 
C. cKjnuila, and Aneilema ovato ohlonrfinn are found in both hemi- 
spheres. The species are mainly tropical; CommeUna cummunis 



NOTES ON COMMELINACE^. 197 

extends north to Amuiiancl, and Tradescantia vin/inica to Lake 
Wisconsin. Several species reach southwards to Monte Video and 
the Cape of Good Hope ; in Austraha they are hardly found so far 
fi-om the tropic. 

The arrangement of stamens in the genus Commelina is repre- 
sented diagrammatically in fig. 3 ; the whorls are regularly placed, 
the three of the outer whorl opposite the sepals, the three of the 
inner whorl opposite the petals ; two stamens of the outer, one of 
the inner whorl being fertile ; the fertile stamen of the inner whorl 
(next the outer petal) being slightly larger than, and unlike the 
others ; the barren stamen of the outer whorl (next the outer sepal) 
has a strong tendency to disappear, being usually wanting in many 
of the species. 

The stamens throughout the order follow this arrangement; 
the first stamen to become sterile and to disappear being that 
opposite the outer sepal. In Aneilciiui the three fertile stamens are 
figured by Wight alternate Avith the sterile, and I have copied some 
of his figures in my ' Commelmacefe Bengalenses ;' but Bentham has 
remarked that this is an error. The stamens in AncUema are 
really as in ('o)iimeUna, but by a displacement of the whorls the 
two fertile ones (which are really next the two inner sepals) are 
declinated so as to appear opposite the two inner petals. 

But L'ochliostema is a remarkable exception, as shown in fig. 2 ; 
it has those stamens fertile which in Commelina are sterile, and 
those sterile which are in Cominelina fertile. CuchluMeuut, so far 
as its stamens are concerned, stands in the same relation to other 
Coivmelinacecp, that Cypripedlum does to other Orchids ; but Cochlio- 
stema has other strongly distinctive characters. In the Cuvi- 
melinaceoi, with numerous ovules in each cell of the ovary, these 
are arranged vertically on two placental nearly coincident lines at 
the inner angle of the cell ; in many cases the ovules are evidently 
biseriate, but in general the resulting seeds are squeezed into one 
vertical row, being exactly superimposed like a basaltic column, as 
in fig. 4 c, which represents the seeds of one cell of an AncUoua 
[A. Thomsoni) seen from without. In the single instance of t'och- 
liostema the seeds are in two vertical columns in each cell, fig. 4 h. 
In several subgenera the seeds are imperfectly biseriate, as shown 
in fig. 4 II, which represents the seeds of one cell of an AnciJcma of 
Sect. Dichaspcri)! iiDi acen from without. IHchaspenniDn, founded on 
this character, has been generally accepted as a genus distinct from 
Aneilewti: l)ut I have, after some hesitation, reduced it to a section, 
because I find that some species in l^oJlia and Palisata are Dichos- 
spermous ; so that to admit this single character as of generic 
value would necessitate the dichotomising of these small very 
homogeneous genera also. It should be recollected that in Dich/r- 
spcrmiuii itself the species are of two different types of infiorescence, 
both fully represented among the Aneilemas with 1 -ranked seeds. 
The character " Dichrespermous " requires care in working even 
with perfect ripe capsules. For if the seeds arc 1-ranked, and one 
of the three capsule-valves be removed from a capsule pasted down 
on a herbarium sheet, it dehisces from the axis, and leaves two 



198 NOTES ON COMMELINACEiE. 

ranks of seeds with no septum between them. I find (not rarely) 
in herbaria Aneilemas with 1 -ranked seeds named Dichfespermum 
by experienced botanists, I presume misled in this way. 

The seeds in all these cases have the embryostegas on their 
backs, with the embryo either transverse or opposite to the hilum; 
the embryostega is, as regards the axis of the capsule, lateral, as it 
is in all genera of Commelinacea, except one, viz., Cyanotis. The 
seeds in this are two in each cell, vertically superimposed, the 
hila lateral as usually ; but the upper seed has its embryostega 
towards the apex of the ovary, the lower seed has its embryostega 
towards the base of the ovary ; as represented in fig. 5, which re- 
presents a vertical section through the seeds of one cell of a capsule 
of Cyanotis. E. Brown fixed on this as the distinguishing mark of 
the genus ; but it seems to have been completely lost sight of since 
his day ; so that, while new genera have been proposed for very 
ordinary species of Cyanotis, even Dr. Hasskarl remains in doubt 
whether some of the Malayan Cyanotis may not be Tradescantia. 
But the old mark, given by E. Brown, keeps all the Old World 
species in Cyanotis, all the New World in Tradescantia, and is a 
simple definite mark which divides out a large mass of species 
according to their true natural affinity. 

Several of the American genera of TradescantiecB are very closely 
allied ; but Spironema and Tinantia, which differ little from 
Tradescantia in character, differ considerably in habit. It would, 
perhaps, have been better if Callisia had never been separated 
generically from Tradescantia, but it is an old genus accepted by 
Linnaeus and every one since. 

The fi'uit of several species not hitherto known, and of the 
genera Cochliostema and Pyrrheima, was obtained for me by Mr. N. 
E. Brown, who succeeded in artificially fertilising the plants in the 
Kew Conservatories which in previous years set no fruit. 

4. As to the subdivision of the larger genera. 

In Commclina the dorsal cell of the ovary has one ovule only, or 
is suppressed, the two ventral cells contain either two ovules each 
or one each ; this character is, as far as I know, absolute for each 
species, i. e., among the species which have one ovule only in each 
ventral cell, I have never met with a single case where two ovules 
occurred. The large genus Commelina thus readily subdivides into 
Didipnoon (sixty-three species) and Monoon (twenty-five species). 
I do not believe that any of the species of Didymoon is merely a 
form of some Monoon. I mention this point the more particularly, 
because Bentham, in the ' Flora Australiensis,' has united some of 
E. Brown's species. In so large a genus as Commelina, many 
botanists would consider it convenient to establish Monoon as a 
new genus ; but, though it may be distinguished from Commelina 
by a single absolute character, the habit is identical, and the three 
sections of Commelina [Didymoon] are represented by throe sections 
of Monoon. These sections are grounded on the degree of re- 
duction of the dorsal cell of the capsule; in the first section it 
dehisces loculicidally like the two other cells ; in the second section 



NOTES ON COMMELINACE^. 



199 



it is incTebiscent, often smaller than the others ; in the third sec- 
tion it is altogether suppressed, or occasionally present in a reduced 
barren form. Some of the species with 2-celled capsules may 
possibly prove only varieties of corresponding species, with 3-celled 
capsules as Bentham suspects, which is an additional ground for 
not adopting some genera of Hasskarl that differ only in the 
number of the cells being two or three. 

The large genus Aneilema divides into two subgenera, viz., 
Tricarpellaria, having the capsule equally 3-celled, Dicarpellaria 
having the capsule 2-celled, the third dorsal cell being occasional 
present, but much smaller. Hasskarl's genus Lamprudithnros 
might, by an extension of its character, be made conterminous 
with Dicarpellaria, and would make then a very fair genus of 
nineteen species. These, however, are not separable in habit 
from other Aneilemas, and are scattered geographically over Africa, 
America, Australia : after consulting Mous. Alph. DeCandoUe, I 
have preserved Aneilema as defined by its author, E. Brown. 

In the large genus Tradescantia tlie capsule seems in all the 
species alike, having three cells dehiscing loculicidally, with two 
superimposed seeds in each cell. The seeds in the different species 
differ only slightly in size and foveolation. I have therefore 
adopted the two old sections, Eutradescantia, with six subequal 
stamens, and Descantaria, having three longer stamens, three 
shorter more or less dissimilar. But some species have about as 
good a claim to be put in one of these sections as the other, so 
that I can by no means consent to those who have wished to make 
Descantaria a genus. It has also been proposed to found genera 
on the width of the connective between the anthers, a character 
which may be observed in various genera of this order remote 
from Tradescantia as in Floscopa. The character is of value in 
Tradescantia for specific discrimination, but in three anthers out of 
one flower I have seen the connective in one narrow, in another 
very wide, in the third intermediate. 

6. As regards specific characters there is little to be said 
peculiar to this order. I cannot distinguish the species by eye 
myself, nor do I believe that Mr. Bentham himself can (at all 
safely) ; Wallich has pasted down nine species (belonging to three 
genera) under Commelina commimis, Linn., Wall. Cat., 8978 (no 
one of the nine is, however, Commelina communis, Linn.) On the 
other hand, different plants of one species in this group often 
differ enormously in size, shape of leaves, hairiness, shape and 
disposition of spathes, size of flowers, shape of the petals, number 
of barren stamens, and sometimes even in number of fertile 
stamens. A striking instance is afforded by Cu)n))ietina ohiiqua. 
Ham., an abundant species in India, which is sometimes glabrous, 
sometimes very hairy viscid, has sometimes solitary, generally 
agglomerated spathes; yet Hook. f. and T. Thorns., and, I believe, 
all the Bengal botanists, are agreed that the whole scries makes up 
but one species. 

I am therefore very little satisfied by the genus ]>ic/turisandra, in 



200 



NOTES ON COMMELINACEiE. 



which some thirty species have been founded on shght differences 
in the shape and hairiness of the leaves, in the pubescence of the 
sepals, and in tlic length of the panicle. I doixbt if there are many 
good species in the genus. I have only been able to examine the 
fi'uit in a few cases, but it seems to me not likely that any good 
specific distinctions will be got out of the fruit. The primary 
division of this genus has been into (a) with six stamens, {l>) with 
five stamens, but then it is admitted that the most abundant 
6-stamened species [D. Anhletiana) has sometimes only five stamens. 
As to the distinction between terminal and radical inflorescence, 
the typical species D. radlcalis sometimes produces a terminal 
panicle ; while several of the termiual-panicled species throw 
branches boring through the base of one of the lower leaf-sheaths. 
Several of the species admitted by Kuuth and Seubert are founded 
on few, or even a single herbarium example : not knowing this 
genus in the field, I have as regards the species been able to do 
little more than copy my predecessors, reducing a few where the 
material was plentiful, or where the species appear to have been 
founded on identically the same thing. In species-making I have 
endeavoured to hit a mean ; I have made somewhat more than 
Bentham, a good many less than Hasskarl, makes out of the same 
material. Of the 307 species described, seventy-one are described 
for the first time ; these are mainly from the Tropical African 
collections of Maun, Schweinfurth, and Welwitsch. Many of the 
other 236 have new names, or appear in novel dress ; I learnt 
from Mr. Baker that Dractcna triandra, AfzeL, is a Palisota, and 
from M. DeCandoUe that Poli/r/ala axillaris, Poir., is a Floscopa. 

6. Besides the new genera described, there are several remark- 
able new species referred to old genera. 

Commelina huillensis, Welw. MS., is a stemless species, with 
numerous large azure flowers ; and Welwitsch collected two other 
striking species allied to this in Angola also. 

Ancilcma sepalosuin, sent from Ukamba in Ahica by Hildebrandt, 
is a scapose species allied perhaps to Mxirdannia of Eoyle, but has 
the sepals f in. long. 

Aneilniia TJiuinsoni, described originally by Hasskarl as Dicha- 
spermum (jiganteum, supposed a Smilacina by Griffith, proves to be a 
EuancUcma, but with a capsule more than f in. long. 

Aneileina hraailiensc , collected by Gardner, in habit resembles 
Tinantia, and is perhaps the tyjDe of a new genus. 

Floscopa fiavida is yellow-flowered ; this (with another new 
allied species) were communicated by Schweinfurth from Central 
Africa. 

Tradescantia minuta grows in tufts, the stems 1-2 in. high; 
collected by Uhde in Mexico ; a single sheet in the Berhn 
Herbarium. 

7. For the preparation of the monograph of this order, I was 
able to examine in detail the Kew collection, including "Wight's 
private Herbarium, containing the ipsissima exempla fi'om which 
his Icones were constructed. At the Linuean Society I examined 



NOTES ON COMMELINACE^. 201 

Wallich's collection, and was favoured with permission to dissect 
the plants in Liunseus's own herbarium. At the British Museum I 
saw the type-plants of R. Brown and other older collectors, and the 
fine collection of Welwitsch. At Paris I looked through the 
general herbarium, and saw also Kunth's private herbarium, some 
tine old collections from Australia, and some Arabian collections. 
At Geneva I saw the thi-ee great herbaria there ; Boissier's is very 
rich in fine sets of Balansa and other first-class modern collections, 
while DeCandolle's contains Poiret's and other old collections, and 
is specially valuable from having been steadily worked and adnoted 
upon from the early days of Aug. Pyr. DeCandoUe to the present 
time. Through the kindness of M. Coguiaux, the Brussels Herbarium 
was sent me at Kew ; it contained many types of Martens and 
Galeotti, some of Seubert. The Berlin Herbarium was sent me 
at Kew through the kiudness of Eichler ; this was invaluable, as 
it contains nearly all that Kunth described in his Enum. PL, with 
his MS. notes attached to the specimens. Dr. Hasskarl most 
kindly sent me at Kew the portion of his private herbarium con- 
taining his own new species, except those which I had already 
seen written up by him in the Candollean and Berlin Herbaria. 

Lastly, when my work was near completion, Mr. Carruthers 
placed in my hands the MSS. of R. Brown, which contain very 
full descriptions of all the Commelinaceous material he had access 
to at the date. He seems to have taken a special interest in the 
order, and in his diagnoses of Commelina puts in front the number 
of cells and ovules in the ovary. I have followed him as regards 
the Australian species ; from his very close manner of working he 
may have admitted a few too many, as F. Mueller has warned me 
in a letter ; but, with the limited Australian material before me, I 
hesitate to reduce R. Brown's species, though I shall not be sur- 
prised if the arrival of copious specimens hereafter prove F. Mueller 
right in his views. In collecting the literature, I have had the 
great advantage of the fine library and systematic indexing of Kew, 
and M. DeCandolle placed in my hands the sixty years' collection 
of notices accumulated in his herbarium. I hope that not much 
of importance has escaped mo ; but, in the present state of botanic 
literature, I dare not hope that there are no omissions. 



Explanation of Plate 221. 

1. TxLisoTKySect. Monostichos. — e. Indehiscentcapsule (x 2 or 3). d. Hori- 
zontal section of same. Hila axial ; embryos exterior, c. Seeds of one cell of 
the same capsule, in situ, seen from without; the embryostega of each seed is 
seen without, b. The seeds as in c, but seen from within ; the hila forming the 
inner angle, a. Horizontal section of one seed (x 10) through the embryo. 

3. Commelina. — Diagram of flower; showing the whorls of its parts, viz.: — 
(1). Outer of tln-ee sepals, imbricate, one wholly exterior. (2). Of three petals, 
imbricate, and one wholly exterior, alternating with whorl (1). (3). Of three 
stamens, alternating with whorl (2). (i). Of three stamens, alternating witli 
whorl (3). (T)). Of three carpels, alternating wtth whorl (4). 

2. CocHLiosTEMA. — Diagram of flower, showing the wiiorls of its parts, viz. : — 
(1). Outer of three sepals, imbricate, one wholly exterior. (2). Of three petals, 

2d 



202 



FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 



imbricate, one wholly exterior. (:i). Of one stamen and two staminodes. (4). Of 
two stamens. (5). Of three carpels. 

■i. Ariiangejient of Seeds. — c. Aneilema Sect. Euaneilema. — Seeds of one 
cell, in situ, seen from without, b. Cochliostema. — Seeds of one cell, in situ, 
seen from without, a. Aneilema, Sect. Dichcespermum, — Seeds of one cell, in 
situ, seen from without. 

5. Cyanotis. — Seeds of one cell in situ; a vertical section of them in a plane 
passing through the axis of the capsule. 



ON A COLLECTION OF PERNS MADE BY MR. W. 

KALBREYER IN NEW GRANADA. 

By J. G. Baker, F.R.S. 

Mr. Kalbreyer, already favourably known for his botanical 
explorations in the Cameroon country and South America, whilst 
exploring for Messrs. Veitch in New Granada in the summer 
of 1880, made a large collection of Ferns, which have been placed 
in my hands for determination. 

There is a complete list by Mettenius of the Ferns of New 
Granada in the Cryptogamic volume of the ' Prodromus Florae 
Novo-Grauatensis ' of Triana and Planchon, so that I will confine 
myself to noticing the novelties and species of special interest 
which Mr. Kalbreyer has gathered. Except where otherwise stated 
they are all from the backwoods of the province of Antioquia. The 
figures prefixed are Mr. Kalbreyer's collecting numbers, and those 
within brackets show where the new species fall in the sequence 
followed in our ' Synopsis Fihcum.' 

1702. Cyathea insignis, Eaton. 

1867, 1870. Hemitelia nigricans, Presl. 

Jlsophila gibbosa, Klotzsch. 

1518. Ahophila jnibescens, Baker. 

1375 (12*). Alsopkla podophylla, Baker, n. sp. — Caudex 
slender, 10-15 feet long. Fronds dark glossy green, moderately 
firm in texture, quite glabrous, 6 feet long, bipinnatifid. Pinnae 
lanceolate-deltoid, 2 feet long, their rachises glossy, naked, 
castaneous. Pinnules with stalks J-|- in. long, lanceolate, 5-6 in. 
long, 18-21 lin. broad, cut down to a broad wing to the midrib 
into oblong contiguous obtuse tertiary segments ^-^^ in. broad. 
Veins 10-12-jugate in the tertiary segments, deeply forked, distinct, 
erecto-patent. Sori small, placed generally one to each vein at its 
forking nearer the midrib than the edge. — Forests at 4500 feet. 
This has the firm texture and long-stalked pinnules of Cijathca 
divergens. Amongst the Alsophilas it comes nearest to A. gibbosa. 

1*561(37*). Alsophila hispida, Baker, n. sp. — Caudex short. 
Fronds spreading, drooping, 8-10 feet long, quadri-pinnatifid, the 
unarmed stramineous maui rachis finely pilose, the green lamma 
hairy on both sides, densely hispid on the midrib of the pinnules 
beneath. Pinnte oblong-lanceolate, 1^2 feet long, 6-8 in. broad. 
Pinnules lanceolate, nearly sessile, 10-13 lines broad, cut down to 



FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 203 

the hispid rachis, into oblong acTnate deeply regularly pinnatifid 
tertiary segments, with lanceolate-deltoid entire contiguous ultimate 
lobes. Veins indistinct, forked in the lower 4-nary segments. Sori 
1-2, placed near the base of each 4-nary segment. — Forests at 7500 
feet. Allied to A. oUgucarpa, Fee [A. decoiiiposita, Karsten). 

1327. Alsophila ? late-vagans, Baker, n. sp. — Caudex ? Stipe ? 
" Frond procumbent, bluish green, glossy, 10-12 feet long," 
bipinnatifid. Main rachis naked, very glossy, slender, castaneous. 
Pinnfe spreading, lanceolate, on castaneous petioles l|-2 in. long ; 
lamina lanceolate, about half a foot long, 18-21 lines broad, cut 
down to a narrow wing to the main rachis into lanceolate entire 
spreading contiguous pinnules \ in. broad ; texture subcoriaceous ; 
upper surface green ; lower decidedly glaucous ; both quite free 
from hairs and scales. Veins fine, close, distinct, erecto-patent, all 
except the uppermost forked. Sori small, globose, subcostular, 
8-10-jugate in the lower pinnules. — Open forests, alt. 6700 feet. 1 
do not know what to make of this. The sori are those of an 
Alsophila, but the habit seems most peculiar, and in other 
respects it shows no near affinity to any species we possess already. 
The pinnse in size and cutting look like fronds of Polypodium 
vidgare. 

1751. Hymenophylkim sjilendidum, Bosch. 

1406. Trichomanes hotryoides, Kaulf. 

1857 (39*). Trichomanes Kalbreyeri, Baker, n. sp. — Stipes 
naked, 1-2 in. long, broadly winged down to the very base. Frond 
lanceolate, 4-6 in. long, 18-21 lines broad at the middle, narrowed 
to both ends, bipinnatifid, finely pilose on both surfaces, with 
a regular distinct entire wing a line broad all the way down the 
main rachis. Pinnae lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid, \-\ in. broad, 
the segments adnate and erecto-patent, the upper lanceolate and 
one-veined, the lower forked or bifid, with a vein down the centre 
of each lobe. Sori solitary, immersed in the tips of the secondary 
segments ; involucre twice as long as broad, without any hp or 
collar; receptacle much exserted. — On trees in damp forests at 
6500 feet. Comes in midway between T. Kcmlfussii and macilentum. 

1407. Trichomanes fceniculaceum, Hedw. — This is new to the 
American continent. 

1859 (18*). DicKsoNiA PUBEscENs, Baker, n. sp. — Eootstock 
wide-creeping. Frond drooping, 5-6 feet long. Stipe 2 feet long, 
brown-stramineous, scaly towards the base. Frond ample, deltoid, 
tripinnatifid, moderately firm in texture, dark green on both sides, 
thinly clothed with minute brown scales on both surfaces, especially 
on the costa) of the pinna) and pinnules. Pinna; oblong-lanceolate, 
patent, the central ones a foot long, 3-4 in. broad ; the lower ones 
dwarfed. Pinnules sessile, lanceolate, crowded, patent, ^— f in. 
broad, cut down to a narrow wing into oblong-quadrate dentate 
tertiary segments. Veuas pinnate in the tertiary segments ; vein- 
lets 2-3-jugate, remote, simple, erecto-patent. Sori 4-6 to a fully- 
developed tertiary segment, marginal, terminal on the veins. 
Involucre cup-shaped, the outer part of the involute edge of 
the frond rather modified in texture. — Woods at 6500 feet. Allied 



204 FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 

to D. scandens, Baker, discovered not long ago by Father Sodii'o in 
Ecuador. 

1GG9. DavalUa fumorioideH, Swartz. 

l-i35, 1708. JJIechnwn brasilimse, Desv. 

1G51. Lonchitis Lindeniana, Hook., which I cauuot separate 
specifically from the Old World L. ptihescem, "VViUd. 

1298. Pteris acdicis, Mctt. 

1353. P. ohsmra, Mett. 

1817 (25'''). AsPLENiuM (Euasplenium) filioaule. Baker, n. sp. 
— Ehizome thread-like, creeping to a length of a foot or more. 
Stipe very short, naked. Frond oblong-lanceolate, simply pinnate, 
membranous, light green, glabrous, about an inch long by half as 
broad. Pinnae 4-7 -jugate, petioled, entire, about J in. long, the 
barren ones oblong, the fertile ones oblong-rhomboid. Vein only a 
mich'ib to each pinnae, which falls considerably short of its tip. 
Sorus one to a pinna, running along the midrib, beginning just 
above its base and ending at its tip. Involucre indistinct, mem- 
branous, glabrous, persistent. — On trunks in the forest, Murri, 
alt. 2700 feet. Allied only to A. holopJdebium, Baker, another of 
Father Sodiro's discoveries in the Andes of Ecuador. 

1843. Asplmiuin (DiphrJwn) Sprucei,'Bakev. 

1876 (210''"). Asplenium (Diplazium) longisorum. Baker, n. sp. 
— Stipes tufted, 1|— 2 feet long, naked, dull brown. Fronds oblong, 
simply pinnate, 1^-2 feet long, moderately firm in texture, green 
and glabrous on both surfaces. Pinnae 4-5, the end one like the 
others, the side ones erecto-patent, sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 
narrowed to both ends, entu-e, 12-18 in. long, 3-4 in. broad at the 
middle. Veins close, distinct, erecto-patent, three in a group 
springing together from the costa, the central one often forked 
higher up. Sori narrow, running from the base of a vein nearly 
to its tip, often 2 in. long. Involucre very narrow and incon- 
spicuous. — Moist shade, at 4000 feet. Allied to A. nicotianqfoliuin, 
Mett., and the Old World A. huntamense. 

1641, 1852. Asplenium sandivichiajium, Mett. 

1777. A. fendaceum, Moore. 

1454 (4'"). Nephrodium (Lastrea) longicaule. Baker, n. sp. — 
Caudex epigseous, decumbent, nearly a foot long, J in. thick, 
densely clothed with ascending dark brown linear acuminate pales. 
Stipes h foot long, remote, wiry, glossy, stramineous, nearly naked. 
Frond lanceolate, about a foot long, H-2 in. broad, simply pinnate, 
glabrous, green on both sides, moderately firm in texture, much 
narrowed at the base. Pinnae 30-40-jugate, sessile, patent, \-\ in. 
broad, unequal-sided, reduced on the lower side of the costa, 
auricled on the upper side at the base, with few short round-quadi-ate 
contiguous lobes, shown principaUy in the lower half of the upper 
edge ; lower pinnns remote and very dwarf. Veins pinnate against 
the lobes of the pinns ; veinlets simple, obscure, 2-3-jugate. Sori 
small, medial, consisting of but few sporangia. Involucre glabrous, 
evanescent. — Moist shady slopes, alt. 7500 feet, Near N. pusilhcm, 
Baker. 

1347, 1871 (35'''). Nephrodium (Lastrea) valdepilosum, Baker, 



FERNS OF NEW GEANADA. 205 

n. sp. — stipes tufted, 6-9 in. loug, densely clothed, as is the rachis, 
with fine soft squarrose pale brown hair-like paleae. Fronds 
dimorphous. Sterile lamina oblong-lanceolate, 1-1^ ft. long, about 
half a foot broad, bipmnatifid, moderately firm in texture, green on 
both sides, clothed, especially on the upper surface, with longhair- 
like palese hke those of the stipes and rachis. Pinnae crowded, 
sessile, lanceolate, the lower ones much deflexed, but little 
dwarfed, 3-4 in. long, |-1 in. broad, cut down to a narrow wing 
into contiguous entire linear-oblong secondary segments ^ in. 
broad. Veins pinnate in the secondary segments ; veinlets erecto- 
patent, simple, 10-12-jugate. Fertile h-onds more lanceolate, with 
longer stipes and smaller pinnfe. Sori small, costular. Involucre 
reniform, brown, hispid, persistent. — Forest shade, alt. 4000-5000 
feet. Allied to jV. -velleum and trichopliorum. 

180G (205"). Nepheodium (Sagenia) antioquoianum. Baker, n. sp. 
— Stipe dull brown, glossy, glabrous, above a foot long. Frond 
oblong-deltoid, thin but firm in texture, green and naked on both 
sides, 12-18 in. long, simply pinnate. Pinnae 5-7, oblong-lanceo- 
late, 6-9 in. long, 2-2|^ in. broad, entire, acuminate, the upper 
side ones adnate to the rachis and decurrent, the lowest almost 
petioled, forked on the lower side at the base. Main veins fine, 
arcuate ascending, distinct from the midrib to the edge of the 
pinnae, ^^ in. apart ; intermediate areolae very copious, irregular, 
with abundant free included veinlets. Sori copious, middle-sized, 
forming two regular rows near the main veins and many others 
between these. Involucre firm, distinct, glabrous. — Forest shade, 
alt. 3000-4000 feet. Allied to N. suhtrvphyllum and latifolium of 
the Old World. 

1807 (II*). PoLYPODiuM (Phegopteeis) sylvicolum, Baker, u. sp. 
— Stipe 1|- ft. long, dull brown, distantly scaly up to the summit. 
Frond oblong-lanceolate, l|-2 feet long, 8-10 in. broad, bipinnatifid, 
membranous, glabrous, bright green on both surfaces. Pinnte 
lanceolate, those of the upper half of the frond adnate to the 
rachis and decurrent, the lowest, which are the largest, shortly 
petioled, 4-6 in. long, 1-li in. broad, cut down to a broad wing 
into contiguous subenthe lanceolate-deltoid secondary segments. 
Veins pinnate in the secondary segments ; veinlets 5-6-jugate and 
simple, except in the lowest pinnse, where they are more numerous 
and branched. Sori moderately large, orbicular, medial on the 
veins. — Forest shade, 3200 feet. Habit and texture of P. jhivo- 
punctatum, but the pinnte cut down throughout to a narrow wing to 
the rachis. 

1944. Pohjpodixun inaquale, Fee. 

1472. P. andinum, Hook. 

1394. P. leucostictun , Fee. — A variety of P. taxifolium, h. 

1578. P. meridense, Klotzsch. 

1703 (134'''). PoLYPODiUM (Eupolypodium) antioquoianum, Baker, 
n. sp. — Stipes very short, densely tufted ; basal palete minute, 
subulate. Fronds linear, 1-3 in. long, ,\ in. broad, simply piunate, 
moderately firm in texture, with an elastic black thread-like rachis, 
both surfaces furnished with a few long hairs. Pinna; 20-30- 



206 FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 

jugate, oblique-oblong, adnata to the rachis, about a line broad, the 
lower ones gradually dwarfed, each with a single medial vein, with 
a short fork at its base. Sori solitary on the pinnje, placed at the 
end of the midrib near their tip, orbicular, superficial. — On trees 
amongst moss in forests at 5000 feet. Allied to P. trichomanuides 
and exiguum. 

1917. Poh/podium riraveolens, Baker. 
1505. l\ villotmin, Ivarsten. 
1325. Janiesonia verticalis, Kunze. 
1819. Gynmogramvie pumila, Spreng. 

1487 (33"). Gymnogramme vellea. Baker, n. sp. — Stipes densely 
tufted, wiry, 1-2 in. long, densely clothed with fine short spreading 
crisped subulate palepe, as is the main rachis. Fronds lanceolate, 
bipiunate, 2-3 in. long, |-^ in. broad, firm in texture, bright green 
and pilose on both surfaces. Pinnae numerous, erecto-patent, 
lanceolate, ^-^ in. broad, cut down to the rachis into cuneate close 
erecto-patent pinnules, the lowest with 3-5 short 1-veined lobes at 
the apex. Veins 1 to the upper pinnules, one running into 
each lobe of the lower ones. Sori oblong, occupying the lower 
part of the pinnules. — Forest border, alt. 8800 feet. Like dwarf 
G. Warcewiczii, densely pilose, with 1-veined ultimate segments. 

1563 (50'''). Gymnogramme xerophila, Baker, n. sp. — Densely 
tufted. Fronds 4-5 feet long, quadi-ip innate, thick and firm in 
texture, dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, matted all 
over with persistent pale brown tomentum beneath ; rachis bright 
brown, similarly tomentose. Pinnae lanceolate-deltoid, a foot 
or more long, distinctly petioled. Pinnules lanceolate, 3-4 in. 
long, 1-1^ in. broad. Tertiary segments sessile, oblong-lanceolate, 
•J-1 in. long, deej)ly piunatifid, with close semi-orbicular final lobes 
T?2-i ill- broad, their margins slightly revolute. Fmal veming 
flabellate-pinnate. Sori slender, running along the veins. — Open 
rocky places, alt. 8000 feet. Texture and vestiture of G./errurjinea 
and aureo-nitens, but much larger and more comj)ound. 

1365. Gymnofjiramme prehensibilis, Baker. — Gathered before only 
by Pearce. 

1453, 1865. Meniscium r/iganteiwi, Mett. 
1440. Acrostichum castaneum, Baker. 
1371, A. Gardnerianum, Fee. 

1873 (82'''). Acrostichum (Polybotrya) botryoides. Baker, 
n. sp. — Ehizome wide-scandent, with distant horizontal spreading 
stiff dark glossy green glabrous fronds. Stipe 1^ ft. long, dull 
brown, with large lanceolate brown pales towards the base. Barren 
fronds ample, quadripinnate. Central pinna; oblong-deltoid, 1^ ft. 
long, 6-8 in. broad. Pinnules lanceolate, 3-4 in. long, 1-1|- in. 
broad ; tertiary segments sessile, oblong-lanceolate, ^ in. broad, 
cut down to the rachis in the lower part, into close parallel adnate 
oblong-rhomboid quar ternary segments. Veins forked or sub- 
pinnate in the final segments. Fertile frond tripinnate, the small 
oblong distinctly stipitate soriferous final segments regularly 
pinnately arranged. — On trees in the forests, 6000-7000 feet. 
Fertile frond and its final segments in shax)e, size, and arrangement 



FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 207 

just as in A. canaliculotum, Hook., but the barren frond much more 
ample and compound. 

1877 (105*). AcRosTicHUM (Gymnopteris) subeeectum, Baker, 
n. sp. — Khizome wide-creeping. Barren fronds 4^-5 feet long, 
close, suberect. Stipes naked, brown -stramineous, as is the main 
rachis. Barren frond simply pinnate, green on both sides, glabrous, 
chartaceous in texture. Pinnae oblong-lanceolate, the upper adnate 
to the rachis, the lower free and shortly petioled, about a foot long, 
2-3 in. broad, acuminate, broadly rounded on both sides at the 
base, shallowly lobed only towards the base. Main veins distinct 
to the edge, fine, rather ascending, ^— ^ in. apart in the fully- 
developed pinnffi ; veinlets 5-6-jugate, simple, very ascending, the 
lowest of each group joining about a third of the distance from the 
midrib to the edge. Fertile frond fully bipinnate, its pinnae 
lanceolate, 6-9 in. long, cut down to the rachis into ligulate obtuse 
entu-e or slightly crenate parallel pinnules ^-^ in. broad. — On old 
trees in the forests, 4000-4500 feet. 

1254 (105*). AcRosTicHUM (Gymnopteris) polyboteyoides, Baker, 
n. sp. — Khizome wide-scandent, densely clothed with crisped linear- 
subulate bright brown pale^e. Stipe of barren fi-ond stramineous, 
naked, 3-5 in. long. Barren frond oblong-lanceolate, simply pin- 
nate, 1^-2 feet long, subcoriaceous, bright green and entirely naked 
on both surfaces. Pinnae patent, lanceolate, many of the lower 
ones shortly petioled, 3-5 in. long, f-1 in. broad, acuminate, entire, 
equally deltoid or rounded on both sides at the base. Main veins 
fine, erecto-patent, distinct to the margin, ^ in. apart ; veinlets 
3-4-jugate, simple, very ascending, the groups joining regularly 
about half-way between the midrib and margin. Fertile frond 
bipinnate, with numerous lanceolate acuminate pinnae ^-^ in. 
broad, with copious parallel oblong or oblong-cylindrical adnate 
pinnules, the lowest ^-^ in. long, the upper growing gradually 
shorter, all about -j-V in. diam. — On trees in the forests, Ocana, 
alt. 7000 feet, 

1798 (105*). AcRosTicHUM (Gymnopteris) juglandifolium, Baker, 
n. sp. — Ehizome wide-scandent. Stipe of the barren frond a foot 
long, naked, stramineous. Barren frond oblong-lanceolate, simply 
pinnate, l|-2 feet long, subcoriaceous in texture, bright green and 
quite naked on both surfaces. Pimife lanceolate, upper sessile, 
lower shortly petioled, 5-6 in, long, 18-21 lin. broad, acuminate, 
subentire, rather cut aw^ay at the base in the lower half. Veins 
faint ; main ones continuous from the costa of the pinme to the 
margin about \ in. apart, erecto-patent ; veinlets 3-4-jngate, very 
ascending, simple, the groups regularly joining about a third of the 
way from the midrib to the edge. Fertile fronds bipinnate. Pinn:T3 
lanceolate, 4-6 in. long, 1-1;^ in. broad, with spreading adnate 
ligulate-cylindrical pinnules a line broad, the lower ^-J in. long, 
growing gradually smaller towards the tip of tlie pinna\ — On trees 
in the forests, 5000 feet. This and tlie two last are allied to one 
another, and to A. insigne, Baker, discovered lately by Father 
Sodiro in Ecuador. Except for the anastomosing venation they 



208 FERNS OF NEW GRANADA. 

come near two of Dr. Spruce's species fi-om the north-east of Peru, 
A. jiluiiibicault' and A. ffactlseriale, 

1678. Schizaa di(/itata, var, orbicularis, Baker. — Barren fronds 
almost circular, the main divisions about four times dicliotomously 
forked, so that we have from 100 to 150 final segments, which are 
1-1^ in. long, I lin. diam. Fertile frond deltoid, with corymbose 
ramification, the segments which bear the fertile pinnae hardly at 
all flattened. — Dry hill-sides, 5000-GOOO feet. Our attention was 
di'awn to this many years ago by Mr. Whyte, of MedeUin, who 
sent a photograph and numerous specimens. By its very dimorphic 
barren and fertile fronds, and the orbicular outline of the former, 
it looks very difi'erent in the extreme form from typical digitata, 
but it is evidently connected with the type by intermediate stages, 
as Feudler's No. 485 from Venezuela, and Wright's No. 926 
from Cuba. 

1352 (5"). Dan^a serrulata. Baker, n. sp. — Stipe 2-3 in. long, 
minutely furfuraceous, and furnished with 1-2 joints. Barren 
lamina lanceolate, 6-9 in. long, 18-21 lines broad, simply pinnate, 
firm in texture, bright green and glabrous on both surfaces ; main 
rachis obscurely winged. Pinnae 15-20-jugate, sessile, lanceolate, 
unequal-sided, at most f-1 in. long, ^\ in. broad, reduced towards 
the base in the lower half, acute, regularly serrulate ; lower piun® 
distant and much dwarfed. Veins crowded, very distinct, mostly 
simple. Fertile fronds much smaller, with ligulate entire pinn®, 
the lower ^ in. long, ^ in. broad, shortly petioled. — Forest shade, 
4000-5000 feet. Nearest D. trichomanoides, Spruce, from which it 
differs by its firm texture, and serrulate pinna of the baiTeu frond, 
with close veining. 

1815. Selaginella LONGissiJiA, Baker, n. sp. — Main stem trailing 
to a length of 2 feet or more, very slender, unjointed, its deltoid 
ascending branches 6-9 in. long, with ascending simple upper and 
slightly compound lower branchlets, the ultimate divisions 2-2|- in. 
long, one-fifth of an inch broad. Leaves of the lower plane 
obliquely attached, close, bright green, ovate-oblong, acute, ^ in. 
long, the two sides not very unequal, the upper strongly ciliated 
towards the base. Leaves of the upper plane i as long, oblique- 
ovate, very ascending, obscurely cuspidate. Spikes terminal on the 
branchlets, square, 1-2 in. long, 1 lin. diam. ; bracts ovate-lanceo- 
late, erecto-patent, dark green, strongly keeled. — Forest shade, 
3000 feet. Of familiar species this comes nearest S. concinna of 
Mauritius, and 5'. radicata of Tropical Asia. 

1861. Selaginella lingidata, Spring. 

1460. S. mnioides, A. Br. 

1538. S. Poppit/iana, Spring. 

1331, 1350, 1379. S. anceps, A. Br. 

1850. S. Hartwegiana, Spring. 



200 



FLOR^ SINIO^ NOVITATES TRES, 

EDIT. HeNR. F. HaNCE. 

1. PoLYGALA. [Semeiocardium) Wattersii, sp. nov. — Tota, prfeter 
ramulos uovellos racemormnque racliem giauduloso-tomeutellos, 
glaberrima, caule liguesceiite superne parum ramuloso, foliis 
apicem versus aggi'egatis membranaceis elliptico-lanceolatis acumi- 
natis margine recurvis l-2i- poll, longis 4-11 liu. latis basi in 
petiolum 3-4 liuealem cuneatim atteiiuatis supra opacis subtus 
glaucescentibus, floribus luteis in racemos 8 termiuales laxos 10-16- 
floros folia baud superautes digestis, pedicellis filiformibus 3 liu. 
lougis, sepalis deciduis 8 exterioribus oblougis obtusissimis 1-J lin. 
lougis 2 iuterioribus petaloideis oblique oblongis 6 liu. longis, 
petalis alte coalitia lateralibus arete imbricautibus 7i liu. longis 
apice truncatis cariuali apice inflato genitalia foveute vertice extus 
saccules 2 parvos cuculliformes gereute, capsula compressa obo- 
voidea ala angusta minutissime denticulata cincta apice emarginata 
basi persistente auulata sepalorum exteriorum fulta (adliuc im- 
matura) 4 lin. longa. 

Juxta urbem Ichaug, prov. Hu-peli, m. Aprili 1880, legit 
amicus T. Watters, cui lastus dico. (Herb, propr. u. 21087.) 

Pulchrffl liujus et sane notabilis stirpis, ab omnibus ejusdem 
sectionis a Hasskarlio memoratis,* floribus magnis capsubeque 
forma certe distinctissimte, uuicum modo possideo exemplar, 5 
pollices altum, sine radicis vestigio, adeo ut pro certo adfirmare non 
valeo caulem supra dictum non potius esse ramum majoris sufiru- 
ticis : id tamen vix orederem, ex analogia specierum jam notarum 
indicium ferens. 

2. SoPHORA [Eusophora) a'iciifolia, sp. nov. — Suffruticosa, ramis 
striatis glaberrimis, ramulis petiolisque adpresse tomentellis, foliolis 
7-jugis cum imparl brevissime petiolulatis obovatis retusis cum 
apiculo supra glaberrimis subtus parce liirtellis 6 lin. lougis, 
stipulis tomentosis calloso-mucronatis, racemis ramulos foliatos 
terminantibus laxis recurvis 10-12-floris, floribus albis G lin. 
longis, calyce oblongo-campanulato adpresse tomoutello lincali 
pedicello sequilongo suffulto dentibus brevibus triaugulatis acutis 
2 inferioribus paulo majoribus, petalis suba^qualibus, filamentis per 
trientem fere lougitudiuis conuatis, ovario adpresse eericeo. 

In Chineusium prov. Hu-peli, circa urbem Icliang, m. Aprili 
1880, leg. am. T. Watters. (Herb, propr. n. 21075.) 

Affiuis S. Jlaveacenti, Linn., S. Kronei, milii,! ct S. sororia:,\ 
milii ; ab omnibus, foliolis parvis, obovatis, racemis lateralibus, 
recurvis, staminibus alte cohaerentibus, facile distincta. 

3. LoRANTHUS (Cichlanthus) nigrans, sp. nov. — Ramulis foliis 
novellis utrinque adultis subtus petiolis pedunculis fructibusque 

* In Miquel, Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bnt. i. loO. 
+ Ann. se. nat. -ie. s^r. xviii. 210. 
J Aun. se. nat, De, ser. v. "210. 

2 E 



210 THE FLOKA OF DERBYSHIRE. 

tomonto stellato pallide cinnamomeo vel fulventi tectis, foliis 
oppositis oblongu-ellipticis basi obtuse cuneatis apice obtusis 
coriaceis penniveniis supra in sicco lucidis nigris 2|~3^ poll, longis 
18-15 lin. latis petiole 3-lineali, pecluuculis axillaribus 3-5 floris 
pedicellos duplo excedeutibus, fructibus ovalibus pedicollo triplo 
longioribus 3-linealibus. 

Juxta urbem Ichaug, prov. Hu-peli, CliinaJ medise, in Quercubus 
et in JJndera sericea, Bl. tautum parasiticum, invenit am. T. 
Watters, m. Junio 1810. (Herb, propr. n. 21123.) 

Jjoranthu cliinensi, DC, vel saltern plantsB Hongkongensi hoc 
sub nomine a Benthamio descriptfe, — de cujus tameu identitate 
cum Candolleana hand forsan temere dubitat am Maximowicz,'^ — 
et priesertim /.. jadorilci, Siebold, affinis. A priore, — floribus 
nostrie speciei nondum notis, — foliorum forma omnino diversa 
tomentoque persistent! distiuctus, a posteriore etiam foliorum 
forma petiolisque brevibus diguoscendus. Ceter® dufe species 
chinenses a me olim descriptor pertinent, secundum novissimam 
sectionum recensionem in opere egregio quod inscribitur ' Genera 
Plantarum ' datam, L. Samjjsoni ad Heteranthum, L. bibracteolatum 
ad I)endr<ipfith(cnni. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 
By the Rev. W. H. Painter. 

As no complete record of the Flora of Derbyshire has been 
published, it is hoped that the following notes may stimulate 
the Botanists living in that county to investigate and record 
its plant-life. 

Owing to the geological formations of the county, its Flora is 
an extensive and interesting one. In the northern portion of it 
we have a wild moorland tract of country, resting upon the rocks 
of the Millstone Grit Series, of which Kinder Scout (1981 ft.), 
Cowburn (181G ft.). Axe Edge (1751 ft.), and Mam Tor (1709 ft.) 
are its highest points, with a subalpine Flora. These rocks 
extend from Glossop on the north to Duffield, near Derby, on the 
south. 

Beneath the Millstone Grit lie the Yoredale Rocks, which are 
well exposed in the ravines on the flanks of Kinder Scout and the 
other hills. The shales of this series have a rich flora. 

But the richest of all the geological formations is that of the 
Carboniferous Limestone, which, commencing near Castleton and 
Buxton, underlies the greater part of the county, and terminates at 
Matlock Bath, with outliers at Crich Hill, and Ticknall on the 
borders of Leicestershire. 

The Coal-measures extend from Sheffield on the north to 
within six miles of Derby ; and parallel with these to the eastward 
is a broad band of ilagnesian Limestone. The Flora of these 
parts has not been thoroughly investigated. 

* Mem. biolog. Acad. St. Petersb. ix. Oil. 



k 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 211 

Soutliwards of Derby is a broad plain resting upon Triassic 
rocks, through which the Eivers Trent and Derwent How on their 
way to the ocean. These are the principal rivers of Derbyshire, 
though there are others more celebrated for their beauty, riz., 
the Dove, the Wye, the Lathkill, the Goyt, and the Dane. 

For botanical purposes the county may be thus divided into 
four districts : — I. The Peak district, in which are the principal 
moorlands and dales; II. The Coal-measiu-es ; III. TheMagnesiau 
Limestone ; and IV. The district south of Dufdeld and Ashbourne. 

The compiler of this list desires to express his great obligations 
to the Eevds. Gerard Smith, of Ockbrook, Derby, and W. H. 
Purchas, of Alstoufield Vicarage, Ashbourne ; to Messrs. Harris, 
of Burton-on-Trent ; Haggar, of Piepton ; Hannan, Searle, and 
Whitelegg, of Ashton-under-Lyme ; C. Bailey, F.L.S., of Whalley 
Range; Wild, of Manchester; J. E. Sunderland, of Stockport; 
Whittaker, of Moiiey, Derby ; who have greatly assisted him with 
specimens, and who are responsible for the habitats against which 
then- names are placed. He has also to thank the two first-named 
gentlemen, together with J. G. Baker, Esq., F.L.S., of the Royal 
Gardens, Kew ; and Mr. J. E. Bagnall, of Birmingham, for ex- 
amining critically the specimens submitted to them. 

All the specimens recorded in the following list have passed 
through the hands of the writer of this article, and where no 
authority is given for a habitat, he is responsible for the same, 
the mark ! being placed against the same. As several plants are 
recorded in ' Topographical Botany ' as having been found in the 
county which have not passed through the hands of the writer, a sup- 
plementary list of the same will be given at the close of this article. 

The arrangement followed is that of the ' London Catalogue of 
British Plants,' Ed. VII. 

ThaUctrum ininus, Linn. ; viontanuiii, Wallr. I. Monsal Dale, 
Bailey ; Cave Dale, Castleton, West ; Cressbrook Dale ! 

T. Jiexuosum, Bernh. I. Cave Dale, Castleton, West; The 
Winnatts, Castleton I 

T. fiuvum, Linn. ; splKcruearjium, Bosw. I. Monk's Dale, Worm- 
hill, West. IV. Common about Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Anemone nemorosa, Linn. Common. 

Mi/usnrus minimus, Linn. IV. Drakelowe, Stapenhill, Harris. 

liannncidi(s jluitans, Ijinn. TV. River Derwent, Darley Abbey ; 
Derby ! common about Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

11. peltutus, Fries. I. Baslow and Monyash, Bailey. IV. Old 
bed of Derwent, Litchurch, Derby ! 

li. jlaribanclus,Bah. I. Farley Paddocks, Baslow, L'^/Z/c// ; Ponds 
at Boulton, Derby ! 

li. penicillatus, Schur. I. Lathkill Dale, Monsal Dale, Hailey ; 
Dove Dale and Miller's Dale! 

I!. Lenurmandi, Schultz. I. Kinder Scout, West; Coombes 
Moss, near Buxton ! 

U. hederaceus, Linn. IV. Milton, Rcpton, l'lay)ie; Rcpton 
Eocks, Hayyer ; Breadsall, near Derby, Whittaker] common near 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 



212 THE FLORA OF OERBYSUIRE. 

B. sccleratus, Linn. IV. Common about Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris ; Borrowasli Eailway Station ! 

B. Flammula, Linn. Boggy places, common. 
B. auricomns, Linn. IV. Common about Derby. 
B. acris, Linn. Very common. 
B. n'pem, Linn. Very common. 
B. bulbostis, Linn. Very common. 
B. arvensis, Linn. IV. Common. 

B. Ficaria, Linn. Very common. 
Caltlia palustris, Linn. Very common. 

TroUius europcBUs, Linn. I. Chee Tor and Brassington Eocks, 
Pnrchas; between Miller's Dale and Litton, Hannan. 

Ht'llcb(jrnsviriiUs,Ijmn. 1. Wormliill, Buxton, TfVsi; near Dove 
Dale, Searle ; Lathkill Dale, Wliiteleyy. II. Near Codnor Park, 
Smith. IV. Plantation at Drakclowe, Harris. 

H.fcetidus, lAim. I. Cromford, WJnttaker; Bakewell, .S'hi/^//. 

AquiU'ijia vuhjar is, Jjiira. I. MonsalDale, [r/(ii(?/fV/(/; Cressbrook 
Dale! Bakewell, «S'»t/f/t. IV. Drakelowe, -f/rtrr/s; \i\\\mgion, Hagger. 

Berhcris vulgaris, Linn. IV. Morley-near-tlie- Church and 
Boulton-uear-the-Church, Whittakcr ; occasional near Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

Suphar Intea, Sm. IV. Paver Trent, Harris ; Swarkestoue 
Bridge 1 

Fapaver lilueas, Linn. IV. Linton and Cauldwell, Harris ; 
about Derby ! 

P. duhiwn, Linn. ; Lamottei, Bor. I. Duffield, Bland ; Baslow, 
Bailey. IV. Linton and Cauldwell, Harris ; Eepton ! 

F. Argemone, Linn. IV. Morley, Whittaker; Ee^jton, Flayne ; 
Linton and Cauldwell, Harris. 

Chelidoniimi majus, Linn. I. Over Haddon, Bailey ; Matlock 
Bath! IV. Common about Burton-on-Trent, Harris; Stenson, 
near Derby ! 

Corydalis lutea, DC. I. Wormhill, West; Crich, Whitelegij ; 
JMatlock Bath ! 

C. claviculata, DC. I. Ambergate, Harris. IV. Morley Moor ! 
Fumaria officinalis, Linn. Common. 

Baplianus Bajihajiistrnm, Linn. IV. Staponhill, H<(rris. 

Sinapis arvensis, Linn. Common. 

Brassica Bapa, Linn. ; sylvestris, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! IV. 
Morley ! 

Sisymbrium, officinale, Scop. Common. 

S. Alliaria, Scop. Common. 

Hesperis matronalis, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Wliiteleyy. 

Cardam ine amara, Jjinn. I. Via Gellia ! IV. Common, Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris ; Breadsall ! Kedleston ! 

C. pratensis, Linn. Common. 

C. hirsuta, Linn. Common. 

C. sylvatica, Link. I. Stirrup Wood, Glossop, Wliiteleyy. 
IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Mackworth, near Derby ! 

C. iuipatiens, Jjinn. I. Chee Dale, Trt-s^ ; Lathkill Dale, /Jo<7^// ; 
Matlock Batli, .S'/»/i/; ; A'ia Gellia ! Dove Dale! IV. Jjiethy, Harris. 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 218 

Arabis thalianu, Linn. Common. 

A. perfuliata , Lam. IV. Drakelowe, Harris. 

A. hirsuta, Brom. Common on limestone rocks. 
Barharea vulgaris, Br. Common. 
Nasturtium ojficinalis, Br. Common. 

X. sylvestre, Br. IV. Old bed of Derwent, Derby ! 

.V. amphibiuni , Br. IV. R. Trent, Stapenhill, Han is; old bed 
of Derwent, Derby ! 

Cochlearia oificinaiis, Linn. I. Wirkswortli, Harris ; Winnatts, 
Castleton ! 

C. alpina, Watson. I. Between Peak Forest and Castleton, West. 

Draba verna, Linn. Common. 

B. muralis, Jjinn. I. Miller's Dale, West; near Lathkill Dale, 
WJiiteleiig ; Hartington, Purchas; Matlock Bath, Piowlands; Via 
Gellia, near Matlock Bath! 

B. incaiia, Liiun. I. Miller's Dale, 7:>V(i7(?^ ; Monk's Dale, West; 
Monsal Dale ! 

TIdaspi ar cense, Linn. IV. Stapenhill, Harris. 

T. alpestre, Linn. I. Matlock, Smith. 

T. virens, Jord. I. Yoiilgreave, A. S. Ley ; Heights of 
Abraham, Matlock Bath, Harris; Wirksworth, Whitelegg ; Via 
Gellia, near Matlock Bath ! 

Iberis amara, Linn. I. Eailway embankment, Monsal Dale, 
Bailey. 

Hutch insia petra'a, Bv. I. Miller's Dale, Whitelegg; Chee Dale, 
West ; Dove Dale, Harris ; beneath railway viaduct, Monsal Dale ! 

C'apsella Bursa-jjastoris, Moench. Common. 

Senebiera Coronopus, Poir. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Reseda huteola, 'Linn. I. Matlock Bath, HrtH?Mn. IV. Bretby, 
Harris ; Old Quarry, Stanton-by-Bridge ! 

Helianthemum vnlgare, Gaert. I. Common on limestone hills ! 

Viola palnstris, Linn. I. Axe Edge, West. IV. Allersley Park, 
near Derby ; Horsley Car, Whittaker; Ptep ton Rocks, P/«y»c;. 

V.odorata,'Ln\n.. IV. Morley, near Derby, TF/iiffrtA-^;;-; common 
about Burton-on-Trent, Harris. Var. edba. IV. Morley, near 
Derby, Wliittaker; B^e-pton, Hagger ; Burton-on-Trent, /fr/r/7s. 

F. hirta, Linn. I. Cromford, Harris ; Monsal Dale ! 

F. sylvatica, Fries; var. liiviniana, Reich. IV. Ockbrook, near 
Derby ! 

V. canina, kx\ci. IV. Ockbrook! 

T'. tricolor, Linn. Common. 

F. lutea, Huds. I. Wardlow Hay Cop, llailey; Mam Tor and 
Peak Forest, West; Matlock Bath, Smith; Wirksworth, Harris; 
Chelmorton Low, near Buxton, and Via Gellia, IMatlock Bath ! Var. 
amania. 1. Miller's Dale, Whitelegg; Wu-ksworth, Harris. 

Bolygala vulgaris, Linn. Heaths, common. 

P. o.vyptera, Reich. I. Miller's Dale, Whitelegg. 

Bianthus deltuides, Linn. I. Quarry near Newhaven, Bailey. 

Silene injlata, 8m. I. Monsal Dale! Ashford-in the-Water ! 
Var. jniberuln, .Jord. I. Matlock Bath, Whitelegg; Monsal Dale, 
JUiiley. 



214 THK FJ.CJKA OF OEUBYSHIRE. 

.5. nutans, Liun. I. Monsal Dale, IjuUnj; Miller's Dale, West; 
Bakewell, Harris; Dove Dale ! 

S. noctijlora, Liun. IV. Greslcy, Liiitoii, Cauldvvell, Harris. 

Lychnis vcspertinn, Sibtli. Common. 

L. diurna, Sibtli. Common. 

L. Fios-cuculi, Linn. Common. 

L. Uithar/o, Desf. IV. Morley, Whlttakcr; Eepton, llmjger; 
near Burton-on-Treut, Harris; Ockbroolc, Smith. 

Cerastium semidecandrum, Linn. I. Monsal Dale, Whiteleijg ; 
Matlock Bath, West. IV. Near Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. gloiiieratiivi, Tliuill. Common. 

C. triviale, Link. Common. 

Stellaria aqiiatica, Scop. IV. Newton Soluey, Harrit ; Cliad- 
desden and Osmastou, near Derby ! 

8. ni'inonuti, Linn. I. Wood at Mellor, Wild. 

S. media, With, Common. 

S. Holostea, Linn. Common. 

S. graminea, Linn. Common. 

.S'. uliginosa, Miirr. Common in wet places. 

Arenaria trinervia, Linn. Common on banks. 

A. scrpyUifoHa, Linn. Common Awalls. 

Alsine verna ,J^^^i.Y{\. I. Peak Forest, HV.sf ; Youlgreave, i?rti/e^ 
Cromford and Matlock Bath, Harris ; Castleton ! Via Gellia ! 

A. tenuifulia, Crantz. I. Miller's Dale, Baileij. 

Sagina apetala, Lmn. I. Dove Dale, Furchas. IV. Ticknall 
Purchas ; near Ivnowle Hills, Hagger ; Eepton ! 

8. ciliata, Friee. I. Dove Dale, Purchas ; Whatstandwell on 
walls, Whitelegg. 

S. procumhens, Linn. Common. 

S. nodosa, Meyer. I. Marple, Whitelegg; Bnxton! IV. Eepton 
Eocks, Harris. 

Spergnla arvcnsis, Linn. Common. 

Spergularia rubra, Fenzl. I. Baslow, Bailey. IV. Eepton, 
Playne; Foremark, Harris. 

Scleranthus annuus, Linn. III. Ticknall, Harris; Eepton 
Eocks, Hagger ; Breadsall Moor, near Derby ! 

Montia fo7it ana, Jjiun. I. Cliarlesworth Coombs, iifl?j?ia?i; Man- 
chester Eoad, Buxton ! IV. Cauldwell, /irtn/s ; Eipton Eocks, i/a^r/f/-. 
''■'Claytonia alsinoides, Linn. I. Near Bakewell, ^\'est. 

Hypericum perforatum, Linn. I. Buxton, Bailey ; Matlock 
Bath, Hannan; Dove Dale ! IV. Common! 

H. tetrapterum, Flies. I. Dove Dale. IV. Eepton! 

H. hu)iufusu))i,hiun. I. Ashford-in-the-Water, LVuVf//; Edensor, 
Wild.; Hadfield and Glossop, Hann«» ; Dove Dale! IV. Common 
about Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

H. pulchrum, Linn. I. IsieMox, Hannan ; Dove Dale ! Miller's 
Dale ! IV. Common about Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

H. hirsutum, Linn. I. Asliford-in-the-Water, Bailey ; Lover's 
Leap, Buxton ! Dove Dale ! 

H. montanum, Linn. I. Miller's Dale ; Crich, Searle ; between 
Buxton and Bakewell, Smith; Wormhill ; Monsal Dale, ]i'est; 
Winshill, IJarris] Dove Dale! 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 215 

Malva moschata, Linn. I. Hassop, Baileij ; Matlock, West ; 
Dove Dale ! IV. Duffield ! 

M. sylvestris, Linn. I. Cricli, Whitcleyy. IV. Common about 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Swarkestoue ! 

M. rotmuUfoUa, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, WhiteJajij; Thorpe 
Cloud, Dove Dale ! IV. Willington, Hatjger ; Repton ! 

Linum catharticum, Linn. Common. 

LTeranium sanguineum, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Harris ; Monk's 
Dale, West; Cressbrook Dale, Whitehyg. 

G. jjhcEHui, Linn. IV. Morley, Whittaker. 

G. pratense, Linn. Common. 

G. pijrenaicum, Linn. I. Hassop, Bailey. 

G. moUe, Linn. Common. 

G. dissect lun, Linn. Common. 

G. columhinum, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Bailey ; Dove Dale ! 

G. lucidum, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Bailet/ ; Dove Dale ! 
IV. Bretby, Harris. 

G. Robertianiun, Linn. Common. 

ErodiumcicHtariHiii,lj'}levit. IV. Foremark, H^nv/.s; Stanton- 
by-Bridge ! 

Oxalis Acetosella, Linn. Common. 
■''■ Impatiens parvijiora, DC. I. Matlock Bath, Searle. IV. Ock- 
brook, Smith. 

Ile.c Aquifulium, Linn. Common. 

Euonymus europmis, Linn. I. Miller's Dale ; Cressbrook Dale, 
Whitelegg. IV. "Winshill, Harris. 

lihaiimiis catharticKs, Jjinn. I. Monk's Dale and Matlock, West; 
Miller's Dale, Bailey; Cressbrook Dale, Whitelegg; Dove Dale, 
Furchas. IV. Breadsall, Whittaker. 

R. Frangula, Linn. IV. Horsley Car, near Derby, Whittaker; 
Drakelowe, Harris. 

Acer campestre, Linn. I. Ashford Dale, Whitelegg ; Miller's Dale, 
Wild; Dove Dale ! IV. Common about Burton-on-Trent, i/arm. 

Ulex europmis, Linn. Common. 

U. Gallii, Planch. I. Goyt's Bridge, Buxton ! IV. Gresley, 
Harris. 

Genista tinctoria, Linn. I. Matlock Bath, Iniiley, IV. Ock- 
brook, Smith ; Bm'ton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Sarothamnns scoparius, Koch. Heaths, common. 

Ononis sjiinosa, Linn. IV. Normanton-by-Derby ! 

(>. arrensis, Auct. I. Passing into spinosa, liaslow, Bailey ; 
common about Derby ! 

Anthylli.s Vuliicniria , Linn. I. Miller's Dale, West; Dove 
Diilc ! W . ^Icaslnim, Harris. 

Mcdicagij lajjiilina, Linn. Cuuiuion. 

Melilutus ojficinalis, Willd. IV. Bretby, Harris ; Nottingham 
lioad Iiaihvay Station, Derby ! Challaston ! 

Trijhliitm pratense, Linn. Common. Var. satinim, Syme. 
I. Miller's Dale, Bailey. IV'. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

T. medium, Linn. I. Buxton ; and IV. Ockbrook, Smith. 

T. ajren.1,', ]A\iii. W. IhivloiinM-TvoAd, I larris ; llepton. 



216 



THE FLOHA OF DERBYSHIUK. 



T. Striatum, Liun. I. Monsal Dale, Whiteleyij; Miller's Dale, 
Bailey . IV. Drakelowe, Harris. 

T. i-ejjeits, Liuu. Commou. 

T. procHmhensyLimn. I. Turnditch ! Dove Dale ! IV. Burton- 
ou-Treut, Harris. 

2\ 7ninus, lli}\han. IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Ha;/75 ; ileptou ! 

T. filiforme, Linu. I. Miller's Dale, Wild. IV. Burtou-ou- 
Trent, Harris. 

Lotus corniculatus, Liuu. Commou. 

L. major, Scop. I. Dove Dale ; IV. Burtou-ou-Treut, Harris ; 
Eeptou ! 

Ornithopus perpusillus, Liun. IV. Cauldwell, Harris ; Morley 
Moor ! Quarudou ! 

Hippocrepis comosa, Liun. I. Dove Dale ! 

Vicia hirsnta, Koch. I. Miller's Dale, West. IV. Drakelowe, 
Harris ; Spoudou and Morley, near Derby! 

V. tetrasperma, Moencli. I. Miller's Dale, Wild ; IV. Drake- 
lowe, Harris; Eeptou, Hayger. 

V. Cracca, Liuu. Common. 

V. sylvatica, Liuu. I. Cressbrook Dale, Bailey; Latlikill Dale, 
Whitelegg; Matlock Bath, Ashbourne, Swii/i. 

V. sepium, Linu. Common. 

r. sativa, Liuu. Commou. 

F. angusti/ulia, Eoth. I. Turnditch ! IV. Gresley, Harris. 

(To be continued). 



GENERIS CORXI SPECIES DUAS NOVAS CHINENSES, 
PROPONIT Henr. F. Hance, Ph.D. 

1. CoRNUS (Thelycrania) ckispula, sp. uov. — Arbuscula cortice 
nigricaute, ramis oppositis obscure augulatis, foliis ojDpositis 
tenuiter papyraceis ovato-ellipticis margine crispulo-undulatis basi 
plerumque iu^equalibus acutis apice in acumen falcato-caudatum 
sensim productis supra sublucidis pilis miuutis bipartitis adpressis 
couspersis sub leute^ tantum couspicuis subtus pallidioribus pilis 
mmutis bipartitis adpressis sub lente tantum couspicuis coufertim 
obtectis costulis utriuque 5 (margiualibus iuclusis) teuuibus subtus 
tantum promiuulis percursis 2-3^^ poll, lougis l-lf poll, latis 
petiolo 4-15 liueali, cymis multifloris paniculatis effusis couvexis 
2-2^ poll, diametro, calycis tubo cano-sericeo deutibus brevissimis 
acutis discum capulatum uudulatum pilosulum baud superantibus, 
petalis oblougis acutis, stylo cyliudraceo stigmate capitato corouato. 

In collinis circa Chin-Kiaug, prov. Kiang-su, ineunte Aj)rili 
1880 coll. Bullock. (Herb, propr. u. 21132.) 

2. CoRNUS ['rhchjcrania) paucinervis, sp. uov. — Frutex 5-6 
pedalis cortice rufo-bruuneo, ramis oppositis quadraugulatis, foliis 
oppositis rigide membrauaceis elliptico-lanceolatis basi cuneatis 
apice acutis supra opacis pilis miuutis adpressis cousitis subtus 
pallidis pilis bipartitis adpressis oculo tantum armato perspiciendis 



SHORT NOTES. 217 

tcctis costulis ntrinque 3 (inclusis marginalibus) supra impressis 
subtus elevatis percursis li-2| poll, lougis f-1 poll, latis petiolo 
2-3 lineali, cymis multifloris depressis 1-li poll, diametro pilosis, 
calycibus deutibus tiiaugiilatis tnbo piloso brevioribus discum 
cupulatum ixudulatum leve parum excedentibus, petalis oblongis 
acutis, stylo apice valde iucrassato stigmate capitato corouato. 

Juxta oppidum Liu-cliau-fu, prov. Kwang-si, d. 19. Junii 
1879 coll. W. Mesny ; circa Icliang, prov. Hu-peli, in. Junio 1880 
iuvenit T. Waiters. (Herb, propr. n. 21237.) 

Species duas supra descriptas cum plerisque e civitatibus 
foederatis Araericfe septeutrioualis comparavi, necnon cum asiaticis 
C. (dha, Liuu. (Jehol, David!), et C. hraclujpoda, C. A. M. 
(Nagasaki, Oldham 467!), a quibus omnibus abhorrent; C. 
australew, C. A. M. nondum vidi. Prior, C. paniculata; , Lher. 
proxime affiuis, differt foliis majoribus, latioribus, ovato-elhpticis, 
subtus baud tuberculatis, longius petiolatis, cymis laxioribus, cat ; 
posterior foliis rigidis, paucicostulatis, prassertim iusignis, C. 
asperifoUcB, Mx. accedit. 



SHOET NOTES. 



LiTTORELLA LACUSTEIS, L., IN OxFOEDSHIRE. Ll a pOol OH wliat 

remains of Woodcote Heath, near Goring, in the above county, I 
was glad to meet with a quantity of Littorella lacustris, a previously 
unrecorded plant for Oxfordshire. A neighbouring pool contained 
Peplis Portuld, also rare in the county, while a thu-d and deeper 
one nearing Goring was nearly full of Potamogeton serratus, Huds.; 
one or two of the older plants, however, showing faintly crisped 
leaves. — G. C. Druce. 



Gnaphalium dioicum in Cornwall. — This is an extremely rare 
and local plant in East Cornwall. I came across a patch of it 
with about eighteen flower-stalks (female plant) on May 80th. 
The station is near the 200 yards' firing point of the Bodmin Kifle 
Eange, Cardinham. I could find no vestige of it on other parts of 
the down, but was prevented from making a thorough search, as 
the annual prize shooting of the volunteers was going on at the 
time. This I beheve to be the first notice of it for the district, and 
it is the only station known to me. — AY. Wise. 



BoTRYCHiuM Lunaria IN SHROPSHIRE. — There are so few records 
of the occurrence of Ijutnjchium Lwiaria in Shropshh-c that a new 
locality is worthy of notice. In my list of the Ferns of the county, 
published in the ' Transactions of the Shropshire Archreological 
and Natural History Society' for 1877, four localities were given, 
each on the authority of gentlemen long since dead. Since that 
date this plant has been found by Mrs. Auden between Preston 

2 V 



218 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

Montford and the village of Ford. I have now to add the sixth 
locality, having quite recently seen it growing in Petton Park, the 
seat of W. Sparling, Esq., in considerable quantity. It may be 
that its small size, and the readiness with which it is eaten by 
sheep and cattle, may account for it not being more frequently 
detected. — William Phillips. 



Notices of Booths autr i^tcmoivs. 



Peruvian Bark ; a popular account of the introduction of Chinchotia 
cultivation into British India. By Clements R. Maekham, 
C.B., F.R.S. 1860—1880. With maps and illustrations. 
London: John Murray. 1880. 8vo', pp. xxiii., 550. 

This thick octavo volume is divided into two Parts and an 
Appendix : — Part I. Collection of Chinchona plants and seeds in 
South America, comprising pages 1 to 258, includes the early his- 
tory of the bark, the various descrij^tions met with in commerce 
and their derivation, with the narrative of Mr. Markham'sjom'neys 
and then- successful issue. Part II. Introduction of Chinchona 
plants and seeds into British India, extends to page 440, followed 
by an Appendix on Caoutchouc, Peruvian Cotton, Cuzco Maize and 
Quinua, a "Bibliography of the Chinchona Genus" extending from 
pj). 487 to 516, and the volume closes with a good index. 

We must confess that we are not greatly surprised at, however 
much we may regret, the bitter language used m speaking of the 
comparative neglect shown by the Government at home and in 
India, to those fellow-labourers of the author in the beneficent 
mission with which they were charged. Mr. Markham's appoint- 
ment was at first objected to, on the plea that he was no botanist, 
but his lack in this respect was well suppUed by others, and his 
knowledge of the country and languages stood him in admirable 
stead. The difficulties surmounted were great, and the present 
commercial success of the enteiqDrise might have induced the 
authorities to deal with greater liberality towards those who 
sacrificed their own health, in order to secure that blessing to 
others. 

The bibliography is disappointing; after the first glance, it 
bears evident marks of haste and want of care in the compilation. 
Worse still, the author has actually ventured to spell Cinchona and 
its derivatives in his own fashion throughout, thus mutilating the 
majority of titles. Having thereby shown himself wantmg in the 
first requisite of a bibliographer, namely, a scrupulous love of 
accuracy, it is not remarkable that other faults should occur. The 
list is far from complete, and a httle additional trouble would have 
added much to it. For example : — 

" Eoyle, Dr. Forbes, M.D., a Manual of Materia medica and 
Therapeutics. Article ' Chinchona.' (London, 1847, 8vo. 



I 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 219 

2ncl ed. 1853. Srcl ed. 1856. American ed. by J. Carson, 
M.D., Pliiladelplna, 1817)^ The Chinclwna article was printed 
sepai-ately." (Page 513). 

We can supply the omitted information that eds. 4 and 5 were 
issued in 1864 (dated 1865) and 1868 respectively, and treat of 
the article Cinchona. Some medical authors, like the foregoing, 
have double honours paid to them ; and some, like " Lindley, J." 
(p. 504), pass unrecognised. 

" Endlicher, Stephen. Genera plantarum secundum ordines 
naturales deposita. (Vindobonfe, 1836 — 48)." 

There being no reference to the particular page containing the 
description of the genus Cinchona, the unversed reader might con- 
clude that that genus was continued through the entire work, 
which, of course, is not the case ; moreover, let the foregoing be 
compared with the copy of the title-page given below ; errors in 
name, title, and date will be noticed. 

" Genera i:)lantarum secundum ordines naturales disposita. 
Auctore Stephano Endlicher. Vindobonte, 1836 — 1840." 

The Mantissas and Supplementa bring the dates of the com- 
plete work down to 1850. In a similarly general way we find 
DC. Prod., " 1824—48," and Eoemer and Schultes cited. Under 
the heading Linnaeus, only the first edition of the ' Species Plan- 
tarum ' and ' Genera' are given, although the sixth edition of the 
latter is si^ecifically quoted on page 12 ; we may here point out 
how clearly Cinhona in this edition is a press error, by mentioning 
that it is correctly spelled Cinchona in the Index, and attention 
called to it in the Errata. Another cause for surprise is that the 
treatise " De Cortice pei'uviano," which is printed in the ' Amoeni- 
tates academic®,' and speaks of the Viceroy as " Comes del 
Chinchon," does not figure in the Bibliography. 

" Aime-Bonpland " would mislead those who did not know 
Bonpland's Christian name was Aime. " Lambert- Aylmer, 
Bourke," is another blunder (p. 503), and emphasised by repetition 
on the next page. " Miquel, Friederich Anton Wilhelm " is decidedly 
faulty, for his one work quoted bears his name in a Latinised 
form, whilst his native names were Dutch, not German; a little of 
the "chivalrous" consideration shown elsewhere would not have 
been out of place here. " Pavon ; Don Jose" (p. 510), like the 
rest of the Spanish aiithors, is graced with his title of honour, but 
" Humboldt, Albr. von," appears untitled. 

We have already commented on such double Doctorhig as 
" Macpherson, Dr. D., M.D." The entry " Graf. — Die Fieber- 
rindcn, 1824," which looks suspiciously like a cutting from an old 
book catalogue, is not a mistake of a title for a name, but merely 
a very curt allusion to — 

" Graf (Sigmund), Die Fieberrinden in botanischer, chemischer 
und pharraaceutischer Beziehung dargestcllt. Wicn, 1825. 8vo." 

Some of the headings are open to objection ; De la Condamine 
is preferably styled La Condamine, and so forth. 

A few words now on Mr. Markham's obstinate contention for 
Chinchuna versus Cinchova. We notice that an argument formerly 



220 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEAIOERS. 

employed is now silently abandoned, namely, that anr/c'y^, meaning 
a broad girdle, the name m use commemorates a policeman's belt 
rather than a noble lady. If that argument were worth anything, 
we should be compelled to remodel the majority of generic names 
forthwith ; for instance, Advxa, besides the original meaning of the 
word, may be applied to a class of persons by no means worthy of 
honour. Our author's persistent error seems to arise from the 
fact that his attention in Botany has been solely devoted to one 
genus, and having looked at the matter from that naiTow standpoint 
only, he has not grasped the subject hi its larger aspect. The fact is 
unquestioned and unquestionable, that Linnaeus did first publish 
the genus as Cinchmui, adhered thereto, and it will remain as such. 
A name once published becomes the common property of the 
scientific world ; therefore, not even the author is at liberty to 
alter the name bestowed by himself, or, in other words, to mutilate 
that which belongs to the commonwealth. Mr. Markham, we fear, 
is wilfullj^ blind to the utter confusion inevitable were his plea for 
tinkering names seriously entertained. Commemorative designa- 
tions can rarel}' be more than approximations to the names of the 
persons they are intended to honour. Thus, Cfoodenia, Sm., is 
named after Samuel Goodenough, and GundeUa, Tourn., after 
Andreas Gundelsheimer ; and, more striking still, Desfuntainea, 
Kuiz & Pav., Desjuntainesia, Hoffmansegg, Fontanesia, La Bill., 
and Louichea, L'Her., are all derived from Piene Louiche Desfon- 
taines. These examples are enough to demonstrate how utterly 
foolish any attempt would be to alter these names for Mr. Mark- 
ham's reasons. 

A reviewer in a contemporary, apparently deriving his know- 
ledge of the subject entirely from the volume before us, for he uses 
its very words, oracularly declares that the genus ought to be 
called universally Chinchona. Had this writer only refen-ed to the 
file of the journal in which his notice appeared, he would have 
found a letter from the late Daniel Hanbury, which mercilessly 
exposes Mr. Markliam's fallacies and misstatements." Hanbury 
and Weddell are no longer with us, and they therefore cannot 
repudiate the spelhng imputed to them in the pages of this book, 
but those who knew and honoured them in life must be pained as 
we are, to find their very words maltreated in a fashion which 
they, while living, so strenuously opposed. B. D. J. 



Rahenhorsfs Kryptorj amen- Flora con Deutsddand, Oesterreich tmd drr 

Schweiz. Erster Band : Pilze. Von Dr. G. Winteb : 1&2 

Lieferuugen. 1881. (Kummer, Leipzig). 

Since the first edition of this book was published, in 18-14, the 

study of Cryptogamic Botany has advanced so far that to bring out 

a new edition of it now is in effect to write a new book. The first 

two parts of the first volume (devoted to Fungi) have been issued 

by Dr. G. Winter. It is especialW in this branch of the study that 

* ' The Atheuseum,' January 30tb, 1875, pp. 1C2, l(i3. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 221 

the advance in our knowledge has taken place. The orders treated 
of are the Schizomycetes, Saccharomi/cetes, Basidiomycetes (fam. 
EntowophthoretE and L^siZ/rt/zmdw), and the Uredinca;. Dr. ^Yhater 
has already made known his peculiar opinion as to the classifica- 
tion of Fuiigi {Hedwiyia, 1879, No. 1), and perhaps this is not now 
the occasion to criticise it; hut it is difficult to pass by such 
expressions as "the yet open question of the sexuality of the 
Ascowycetes" without a strong desire to do so. However, for such 
an act as the sinking of the genera jEcidium, Uredo, &c., one 
cannot but feel grateful. There is a useful introduction to the 
study of Fungi, in Avhich there is an unfortunate chapter on the 
preservation and the preparation of Fungi for examination. To 
give deliberate directions for squeezing the cover-glass (and dis- 
torting the object beneath it) is to teach a method of examination 
(surviving from the days of the regular use of the " compressorium " ), 
which is not only productive of very great error, but is totally 
unnecessary in the study of Fungi or of any vegetable organisms. 
The illustrations are very coarse woodcuts. The book, however, 
gives promise of containing a fair amount of useful information 
on the groups with which it deals. G. M. 



Articles in Journals. — May. 

Ann. des Sc. Nat. (Botanique), ser. vi. t. x., n. 6 [dated March] . 
— E. Bescherelle, ' Bryological Flora of Keunion ' (concluded). — M. 
Maqueuue, ' Eesearches on the difl:'usiou, absorption, and emission 
of heat by leaves.' — E. Prillieux, 'Alterations produced in Plants 
by cultivation in an over-heated Soil ' (2 plates). — P. Sagot, ' Cata- 
logue of French Guiana Plants.' (t. xi., nos. 1 & 2). — L. Olivier, 

' Eesearches on the tegumentary structure of Eoots ' (8 plates). 

Botanical Gazette. — J. T. Eothrock, ' Modes of Work in Prof, 
de Bary's Laboratory' (continued). — T. C. Porter, ' Andihertia 
Vaseyi, sp.n.' — W. K. Higley, ' Experiments on Carnivorous Plants,' 
(con'td.) — M. E. Banning, ' Maryland Fungi' (continued). — F. L. 
Harvey, 'Ferns of Arkansas' (concluded). 

Bot. Zeit. — G. Klebs, ' On the lower forms of Algce' (continued). 

Bot. Notiser.—K. F. Dusen, ' On the Flora of Medelpad.'— N. H. 
Nilsson, ' Potentilla Frayariastriun — F. Behm, 'Eesearches on the 
Flora of Jemtlaud.' — C. Melander, ' Journey in Lappmark in 1880.' 

Bulletin of Torrey Bot. Club. — C. H. Peck, ' Two new Fungi :' 
AsconiycetcUa (gen. nov.) quercina', Vulyporm [Meriswa] lactijluus. 
— J. B. Elhs & H. W. Harkness, 'New North American Fungi' 
(contd.) : Sphcerojiema cajrillare, Sporodesmium Banli, Mytilinidion 
(•(ilifornicniti, Sjih/fria comociata. — J. C. Arthur, ' The Lapbam Her- 
barium.' — G. Hespell, ' Preparation of Pileate Fungi for Hcrbariinn.' 

Midland Naturalist. — J. E. Baguall, 'Flora of Warwickshire' 
(contd.) 

(Ksierr. Hot. Zcitschrift. — E. v. Halacsy, ' Orchis Braunii [lati- 
fnlia iihiritl(ila).' — H. Stcininger, 'Flora of the Bodonwcis.' — 
H. v. Borbas, ■ On Plants with abnormally verticillaio leaves.' — 



222 PROCKEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

B. Blockio, ' Remarks on some Plants of Sclnu-'s ' Herbarium Trans- 
silvanicum.' — P. Sintcuis, ' Cyprus and its Flora.' — P. G. Strobl, 
'Flora of Etna' (contd.) 



iJvofcctitnp of Societies. 



LiNNEAN Society of London. 

Anniversary MeetiiKj. — May 24:. — Prof. Allmau, LL.D., F.Pi.S., 
President, in the chair. — There was a very numerous attendance of 
the Fellows. — The Treasurer (Mr. Fredk. Currey) read his Annual 
Ecport, stating that tinancially the Society continued prosperous. 
The invested capital at the present date is £3868 4.s. Gd., the sum 
of £140 derived from Fellows' Life Compositions during the past 
twelvemonths having been invested in consols. The balance at 
the bankers at the end of the financial year (30th April) was 
£582 Os. 10(1., and at the bankers and on hand at this date (24th 
May) £G04 15s. lOd. The annual contributions amounted to" 
£928 4s., and sales of publications to £230 19s. Id.; there was an 
increase in the admission fees, and decrease in the compositions. 
£104 8s. 3(/. had been expended on the purchase of books for the 
library, and £48 Is. 11(/. towards bookbinding and stationery; 
£7G5 18s. 2d. had been spent on the Society's publications. A 
donation of £50 had been made by Mr. G. Bentham. — The 
Secretary (Mr. B. Daydon Jackson) then read his Report. Since 
the last anniversary eleven Fellows of the Society had died, 
and four had withdrawn. Against this thirty-seven new Fellows 
had been elected, besides one Foreign Member and one Associate. 
As the Society at present stood, there were 670 FelloAvs, 50 
Foreign Members, and 21 Associates, viz., a total of 741. During 
the past year there had been received as donations to the library 
106 volumes, and 125 pamphlets and separate impressions of 
memoirs ; from the varioiis scientific societies there had also been 
received 96 volumes and 248 detached part of publications, besides 
23 volumes of donations from the editors of independent periodicals. 
The council, at the recommendation of the library committee, had 
sanctioned the purchase of 80 separate volumes and 63 serials and 
parts of important Avorks, continuations and otherwise, these latter 
equal to about 10 vols., or 90 in all by purchase : the total addi- 
tion to the library, therefore, being 315 vols, and 373 separate parts. 
Mr. Kippist had also given, as a donation, framed Avater-colour 
sketches of Robert Brown's birthplace and London residence, 
and of Sir J. Banks's library. The Society's collections and herbaria 
had been duly examined and reported on to the council as in good 
condition. After a service of fifty years, Mr. Kippist had resigned 
his position as Librarian to the Society, and the council, in acknow- 
ledgment thereof, had granted him a retiring pension. — Mr. Baker, 
in the name of Mr. J. W. Miers, then presented to the Society a 



BOTANICAL NEWS. 223 

portrait of his father, the late John Miers, as a memento of his 
connection therewith. — Prof. Allman then delivered his anni- 
versary address, the subject chosen being " Kecent advances in 
our Knowledge of the Development of the Ctenophura." — The 
Secretary afterwards read obituary notices of the several FelloAvs 
who had died dming the year, making special mention of the 
life and labours of Mr. E. E. Alston, the late Zoological 
Secretary; Mr. John Gould, the ornithologist; Mr. Gerard Kreft't, 
of Sydney; Dr. W. Lauder Lindsay, and Mr. E. A. Pryor, of 
Baldock, Herts. — The scrutineers, having examined the ballot, 
then reported that, by a majority of those present, Mr. Alfred W. 
Bennett, Mr. Francis Darwin, Prof. E. E. Lankester, Sir John 
Lubbock, and Mr. Geo. J. Eomanes, had been elected into the 
council in the room of E. E. Alston (deceased). Dr. Boycott, Prof. 
M. Foster, Dr. J. Gwyn Jeffreys, and Prof. St. G. Mivart, who 
retired; and for officers, Sir John Lubbock was elected President, 
Mr. F. Currey re-elected Treasurer, Mr. B. Daydon Jackson re- 
elected Botanical Secretary, and Mr. G. J. Eomanes was elected 
Zoological Secretary. 

June 16. — Sir John Lubbock, Bart., F.E.S., President, in the 
chair. — Mr. Alex. Somerville, Capt. J. T. Wright, and John 
Forrest, the Australian explorer, were elected Fellows of the 
Society. — The Secretary read a portion of a letter addressed to 
him by Mr. William Ferguson, of Colombo, in which he men- 
tioned his having found Wolifiu arrhiza, AVimm., in abundance 
in an abandoned stone quarry, covering the surface of the water ; 
and that in a recent trip to the Kandyau country he had also dis- 
covered .-If/Z^oiiiOH (ethiopicuui, Linn,, both these plants being new to 
Ceylon. — Mr. J. G. Baker exhibited and called the attention of the 
Fellows to a specimen of the inflorescence of the Socotran Aloe 
(A. Perri/i), the source of the drug. Although the product of the 
plant had been known for two thousand years, yet this had been 
the first time it had flowered in this country ; it might well, there- 
fore, be alluded to as one of the oldest and yet newest of plants. — 
Surgeon-Major Aitchisou then read a communication ' On the 
Flora of the Kuram Valley, Afghanistan,' Part II. ; he showed by 
a map the peculiarities and nature of the valleys and mountain 
chains of the country generally, and hence the marked vegetation 
of the district. — Then followed a paper ' On Central African Plants, 
collected by Major Serpa Pinto,' by Prof. Count Ficalho and Mr. W. 
P. Hiern. The siiecimens were collected in August, 1878, along 
the upper course of the Eiver Ninda, an affluent of the Zambesi, 
on the west side of the high plateau. 



53otanical NcUjs. 



Ernst Hampe, who died on the 23rd November, 1880, at 
Helmstcdt, Hanover, was one of the most diligent workers among 
the Mmcinc(£. Among his independent writings may be named 



224 BOTANICAL NEWS. 



' Das Moosbild ' (Verliaudl. Zool. Bot. Gesellscli., Vienna, 1871), 
containing his views on the classification of Mosses ; his ' Flora 
Hcrcynica ' (187B), including all the vascular plants and Muscinete 
of the Harz region ; and his ' Enumeratio Muscorum Lactenus in 
j)rovinciis Brasiliensibus Rio do Janeiro et Sao Paulo detectorum ' 
(1879). In addition to these labours, his assistance in the pro- 
duction of the ' Synopsis Muscorum Frondosoruni ' is acknowledged 
by Karl Miiller to have been of the most valuable kind. He was 
born on the 5th of July, 1795, at Fllrstenberg on the Weser, and 
at an early age began the study of pharmacy, in which he after- 
wards reached an eminent position. After residing in various 
towns of Germany in the practice of his profession, he settled 
down in 1825 at Blankenburg, in the Harz, where he continued to 
live until 1876. In that year he removed to the house of his 
second son, a i)hysician in the neighbouring town of Helmstedt, 
where he died last November. The Harz was the field of most of 
his botanical explorations, and no one knew its flora better than 
he. A portrait of Hampe, and a long and interesting account of 
his life by his friend Karl Miiller, appeared in ' Die Natur,' 22nd 
January, 1881. The interesting statement of Karl Miiller, that 
when Hampe began the study of Mosses, the 931 species 
enumerated by Bridel (in 1827) were all the known species in the 
world, is worth reproducing. When the ' Synopsis Muscorum ' 
was finished in 1851, the number had risen to 2303, and now Karl 
Miiller estimates it at 6000, at least. Hampe was made a Doctor 
of Philosophy (honoris causaj by the Gtittingen University on the 
occasion of his jubilee in his profession, and the title of Professor 
was bestowed on him in 1875. His splendid collections of Mosses 
and Hcpaticce are now in the Dex:)artment of Botany of the British 
Museum. 



The ' Flora of the Bristol Coal-fields ' has been undertaken by 
the Bristol Naturalists' Societ}^ and will be edited by Mr. J. W. 
White, hon. sec. of the Botanical Section. The limit adopted by 
the Society in this as in other like investigations carried out by its 
members is that defined by Sanders's Map of the Bristol Coal- 
fields. It includes a district extending north and south, from 
Berkeley and Dursley, in Gloucestershire, to Highbridge and Wells, 
in Somerset ; and east and west, from Bath to the Bristol Channel. 
It is intended to publish the ' Flora ' in five parts, each in suc- 
cession to be issued with the Society's annual volume of ' Trans- 
actions.' The first part [Dicotyledoncs, Div. 1, Thakonijlonc) is 
now in the press. An historical sketch of Bristol Botany, with 
other introductory matter, is contemplated, but will not appear 
until the publication is complete. Although St. Vincent's Bocks 
are famed in botanical story, and the immediate vicinity of Bristol 
is rich in rarities almost beyond comparison, but little has hitherto 
been written concerning them, and the outlying portions of the 
district have met Avith still less attention. A contribution to our 
knowledge of so interesting a flora will therefore be welcome. 



225 



(©vtgtnal .^rticlts. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS FITCAHINIA. 
By J. G. B.uiER, F.K.S. 

PiTCAiENiA is one of the largest genera in Bromeliacew, and a 
considerable proportion of the species are in cultivation. Pitcairnias 
are plants that grow gregariously and present no special difficulty 
in drying, so that for the order it is exceptionally well-represented 
in herbaria. There is no recent synopsis of the genus, and not 
only have a considerable number of species now known never been 
named nor described, but for several of those founded on garden 
plants no definite localities or wrong ones have been given. 
I have therefore attempted to collect together in the present paper 
all the information on the subject to which I could get access in 
our English collections, living and dried. The last paper on the 
genus is one by Dr. Karl Koch, published as an appendix to the 
" Report of the Berlin Gardens for 1857," and reprinted in vol. vi. 
of Walpers' ' Annales.' When I was drawing up the catalogue of 
the species in cultivation at Kew, which was published in the 
' Annual Eeport of the Garden for 1879,' Dr. Koch was so kind as 
to lend me all his type-specimens, which represented very fully the 
plants which had been brought into cultivation up to the date at 
which he wrote. To trace out the full synonymy of each species 
through the horticultural journals would only take up time and 
space needlessly ; so 1 have confined myself, except in the case of 
figures, to the original authority for each name. 

Genus Pitcairnia {L'Herit. Sert. Amjl. vii., t. 11). — Calyx 
coriaceous, with a short obconical tube adnate to the base of the 
ovary and 3 large lanceolate segments free from one other down 
to where the ovary leaves the calyx. Corolla of 3 Ungulate 
unguiculate petals 1^-3 times the length of the calyx-segments, 
inserted where the calyx leaves the ovary, usually with 2 minute 
scales at the very base, often subsecund when expanded, and 
twisting up spirally after fertilisation has taken place. Stamens 6, 
inserted with the petals at the summit of the calyx-tube ; "tila^ments 
long, filiform or rather fiattencd ; anthers linear, basifixed. 
Ovary free excej)t at the base, 3-celled ; ovules in each cell very 
numerous, horizontal ; style long, filiform ; stigmas 3, linear, 
spirally twisted. Fruit a septicidal capsule, splitting into 3 valves 
from the apex down to the adnate calyx-tube. Seeds numerous, 
minute, flattened, generally conspicuously tailed at both ends. 
Herbs, rarely shrubs, generally acaulescent, with the leaves in a 
dense rosette on the ground at the base of the peduncle. Leaves 
linear or ensiform, rarely oblong, thin in texture for the order, 
N. s. VOL. 10. [August, 1881.] 2 g 



22G A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

lepidote on the back or green and naked on both surfaces, often 
prickle-margined, csiDccially towards the base, sessile or narrowed 
into a channelled petiole. Peduncle leafy, the proper leaves 
passing gradually upwards into the bracts. Inflorescence generally 
a simple or panicled raceme with lanceolate bracts, more rarely a 
capitulum or subspicate raceme, with large imbricated multifarious 
bracts. Corolla red, yellow, or whitish. 

The following names, in my view, represent only synonyms or 
subgenera, viz. : — 

Heputis, Swartz Prodr. Fl. Ind. Occ. 56. 

Neiimannia, A. Brong. in Ann. So. Nat. ser. 2, xv. 369. 

Lamprocrmm, Lemaire in Jard. Fleur. sub t. 127. 

Phlomostachys, Beer Brom. 45. 

CocJdiopetalum, Beer Brom. 70. 

Orthopctalwii, Beer Brom. 70. 

Pepijiia, A. Brong. ; Andre in 111. Hort. n. s. sub t. 5. 

Key to the Subgenera and Species. 

Subgenus I. Cephalopitcairnia. Flowers red, arranged in a dense 
sessile head in the centre of the rosette of leaves. 

Produced leaves linear, sessile . 1. P. heterojjhylla. 
Produced leaves oblong, petioled . 2. P. tabulcrfonnis. 

Subgenus II. Eupitcairnia. Flowers generally bright red, rarely 
white or yellow, arranged in peduncled simple or panicled 
racemes. Bracts small, lanceolate, often shorter than the 
pedicels. Leaves in a basal sessile rosette. 

Leaves linear, an inch or less broad at the middle. 
Leaves white-furfuraceous beneath. 

Produced leaves without any pricldes. 

Flowers white or yellowish. 
3. P. vdcrucahjx. 4. /-'. inermis. 

Flowers red. 

5. P. vm/asepala. 6. P. staminea. 7. P. pungens. 

8. P. K('(/cli(ma. 9. 7'. paucifiora. 10. P. integrifoUa. 

11. P. araneosa. 12. P. Moritziana. 

Produced leaves prickle-margined towards the base. 
Leaves very narrow (not more than \-\ in. broad). 

13. P. hiiinilis. 14. P. vutscosa. 15. P. caricifolia. 

16. P. iridijiora. 

Leaves broader. Pedicels short. 

17. P. amjiiHtipAia. 18. P. latifolia. 19. P. farjuracea. 

20. P. albncdfolia. 21. P. bracteata. 22. P. alta. 

Leaves broader. Pedicels long. 
Flowers white . • 23. P. consimilis. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIENIA. 227 

Flowers red. 
24. P. Jacksoni. 25. P. subpetiolata. 26. P. hromeliafolia. 

Leaves green and glabrous on both sides. 
Flowers red. 

27. P.firma. 28. P. corcovadmsis. 29. P. cinnabarina. 

30. P. Karwinskiana. 31. P. spathacea. 32. P. Lechleri. 

33. P. concolor. 34. P. rwtf^a. 

Flowers white. 
35. P. suaveolens. 36. P. alhijios. 

Leaves ensiform or lanceolate. 

Leaves white-furfuraceous beneath. 

Flowers red. 

37. P. Andreana. 38. P. j)ndnosa. 39. P.fidgens. 
40. P. Olfersii. 41. P, Jiammea. 42. P. pulverulenta. 

43. P. corallina. 

Flowers white . . 44. P. echinata. 
Flowers yellow . . 45. P. xanthoculyx. 

Leaves green and naked on both surfaces. 

46. P. australis. 47. P. mihigena. 48. P. Lehmanni. 
49. P. Kalbreyeri. 50. P. orgyalis. 

Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate petioled. 
51. P. Sinucei. 52. P. undulata. 

Imperfectly-known species of Eupitcai)-nia. 
53. P. vallisoletana. 54. P. pendulifiora. 

Subgenus III. Pepinia. Caulescent, with smaU bracts and flowers 
in simple or panicled racemes. 

Dwarf, with red flowers and thin leaves. 
55. P. punicea. 56. P. aphelandrcejlora. 

Shrubby, with white flowers and horny leaves. 
57. P.fernujinea. 

Subgenus IV. Phlomostachys. Flowers pale, arranged in simple 
subspicate racemes, the broad bracts reaching nearly or quite 
to the top of the calyx. 

Leaves sessile . . 58. P. virescens. 

Leaves petioled, green and naked on both surfaces. 
59, P. maidifolia. 60. P. Funkianu. 61. P. zeifolia. 

Leaves petioled, white l)eneath . 62. P. recurvata. 



228 A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

Subgenus V. Neumannia. Flowers generally pale, arranged in 
dense simple strohiliform subspicate racemes, the oblong-deltoid 
acuminate much-imbricated bracts overtopping the calyx. 
Leaves sessile .... G3. P. ochroleuca. 

Leaves petioled, white beneath . 64. P. rhodostnchys. 

Leaves petioled, green and naked on both surfaces. 
Flowers white or pale yellow. 

65. P. Altensteinii. G6. P. WcndlaiuU. 67. P. imhricata. 
68. P. atronihens. 69. P. jietiolata. 

Flowers bright red-yellow . 70. P. densiflnra. 

1. P. heterophylla, Beer Brom. 68. — P. Morrenil, Lemaire, 
•Tard. Fleur, t. 291. — P. ceniua, Kunth et Bouche Ind. Sem. Berol. 
1848, 12 \—P. e.rscapa, Liebm. Ind. Sem. Hafn. 1848, 12 ; Hook, 
in Bot. Mag. t. 4591. — Pui/a heteroplujlla, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. xxvi, 
t. 71. — Pmia Juni/ifolia, Morren in Ann. Soc. Pioy. Gand. ii. 483, 
t. lUl ; Paxt. Flor. Gard. iii. t. 86. Acaulescent, densely tufted. 
Outer rudimentarj' leaves of the rosette 10 or more, deltoid, 
scariose, with a rigid pectinate narrow linear almost pungent tip 
1-3 in. long. Produced leaves about half a dozen, linear, 1-2 ft. 
long, ^-^ in. broad at the middle, not petioled, tapering to a point, 
green on both sides, not at all toothed. FloAvers 6-12 in a capitate 
sessile or nearly sessile spike ; pedicels or very short ; bracts 
scariose, deltoid, ^-if in. long. Sepals reddish, lanceolate, 1-1^ in- 
long, nearly or quite glabrous. Petals bright red, rarely white, 
half as long again as the sepals, scaled at the base. Stamens and 
style included. — Mexico, Sinchdr! Boun/eaii, 2524! F. MuUcr, 
1461 ! Guatemala, Salvin cO Godinanl "Veraguas, Seemann, 1564! 
Nicaragua, Ralph Tate, 414, 415 ! Venezuela, Femller, 1520 ! 
Santa Martha, Purdie! New Granada, Goudot! The names above 
cited seem to me all synonyms of one species, and that not a very 
variable one, well marked from every other (except P. tahuhefonnis) 
by its Nidularium-like inflorescence. 

2. P. TABUL^FORjiis, Liudcu Cat. 1862, 5; E. Morren in Belg. 
Hort. 1862, 257, cum icone ; Lemaire, 111. Hort. t. 344 ; Floral 
Mag. t. 297. Produced leaves 20-30 in a sessile rosette, oblong, 
spathulate, 5-6 in. long, 2 in. broad at the middle, narrowed 
gradually to a base ^ in. broad, chartaceous in texture, green on 
both sides, quite free from spines. Flowers 30-40 in a dense head 
sessile in the centre of the rosette of leaves ; sepals lanceolate, 
naked, under an inch long, bright red. Petals bright red, three 
times as long as the sepals, scaled at the base. Genitalia included. 
Mexico, in the province of Chiapas, Ghiesbreyht. Not unfrequent 
in cultivation. 

3. P. jiicRocALYx, Baker. — /'. caulcscens, K. Koch herb. 
Acaulescent. Produced leaves linear, almost petioled, 2 ft. long, 
I in. broad at the middle, tapering to the point and base, thin in 
texture, green and slightly furfuraceous on the face, thinly white- 
furfuraceous all over the back, quite entire. Peduncle a foot long, 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 229 

nearly naked, furnished with several much-reduced erect linear 
leaves, which are white on the under surface. Flowers in a dense 
simple raceme 4-5 in. long. Pedicels erecto-patent, the lower 
ones ^i in. long; bracts lanceolate acuminate, equalling or rather 
exceeding the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, I; in. long, thinly 
floccose, as are the pedicels and axis of the raceme. Petals 
yellowish, IJ-l^ in. long. Stigmas and anthers reaching to the 
tip of the petals. A cultivated plant ; precise station unknown. 
I found it without any locality in the herbarium of Dr. Karl Koch. 
It is remarkable for its yellow flowers and very small calyx. 

4. P. iNERMis, Meyer in Eeliq. Haenk. ii. 123, t. 23. — Ortho- 
jietahnn ineniie, Beer Bromel. 72. Acaulescent. Produced leaves 
linear, a foot long, under ^ in. broad, firm in texture for the genus, 
not petioled, acuminate, quite entire, green on the upper surface, 
white beneath. Peduncle ^-1 ft. long, glabrous, its lower leaves 
long, its upper rudimentary. Panicle about a foot long, made up 
of a long end raceme and several short ascending branches ; 
rachises naked ; pedicels J-^ in. long ; bracts linear-lanceolate, 
longer than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, reddish, glabrous, 
■|— I in. long. Petals white, more than twice as long as the sepals. 
Stamens and style shorter than the petals. — Peru, on mountains of 
the province of Hunaca, Ihrnke. Casapi, Matthews, 2088 ! Wet 
rocks, Carmillo, alt. SOOO-GOOO ft., rearce ! 

5. P. MEGASEPALA, Baker. Acaulescent. Leaves with a distinct 
channelled petiole a foot long and a linear lamina 2-8 ft. long, 
about an inch broad at the middle, tapering gradually to the point 
and base, moderately firm in texture, green on the upper surface, 
white beneath, entirely destitute of teeth, except at the dilated 
base of the petiole. Peduncle 2-3 ft. long. Eaceme simple or with 
a short fork a foot long, dense in the vipper half; rachis very 
cottony ; pedicels ascending, the lower ^— | in. long ; bracts 
lanceolate, |-1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate acuminate, very 
cottony, 1^-1^ in. long. Petals bright red, lanceolate unguiculate, 
not more than half an inch longer than the sepals. Stamens and 
style included. — New Granada, at La Paila, Hulton, 153 ! Ocana, 
alt. 5000 ft., Kcdhreijer, 6G1 ! Eemarkable for its very large 
calyx. 

6. P. sTAMiNEA, Loddiges Bot. Cub. t. 773 ; Sims in Bot. Mag. 
t. 2411 ; 111. Hort. new ser. t. 205. — (Jrthopetaliun, staniineuni, Beer 
Brom. 70. Acaulescent. Outer rudimentary leaves not toothed. 
Produced leaves 10-20 to a tuft, linear, 1-2 ft. long, |— ^^ in. broud, 
very acuminate, firm in texture, green and naked on the face, 
thinly white-furf'uraccous on the back, with a channelled petiole 
^ ft. or more long, entirely without teeth. Peduncle 1-2 ft. long, its 
lower leaves long, its upper rudimentary. Eaceme simple, 1-1 1 ft. 
long, lax, ^ ft. broad when expanded, the rachis naked ; pedicels 
patent, the lower above an inch long ; bracts lanceolate, ^-^} in. 
long. Sepals grcenisli, lanceolate, naked, 5— ^ in. long. Petals 
bright red, 2 in. long, very narrow, revolute at the apex, scaled at 
the base. Stamens and style both exserted. — Eio Janeiro, Gardner, 
84G! ScUu! Jhirc/u'll, 2^J3i\ Well known in cultivation; intro- 



230 A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA, 

duced about 1820. In 111. Hort., loc. cit., it is said to have been 
found by Koezl in New Granada. Is not this a mistake ? 

7. P. PuxGENs, H. B. K. Nov. Gen. i. 294 ; Hook in Bot. Mag. 
t. 535G. Acaulescent. Tufts bulb-like at the base, the outer 
rudimentary leaves furnished with a long rigid pectinate tip, as in 
P. hrtcropJiyJla. Produced leaves 6-8, linear, 1-1^ ft. long, i-^ in. 
broad, acuminate, not petioled, naked on the face, loosely fur- 
furaceous on the back, destitute of prickles. Peduncle ^1 ft. 
long, cottony, its many leaves all small and bract-like, the lower 
sometimes pectinate. Eaceme simple, dense, 4-8 in. long ; rachis 
cottony ; pedicels very short, the lower only ^\ in. long ; bracts 
lanceolate, ^-1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, rather cottony, f— | in. 
Petals liugulate, bright red, 2 in. long, scarlet at the base, sub- 
secuud. Stamens and style reaching to the tip of the petals. — 
Andes of Ecuador and New Granada, ascending to 9000-10,000 ft., 
Humbohlt; Jaweson, 1581 Hall! Spruce, 58781 60121 Introduced 
into cultivation by I. Anderson Henry, Esq., of Edinburgh, fi-om 
seeds sent by Prof. Jameson. 

8. P. Kegeliana, K. Koch herb. Lower leaves linear acuminate, 
entire, about a foot long, ^^ in. broad, green and naked on the 
upper surface, white beneath, overtopping the raceme. Peduncle 
slender, about ^ ft. long, with several long leaves. Eaceme simple, 
moderately dense, about 3 in. long, with a flexuose cottony rachis; 
pedicels ascending, the lower ^-^ in. long ; bracts lanceolate 
acuminate, the lower ^-1 in. long, the upper much smaller. 
Sepals lanceolate, f— | in. long. Petals bright red, twice as long 
as the sepals. Genitalia not exserted. — A native of Guiana, known 
to me only from a cidtivated specimen in K. Koch's herbarium. 
Its affinity is with P. caricifolia and P. muscosa, but the leaves are 
destitute of teeth. 

9. P. PAuciFLORA, Baker. Acaulescent. Produced leaves 6-8 to 
a stem, linear, 12-18 in. long, ^^ in. broad at the middle, thin in 
texture, very acuminate, almost petioled, naked on the face, 
thinly white-furfuraceous on the back. Peduncle above a foot 
long, slender, with several long leaves. Eaceme simple, very lax, 
i- ft. long, with only 6-9 flowers and a slender cottony axis : 
pedicels ascending, the lower ^^ in. long; bracts lanceolate, a 
little longer than the pedicels. Calyx about an inch long, with a 
tube adnate to the ovary nearly as long as the lanceolate segments. 
Petals bright red, an inch longer than the sepals. Stamens and 
style reaching to the tip of the petals. — British Guiana, far in the 
interior, on high banks of the Elver Quitara, Sir lUchd. ScJwmburgk, 
585 ! This has the ovary more joined to the calyx than any other 
species I have seen. 

10. P. iNTEGKiFOLiA, Ker in Bot. Mag. t. 1462. — P. decora, 
A. Dietr. in Allg. Gartenzeit. xv. 352. — P. f/ramini/olia, Hort. 
Acaulescent. Produced leaves linear, 2-3 ft. long, about ^ in. 
broad at the middle, tapering to a long point, not distinctly 
petioled, thin in texture, green and naked on the face, closely 
white-furfuraceous on the back, entirely destitute of teeth. 
Peduncle above a foot long below the inflorescence, with several 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 231 

long leaves. Kacemes 1-5, very lax, the end one a foot long, the 
axis cottony ; pedicels ascending, ^-| in ; bracts lanceolate, 
equalling or a little exceeding the pedicels. Sepals ^-% in. long, 
lanceolate, nearly naked. Petals an inch longer than the sepals, 
bright red, scaled at the base. Stamens and style not protruded. — 
St. Lucia, Anderson! New Granada, on rocks at Cumanacoa, 
Funk, 58 ! Well-known in cultivation. Introduced from the 
West Indies by Lady Amelia Hume about 1810. 

Var. major, Kegel, Ind. Sem. Petrop. 1869, 24, has leaves 3 ft. 
long and an inch broad, peduncle longer than the leaves, and a 
2 ft. simple raceme. 

1 1. P. AEANEosA, Baker. Produced leaves linear, with a distinct 
channelled petiole above half a foot long and a linear lamina 2-3 ft. 
long, an inch broad at the middle, tapering gradually to both ends, 
green and naked on the back, white-furfuraceous all over the back, 
quite destitute of prickles. Peduncle 2 ft. or more long below the 
inflorescence, cottony, with many reduced leaves. Flowers in a 
rather dense end raceme a foot long and two shorter side ones ; 
axis stout, densely cottony ; pedicels erecto-patent, densely cottony, 
the lower J-^ in. long ; bracts lanceolate, rahter longer than the 
pedicels. Sepals lanceolate acuminate, reddish, 12-13 lines long, 
pilose downwards. Petals bright red, half as long again as the 
sepals. Stamens and style not protruded beyond the petals. — New 
Granada, near Ocana, at 3500 ft., Schlbii, 139 ! 

12. P. MoRiTziANA, K. Koch & Bouche Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 
1856, App. 4. Produced leaves many to a rosette, linear, 1-1|^ ft. 
long, an inch broad at the middle, not distinctly petiolcd, green 
and naked on the face, laxly irregularly furfur aceous beneath, 
mostly Avithout prickles. Peduncles 6-15 in. long, with many 
erect reduced leaves. Eaceme lax, simple, ^1 ft. long ; axis 
thinly cottony ; pedicels ascending, the lower ^— f in. long ; bracts 
linear or lanceolate, ^1 in. long. Sepals naked, lanceolate, :] in. 
long. Petals Ungulate, bright red or reddish yellow, 2-2^ in. long, 
not scaled at the base. Stamens as long as the petals. Style a 
little exserted. — A native of Guatemala, introduced more than 
twenty years ago and still in cultivation in the country. I saw it 
in liower at Messrs. Veitch's in 1874. 

13. P. HUMiLis, Tenore in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, ii. 379, — Leaves 
linear, channelled, about a foot long, 4-5 lines broad, furnished 
with small white teeth with a black tip. Kaceme lax, few-llowered ; 
pedicels about an inch long ; bracts very small. Sepals red-tinted, 
about an inch long. Petals red, nearly three times as long as the 
sepals, scaled at the base. — A garden plant, known to me only from 
the published description. 

14. P. MuscosA, Slart. in Koem. et Schultes Syst. Veg. vii. 1240; 
Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 4770.— i'. JJci/calewa, Beer Broni. 63. — 
r. leiolciitii, Hort. Van Ploutte. Whole plant not more than a foot 
high. Leaves 12-20 in a tuft, linear, 6-9 in. long, |— ^ in. broad, 
falcate, very acuminate, green and nalced on the face, white- 
furfuraceous on the back, not petioled, entire or minutely denticulate. 
Peduncle 6-9 m. long, slender, densely lioccuse, its lowur leaves 



'Z'S'I A bYNOPSIS 01' THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

long, its i;pper rudimeutary. Eaceme siniplo, lax, 8-6 in. long ; 
axis iloccose ; pedicels ascending, the lower G-9 lin. long ; bracts 
lanceolate, rather shorter than tlie pedicels. Sepals linear, naked, 
:] in. long. Petals bright red, 2 in. long, not scaled at the base. 
Stamens and stigma not protruded beyond the petals. — Central 
Brazil, first gathered by Martins on the Sierra de Piedade. Well- 
known in cultivation. 

15. P. CARiciFOLiA, Mart, in Ptoem. et Schiiltes Syst. Veg. vii. 
1242. Leaves linear, 12-18 m. long, \-l in. broad, naked on the 
face, I'urfuraceous on the back, minutely denticulate towards the 
tip and furnished with brown spines towards the base. Peduncle 
under a foot long, leafy, floccose. Eaceme simple, lax, 4-5 in. 
long ; axis iloccose ; pedicels ascending, ^ in. long ; lower bracts 
lanceolate, twice as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate 
acuminate, f in long. Petals red, 1^ in. long, scaled at the base. 
Stamens and style reaching to the tip of the petals. — Woods of the 
Amazon Valley, Martins. 

16. P. lEmiFLOEA, Beer Brom. 51. Leaves Imear, 2-3 ft. long, 
-g- in. broad, much overtopping the raceme, spine-toothed. Peduncle 
and raceme each about half a foot long ; bracts above an inch long; 
raceme dense. Ovary including the sepals 1-|- in. long. Petals 
bright red, 2 in. long, not scaled at the base. Style and stamens 
as long as the sepals.— A garden s^^ecies, known to me only from 
the published descriptions. 

17. P. ANGUSTiFOLiA, Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 401 ; Gawl. 
in Bot. Mag. t. 1547 ; Eed. Lil. t. 76. — I'. Iledoitteana, Schultes 
Syst. vii. 1243. Leaves hnear, about 2 ft. long, ^—^ in. broad, 
acuminate, not petioled, green on the face, white -furfuraceous over 
the back, armed down the margms with curved ascending brown 
horny spines a line long. Peduncle 2-3 ft. long, including the 
inflorescence, with long leaves in the lower part. Eacemes 1-3, 
the end one 6-9 in. long, 3 in. diam. when expanded ; axis slightly 
Iloccose; pedicels erecto-patent, |— ^ m. long; bracts lanceolate, a 
little longer than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, ^—f in. long. 
Petals 18-21 lin. long, bright red, scaled at the base. Stamens 
and style not exserted. — Island of Santa Cruz, West Indies, Ei/mi! 
(Herb. Mus. Brit.) My description is taken entirely from this wild 
example and a garden specimen in the Smithian herbarium. 
K. Koch's type-specimen was a difi'erent species, and I have never 
seen the true plant in cultivation, although the name is frequently 
used. 

18. P. LATiFOLL\, Soland. in Ait. Hort. Kew. i. 401 ; Bot. Mag. 
t. 856 ; Andrews Bot. Eep. t. 322. Leaves linear, 2-3 ft. long, 
^-1 in. broad at the middle, acummate, not distinctly petioled, 
green on the face, white-furfuraceous over the back, with only a 
few prickles towards the base and sometimes also a few towards 
the tip. Peduncle 1-2 ft. long, leafy. Eaceme simple or slightly 
compound, 6-9 in. long ; axis slightly cottony ; lower pedicels 
i_|, in. long ; bracts lanceolate, about as long as the pedicels. 
Sepals lanceolate, nearly naked, f-1 in. long. Petals bright red, 
2 in. long, scaled at the base. Stamens and style not protruded. — 



ON SOME RARE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 233 

Island of St. Eustace, Masson ! There is a specimen from Kew 
Gardens in 1786 at the British Museum, and one from the Liverpool 
Botanic Garden in 1805 in the Smithian Herbarium. C. Wright's 
689, fi-om Eastern Cuba, differs from the type by shorter sepals, 
narrower leaves, and much smaller bracts. 

(To be continued.) 



ON SOME RAEE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 
By Henry Chichester Hart, B.A. 

During the summer of the past year and spring of the present 
one (1881) 1 was enabled to make further botanical explorations in 
this county. The results of these I now offer to your readers in 
continuation of my former papers upon this subject published in 
this Journal. 

The following plants are additions to the Flora of Donegal, i. e., 
District 11 in Moore and More's ' Cybele Hibernica" : — 

luinuncnlus peltatus, Fries. Stachys Betonica, Benth. 

E. heterophyllus, Bab. Prunula veris, Linn. 

^'Primus insititia, Lmn. Rumex Hydrolapathuiii , Huds. 

Pynis Aria, Sm. ■■'Polyfjonuvi Biatorta, Linn. 

■^'Dipsacm sylrestris, Linn. \Ul)nns viontana, With. 

Hieracium umhellatum , Linn. Potamogetonhetcrophyllus, ^chveh. 

Bartsia viscosa, Linn. Carex teretiuscula, Good. 

In the following list those plants the localities of which do not 
enter into my formerly defined district of North-Western Donegal, 
I have marked with the capital letter "D"; "F," as before, 
signifies Fanet. 

Thalictrum aJpiimm, L. At an altitude of 1900 feet, about 
one mile west of Lough Belshade ; on Lavagh More on both south 
and north sides ; and on Silver Hill. These localities lie on the 
Bluestack or Croagh Gorm range in the south-west of Donegal. 
I have previously recorded this rare alpine plant from the Poisoned 
Glen. D. 

Jlanunculus j^eltatas, Fries. Marshy ground between Inch Eoad 
station and Burnfoot. 

R. heterojjJtylliis, Bab. Near the last, by the railway. 

R. sceleratus, L. Salt-marshes at Templecroney, west of 
Duiiglow ; marshy ground between the two embankments at Inch 
Eoad. 

Trollius europmis, L. Thei'e are two distinct sets of habitats 
given for this most interesting Donegal plant in the ' Cybele 
Hibernica'; one, "Convoy and Lough Garten," and the other, 
"near Piaphoe." These are wrongly grouped and misleading, 
they should be "Lough Garten" and "Convoy and Kaphoe"; 
the latter two places are but a couple of miles apart, while they 
arc both fifteen or twenty miles from Lough Garten. In the 

'A n 



234 ON SOMK KARE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 

' Journal of Botany' for 1880 (p. 272) I have defined its Lough 
Garten range; since then, Dean Gwynn has informed me that the 
inhabitants of Convoy think the plant may possibly have been 
introduced there from Lough Garten, and thence to Eaphoe, 
which is by no means a natural place for it. The Lough Garten 
station, therefore, with its derivatives, remains the only indis- 
putably indigenous one in Ireland for tliis rare and handsome 
plant. 

"^•ChelidoniiDii )naJHs, L. "Breaghy" and "The Lodge," near 
Eamelton, where it is known as " Sollcnduie," andm great request 
for sore eyes (Dean Gwynnj. 

^' Cheiranthus Cheiri, L. Kathmullan Abbey. 
IBarharea viihjaris, E. Br. Tery rare in Donegal. I have only 
met with it at Marble Hill in small quantities, where it was 
probably introduced by accident. 

Draba verna, L. Sandhills in various places from Buncrana to 
Hornhead ; in most such localities, as at Macamish, Dimnacraig, 
Bottom Shore, Carrigart, Marble Hill, Duufauaghy, and Hornhead, 
I noticed this plant in company with Saxifrarja tridactylites, 
L'erastlinn semidecandrum, (J. tetrandrinu, and Valerianella olitoria ; 
May, 1881. 

■\Reseda Luteula, L. At Fahan and Lich Eoad; between Fahan 
and Buncrana by the railway. 

V2atme hexaiulra, DC. Very rare ; western shore of Upper 
Lough Nacung, near the " Cuug." 

Drosera intermedia, Hayne. About a mile S.E. of Crohy Head, 
in the Bosses. D. 

Silenc mantima, With. At 1500 feet above sea-level on Lavagh 
More in the Bluestack range. D. 

Stellaria graminea, L. Local ; by the river Lennan at Ballyarr ; 
sea-shore about three miles west of Dunglow. 

Cerastiuiii tetrandnim, Curt. Sandhills round the coast from 
Eathmx^llan to Hornhead; see under Draha verna. 

C. seviidecandrinii, L. With the last, but not so common; 
Buncrana. F. 

Radiula Milleyrana, Sm. Near Dunglow. 

Geranium dissectum, L. Fahan, by the railway. 
\ Primus CerasKs, L. Hedges in Ballymacgowan, Fanet. F. 
IP. avium, L. Glenalla wood, but jn'obably introduced. 
'P. insititia, L. Ned's Point, near Buncrana; hedges in Bally- 
macgowan, Fanet. F. 

Afirimonia Eupatoria, L. Local; Lettermacaward, near " Eus- 
seU's Ferry." D. 

('omarum palustre, L. A variety occurs b}' the shore, about 
three miles west of DungloAV, with very narrow leaflets, invariably 
seven in number ; it was not in flower when observed. 

Pyrns Aria, Sm. Amongst mountain thickets at Glenveagh ; 
an addition to the Flora of Donegal. 

I'cjiUs rortula, Li. Not common ; Aughnagaddy. 

Myriujjhyilurn spicutwii, L. Eare ; in a pool by the road-side 
near " Eussell's Ferry," in Lettermacaward. D. 



ON SOME RAKE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 235 

'^-Epilohium anr/ustifuUum, L. Near Ballyconuell bridge, Glenalla, 
The couutry people know it as the " Blooming Willow." 

Saxifra(/a triddcti/Utes, L. Sandhills round the coast from 
Bathmullan to Hornhead; May, 1881. F. 

'''■A]>iii)n (jraceolens, L. Established by the road-side near the 
town of Donegal. D. 

PimpineUii Saxifrai/a, L. Extremely local in Donegal. Sandy 
ground by the sea about three miles west of Dunglow. 

Oenantlw crocata, L. Local ; sea-side near Dunglow ; by the 
shore between Fahan and Inch ; and by the river Lennan at 
Ballyarr, the only inland locality I have noted. 

Mi/rrhis odurata, Scop. Near the town of Donegal. D. Near 
Eamelton. 

Smi/rniiim Olnsatruiii, L. Between Fahan and Inch; Kath- 
mullan Point. 

Viburnum Ojjulus, L. Very local; by the river Lennan at 
BaUyarr. 

'■■Dipmcus si/Ivestris, L. Eoad-side near Lifford (Dean Gwynu). 
An addition to the Flora of the county. 

ValerianeUa olitoria, Mcench. This plant is very plentiful on 
dry sandy pastures by the sea, and sandhills in most places round 
the coast from Bathmullan to Hornhead. It is always very 
minute in such situations, averaging about half an inch in height, 
with a tiny head of pale blue flowers. I have only seen one or two 
plants as large as the usual corn-field form near Ray by the sea- 
side. I mention these particulars since Mr. Watson challenges it 
as a native of the British Isles ; as it grows in Donegal it has 
every appearance of being native ; see under Draba verna. F. 

Eupatorium. cannab'mum, L. Very rare in Donegal ; thickets 
between Sesiagh Lake and Dunfanaghy. 

\Petasites vuhjaris, Desf. Abundant on the south-west side of 
Inch Island ; railway-banks between Fahan and Inch. 

Bidens cernua, L. Eoad-side between Stranorlar and "The 
Gap." D. 

'■'Tmda Heleniwii, L. Near the road-side between Arduamoua 
and Donegal. D. 

Hieracium umbellatiwi, L. (var. fdifolkim). This plant grows 
abundantly by the stream at Glenties. An addition to the Flora 
of Donegal. D. 

H. awjilcwn, Fries. Lavagh More; near Lough Belshade; 
between Glenties and Silver Hill. D. 

Tunacetmn imhjarc, L. Near the Fahan railway- station (Dean 
Gwynn). 

Gnaphaliuiii si/lf(ttiruiii, h. Between Glenties and " Eussell's 
Ferry," near the latter. D. 

Sencrio Jaciduiit, L., var. jlasrulosus, Jordan. North-western 
shore of Trawenagh Bay ; abundant, and unmixed with the rayed 
form. D. 

Ai-ctosta]>/i>/llus Urn-ursi, Spr. Abundant to sea-level at Crohy 
Head. D. Gicnveagh. 

Vaccinium VUia-idwa, L. Gicnveagh ; Kuockalla, by the larger 



286 ON SOME RARE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 

of the two "Black Lakes." F. Croagli Barnes, Blue Stack, 
Lavagli More, and Silver Hill. 1). 

FyroLa media, Sra. Marble Hill. 
'■''■TAiimtruni ruhjarc, L. Well established along the railway 
between Fahan and Inch. 

Convolvolus arvenm, L. An undoubted native on sandy banks 
at Leenane, Lough Swilly ; Inch Road. 

^[|/(lsi)tis palustyis, With. By the river Lennan at Ballyarr. 
I have not seen the large Forget-me-not elsewhere in Donegal, 
where it appears to be very scarce, 

M. versicolor, L. Not common in Donegal ; Clonmass Island, 
Ards ; fields by Lough Fern upon Moyle Hill ; near Glinsk. F. 

'^•St/)iipht/tniii ojficinale, L. Between Fort Eoyal and Macamisli, 
Lough Swilly. 

Mfrtt'Hsiii i)iariti))ia, Don. I have previously recorded this rare 
northern plant from between Leenane and Dunafi' Head, near 
Leenane, iipon the authority of Mr. Batt. It does not now appear 
to grow in the locality indicated ; it occurs, however, in Sheep- 
haven. 

Bartsia visco>i((, L. This most interesting addition to the Flora 
of Donegal is chiefly due to my friend Dean Gwynn. While 
travelling from Derry to Fahan, he noticed from the railway- 
carriage an unusual-looking, tall, yellow-floAvered plant on the 
Lough Swilly side of the line from Inch Station to Burnfoot. 
Shortly afterwards I went in search, and found a profuse growth of 
the present species in the site indicated. Several visits sub- 
sequently enabled me to trace its distribution. It is abundant 
chiefly on ground that has been reclaimed from the sea, stretching 
for about a mile between Inch Island and the east shore of Lough 
Swilly ; it grows freely also on the shore of Inch, which Avas 
probably its original head-quarters, whence it has extended over so 
suitable a locality. This habitat forms an mtermediate station for 
the plant which occurs on the Scottish coast at Dumbarton ; on 
the south and south-western coasts of Ireland ; and at Cornwall, 
Isle of Wight, and Sussex. 

Lijcn/ms eiiropaiis, L. Near Magherawarden. F. 

Stachi/s Betunica, Bentli. I found this very rare Irish plant in 
August, 1881, growing in small quantities amongst thickets by the 
shores of Dunlewry Lough, below Dunlewry House. An addition 
to the Flora of Donegal. 

Utricularia intermedia, Hayne. Abundant in the river between 
Grweedore and Loch Nacung Lower. 

U. minor, L. Upon CrOcighmore, near the gap Barnesmore. 

Primula veris, L. In two fields at Marble Hill, by the shores 
of Sheephaven Bay, where it was pointed out to me by my friend 
the Rev. Alexander Stuart, who has always regarded it as native 
there. The only locality in the county. 

Salicornia herhacea, L. Shores of Trawenagh Bay. D. 
* Pohjgonum Bistorta, L. Castlewray, Letterkenny ( Dean Gwj-nn). 
The plant has been known there as long as can be remembered. 

P. lidii, Bab. Shores of Magliery Bay, west of Dunglow. 



ON SOME RARE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 237 

Rumex Hydrolapathwn, Hnds. Deep pools by the railway near 
Fahan station. An addition to the Mora of Donegal. 

SalLv herhacea, L. Occurs as low as 1100 feet above sea-level 
between the lakes and the summit ofErris mountains, in Innishowen. 
Mr. Watson gives 1600 feet in the Orkneys as the lowest in Britain. 
It has been observed at 1200 feet also in Derry. A very large form 
of this plant grows on the south side of Lavagh More, hi the 
Bluestack range, with erect branches about eight inches high. 

'■'■'■ Ulmus nwntana, With. In many woods and plantations, as at 
Ray, Grlenalla, &c., where it is thoroughly established. 

Neottia Nidus-avis, Rich. Recorded in 'Recent Additions to the 
Flora of Ireland,' from Ards woods, by Mr. M. Murphy, whore I 
have gathered it under beeches by the avenue near a garden-wall. 

Orchis pyramidaUs, L. Fort Royal, Rathmullan. 

Listera cordata, R. Br. Erris, near Dunree (G. V. Hart). 

Habenaria viridis, R. Br. By the shore near Templccrone, 
about three miles west of Duuglow. 

Allium B(d)inr/tonii, Borr. This garlick is still made use of by 
cow-doctors ; a decoction made from the root is said to be good for 
sick cattle ; and if the tail of a calf be split and a bulb of the head 
be lashed inside, the animal wiU never die of a prevalent disorder 
named " black-leg." 

A. ursinum, L. Ray woods, on both sides of the Rathmullan 
road ; and at Ned's Point, near Buncrana. 

Eriocaidon scptanyulare, With. Abundant in Lough Aleckmore, 
a little north of Travenagh Bay. D. 

Sparyaniuui nutans, L. [8. ajine, Schn.) Toome Lough, at 
Lettermacaward, with S. vmwmcm, Fries. 

Fotamoijcton hetenijiJii/llus, Schreb. Lough Nacung Lower, and 
stream from it to Gweedore. This is the second Donegal locality 
for this plant which I omitted to enumerate amongst the additions 
to the county in my last paper on the subject. 

ZannicltcUia pidmtris, L. Brackish mud at Inch and Doagh. 

Scirpus Tabenuonontatii, Gm. Salt-marshes about three miles 
west of Dunglow. 

EleocJuiris multicaulis, Sm. Not so local as supposed ; frequent 
about Dunfanaghy, and near Marble Hill, &c. 

llhjstnus rufus, Panz. Salt-marshes by Hornhead bridge, 
abundant. 

C'ari'x vulpina, L. Scarce ; marshy ground between Inch Road 
and Burnfoot. 

C. teretiuscula. Good. Very rare ; by a small lake between 
Marble Hill and Sesiagh Lough, near Dunfaughy. 

C. paniculata, L. Very local; with the last-named sedge. 

C. oralis, Good. Local ; l)y the shore about half a mile west of 
Dunglow. 

C. stricta, Good. Rare ; with C. terrtiusrula, mentioned above. 

C. limusa, L. This rare sedge is recorded from " Gap of Urris," 
in Donegal, by C. Moore ; if by this he meant Mamore Gap, in the 
Erris mountains, east side of Lough Swilly, I fear tliis locality no 
longer holds good. There is a small marshy pond tlicre which is 



238 ON SOME RARE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 

almost entirely occupied by Carex ampuUncea, which has a 
marvellous power of filling up small lakes. C. Ihnoaa, however, 
occurs elsewhere in Donegal. 

Meiica unljiora, Ketz. Woods between Eay and Rathmullan. 

Festuca sijlratica, Vill. By the river at Glenties, D. ; with the 
last; and at "Ned's Point," near Buncrana. 

Fquisetum ma.civunn, Lam. Abundant near the town of 
Donegal. D. 

E.palmtre, L. Damp sandy places by Ballyvicstocker Strand. F. 

PoLijpodium Phegopieris, L. In many places about Lough Eske 
and Lough Belshade ; and on Blue Stack, Lavagh More, and 
Silver Hill, in the south-west of Donegal. D. 

Lastrea Oreopteris, Presl. Between Lough Belshade and Lough 
Eske, by the stream ; and at the waterfall above Lough Eske ; 
between Glenties and Silver Hill. D. Kockalla (G. V. H.) F. 

Puhjstichum aculcatnin, Roth. Waterfall above Lough Eske; 
between Martin's Bridge and Silver Hill, by a stream. D. 

LUjstuptcris fraijilis, Bernh. Very local in Donegal. In a 
natural grotto on "the face of Binmore precipice, half a mile west of 
Lough Belshade, a place rather difficult of access. Two plants 
above a small cataract between Martin's Bridge and Silver Hill. D. 

Asplenium viride, Huds. Old walls at Convoy, near Eaphoe, 
where it appeared a few years ago ; by the waterfall above Lough 
Eske ; I did not meet "it elsewhere on the Lough Eske mount- 
tain. D. 

Asplenium Euta-muraria, L. Road-side walls by Lough Eske, 
at Ardnamona. D. Rare in the north of the county ; on an old 
garden-wall in Ramelton. 

HijmenophiiUum Wlhoni, Hook. Gap of Mamore, and elsewhere 
on the Erris mountains. 

Butrychium Lunaria, L. Sheep-pastures on the west side of 
Eossgull. 

The present seems to be a good opportunity for enumerating 
the plants which have been added to, and those which have to be 
removed from, the Flora of the County Donegal, as it stood in 
186G, the date of the publication of Moore and More's ' Cybele 
Hibernica.' 

The following are additions : — 

Thalictrum alpinum. ' Polygala depressa. 

[T. minus.] |Silene inflata. 

Ranunculus trichophyllus. fLyclmis vespertina. 

R. Baudotii. Sagina apetala. 

R. peltatus. S. subulata. 

R. heterophyllus. Stellaria graminea. 

[Papaver Rhoeas.] Cerastium glomeratum. 

*CorydaHs lutea. C. triviale. 

-Cheirantlms Cheiri. | Althaea officinaHs. 

Lepidium Smithii. *Lavatera arborea. 

Drosera intermedia. jAcer campestris. 



ON SOME RAEE PLANTS IN COUNTY DONEGAL. 



239 



*A. Pseudo-platanus. 
*Geraiuiim pyrenaicum. 
*Eroclium moscbatum. 

Ulex Gallii. 

Trifolium filiforme. 

Vicia angustifolia. 

V. lathyroides. 
^Prunus Cerasus. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria. 

Eubus suberectus. 

E. pHcatus. 
■ E, discolor. 

E. carpinifolius. 

Eosa arvensis. 
*Prunus insititia. 
JPyrus Malus. 

P. Aria. 
[P. communis.] 
*Eibes Grossularia. 

Myriopbyllum spicatum. 

Sclerantbus annuus. 

Saxifraga hypnoides. 

S. hii-ta. 

S. aizoides. 
[S. Cymbalaria.] 
[S. sarmeiitosa.] 
f Apium graveolens. 
[Carum Carui.] 
jAetbusa Cynapium. 
*Pastiiiaca sativa. 
"'■'Petrosebiium sativum. 
jValerianella deiitata. 
'■'Dipsacus sylvestris. 
jKuautia arvensis. 
'■'■Petasites fragrans. 
'''Inubi Heleuium. 

Antbemis nobibs. 

Gnapbabum sylvaticum. 
[Autcnnaria margaritacea.] 

Saussurea alpina. 
[Cicborium Intybus.] 

Soncbus asper. 

Hieracium umbelbitum. 

H. boreale. 
fLycopsis arvensis. 

Litbospcrmum officinale. 
:[Vorbascum Tbapsus. 

bcropbularia aquatica. 
^Linaria vulgaris. 



L. repens. 
'■'L. Cymbalaria. 

Pedicularis sylvatica. 

Bartsia viscosa. 
[Veronica peregrina.] 
[V. Buxbaumii.] 

Mentba sativa. 

M. arvensis. 

Scutellaria galericulata. 
fLamium amplexicaule. 
tL. intermedium. 
tL. incisum. 

Stacbys Betonica. 
fS. arvensis. 
tBallota nigra. 
*Nepeta Cataria. 

Primula veris. 
[Plantago media.] 

Atriplex angustifolia. 

A. Babingtonii. 

Oxyria reniformis. 
'•'Polygonum Bistorta. 

P. vivij)arum. 

Eumex Hydrolapatbum. 

Eupborbia amygdaloides. 
jE. exigua. 

Callitricbe bamulata. 
|Ulmus montana. 
fSaiix Smitbiana. 

S. Grabami. 

Orcbis pyramidalis. 

EiDipactis latifolia, 

Neottia Nidus-avis. 
*Iris fcetidissima. 
■-■= Allium Babingtonii. 

A. ursinum. 

Luzula pilosa. 

Potamogeton beteropbyllus. 

P. crispus. 

P. iDUsillus. 

P. filiformis. 

Zostera nana ? 

Zanuicbellia palustris. 

Carex teretiuscula. 

Festuca sylvatica. 

Equisctum bycmale. 

Adiiintum Capillus- Veneris. 

Opbioglossum vulgatum. 

0. lusitauicum. 



240 NOTES ON I'OTAMOGETONS. 

The followiug plants I propose to remove from the Donegal 
list :— 

Viola lutea, Hucls. " Sandhills at Dunfanaghy, County Donegal 
(Mr. Thompson)." Flora of Ulster. The only sandhill pansy I 
can observe there is V. (Jurtisii, Forst. 

Calamintha officinalis, Moench. I am informed by my friend, 
A. G. More, that the locality given for this plant in the ' Cybele 
Hibernica' belongs really to C. (Hinopadium, and is the same station 
as that given subsequently for the latter plant. 

EupJiorbia hyberna, L. My reasons for excluding this plant will 
be found under E. lnjherna and E. amyiidaloideH, in a a paper on 
the Flora of North-Western Donegal, ' Journal of Botany,' 1879 
(p. 144). Further search since that date has confirmed my opinion 
that this spurge does not occiir in the Poisoned Glen. 

Pob/stichum Lonchitis, Eoth. In Newman's ' British Ferns,' 
the Holly Fern is credited with the locality of " Bosses and Fanet " ; 
but I was informed by Dr. Moore that this was a mistake. The 
other station in Donegal is "a glen east of Lough Eske" (Prof. 
E. Murphy), an unlikely station, the glens on the east being of too 
low level for Alpine plants. In one, however, the " Waterfall 
Glen," to the north of east from the lake, I have gathered with 
Asplenium viride a very lonchitioid form of Poh/stichuni aculcatum. 
Since then I have learned fi-om a lady, who, with her brother, has 
lived there and botanized for many years, that she never could 
succeed in finding this fern, although, in consequence of the above 
record, they had been constantly in search of it. She states that 
" the fern that is always taken for the Holly Fern is the Aspidium 
lobatum." 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS.* 
By Aethur Bennett, F.L.S. 

Potamogeton sparganifolius , Lsest. — The branching or non- 
branching of the stems of this species seems one of degree rather 
than fact. The specimen from L^estadius in the Kew Herbarium 
has branches three to four inches long, given off about half-way 
up the stem, yet it is not branched from below. 

P. LoncJiitcs, Tuckerman. — I possess a fine series of this fi-om 
the Kev. T. Moroug, U.S.A. ; and there is no doubt Dr. Boswell is 
correct in referring the Irish specimens to it. 

P. salicifolius, Wolf. — Specimens of Wolfgang's plant (from the 
author) in Herb. Brit. Museum are not the same as the North 
American P. Lonchit.es: and the Eev. T. Morong writes me that the 
Scandinavian salicifolius is " certaualy not our LoncJiitcs.'" The 
plant gathered by the Eev. A. Ley, and referred to salicifoUus by 
Professor Babington, is also not accepted by Morong as Lonclntes : 
it is probably the P. salicifolius var. lanceolatus of Scandinavian 
authors. 

* See • Journiil of Botany,' ls7v>, p. 22k. 



NOTES ON POTAMOGETONS, 241 

• 

P. gramineus, L., var. 7naximus, Morong {JieterophyUus, Schreb., 
var.), — Specimens I gathered last year in Burwell Fen, Cambridge- 
shire, I was unable to refer to any British form of the " gramineus " 
of Linn, {lieterophyllus), and the only specimen I could find 
resembling them was one in the Kew Herbarium, labelled " Canada 
West, Prof. Macoun." The receipt of specimens of Morong's 
plant enabled me to at once identify them with it, and I am glad 
to say he concurs with me. He remarks : — " It seems just the 
same as our gramineus var. maximus. Our plant grows in rivers, 
generally in strong currents. It varies from the typical forms of 
gramineus, being less branched, and entirely without the dichotomous 
ramification of the branches so common in the grass-leaved form. 
The leaves are far fewer and scattered along the stem. Some of 
the submerged leaves are nearly an inch wide by seven long. Were 
it not that the so-called var. graminifolius is intermediate, I should 
be disposed to separate the large form from gramiyieus altogether. 
Your plant being from ' a ditch ' shows that it is not the current 
alone which causes the difference, as its locality with us would seem 
to indicate." 

P. prcBlongus, Wulfen. — The following interesting remarks I have 
from the Eev. T. Morong : — " This species has with us a curious 
habit. It fruits and flowers very late in the autumn (Nov. to Dec), 
and the spikes hang on all winter under the ice. My specimens 
in spike are, as you see, collected in July, and all that have been 
sent me were old spikes of the previous fall, collected in summer. 
Has any European botanist noticed the same thing ? " 

P. perfoliatiis, L., var. lanceolatus, A. Gray. — Specimens agree- 
ing with the United States plant I have from Scotland (Mr. A. 
Brotherston). The leaves are two and a half to three and a half 
inches long, cordate-clasping, and gradually tapered to the end. 
A very pecuUar form of perfoliatiis from Italy (Prof. Caruel) has 
the leaves stiff, strongly undulated at the edge, and of a very dense 
texture. Another fi-om Hungary (Herb. Dr. Kovuts) has very stout 
stems and spikes, with the fruit with remarkably long pedicels, 
and the whole plant of a peculiar greasy appearance. A slender 
form with long peduncles occurs in Looe Pool, Helston, Cornwall 
(Mr. E. Straker), agreeing with specimens fi'om Mass., U.S.A. 
(Eev. T. Morong). 

P. crispus, L. — Specimens with the " winter-buds," gemmse, or 
hybernacula, occurred plentifully on Mitcham Common, Surrey, 
this spring. I do not think they are mentioned in any of our 
floras. They are figured in ' The Phytologist,' n. s., vol. ii., p. G9, 
18G2; see also Trans. Bot. Soc. France (1856), vol. iii., p. 350. 
They occur m North America, accompanied by others at the end 
of the shoots. 

P. acntifolius, Link. — A form of this occurs (rarely) in ditches 
(Norfolk), differing from the usual British plant in being of much 
stronger growth, with longer internodes, the leaves of a firmer 
texture, the peduncles longer [^ in.), the fruit larger, and crenulalcd 
on the back when dry. It is perliaps the var. of a. uKijor (Ficbi'i-, 
Die Pot. Boh. 1838, p. 35). 

2 I 



242 FESTUCA ORARIA. 

P. mucrovatus, Sclirad. — Wc probably Lave in England a 
Putam()(j('t()n that is not pKsillas vulijaris, Fr., or mucronatm, Schrad. : 
the immature fruit differs from those forms as pointed out to me by 
the Rev, T. Morong, who writes me that he has a similar plant 
from Sweden (Prof. T. Fries) unnamed ; but ripe fruit is a 
desideratum for certain determination. 

P. pusUlus, L., var. [P. panormltanus, Bivoni). — Mr. H. Mennell 
has gatliored this near Clapham, in Yorkshire, making a second 
British station. 



FESTUCA OPUniA, Dumortier. 
By F. Townsend, M.A., F.L.S. 

In the 1881 Report of the Botanical Exchange Club Dr. Boswell 
is said to have sent specimens of Fcstnca arenaria, God., glahrescens, 
F. oraria, Dumort., from Burntisland, Fife, which Prof. Babingtou 
would call "rubra." This reminds me that Mr. H. C. Watson 
planted in his garden, if I recollect rightly, in a pot, specimens 
sent to him as F. oraria, when they did not remain true, but 
became "rubra''; but I cannot resist the impression that the 
specimens Mr. Watson planted may not have been true F. oraria 
of Dumortier. 

A few months back I saw, in Dr. Bromfield's herbarium at 
Ryde, specimens named by Mr. A. Gr. More F. oraria, Dumort., 
from St. Helen's Spit, Isle of Wight, and Mr. More gives this 
species as an additional one for the Isle of Wight in his Suppl. to 
' Fl. Vectcnsis' in 'Journal of Botany,' 1871. I should call 
Mr. More's specimens decidedly " rubra,'' and I have gathered 
a similar plant myself on St. Helen's Spit. I have no other record 
of true F. oraria as a Hampshire plant. 

In the Royal Herbarium at Edinburgh there are excellent and 
typical specimens of Festuca oraria from the sands of Barrie, 
g-athered by Mr. J. Knapp in July, 1837, and, together with other 
remarks of his, accompanying the specimens, he writes, " retains 
its character in cultivation." The late Mr. F. M. Webb informed 
me that Mr. Knapp was an Edinburgh physician, who made the 
Grasses his especial study, and watched them under cultivation. 
We have therefore conflicting statements as to the behaviour of 
this grass under cultivation, and this circumstance, combined with 
the two above instances of the same plant being named by one 
botanist F. oraria, and by another F. rubra, would induce us to 
form an opinion that Mr. Watson's experiment is not a conclusive 
proof that F. oraria is not distinct from F. rubra. 

A botanist who has seen F. oraria growing spontaneously, 
and has noticed its long and stout soboles and other marked 
cliaracters, would find it difficult to believe that it could pass into 
F. ruhrii. 



243 

A NEW CHINESE EHODODENBROX. 
By H. F. Hance, Ph.D., F.L.S. 

Ehododendron (Enrhododcndrun) subseries 3) Henryi, sp. nov. 
— 8-12 pedale, ramulis cinereis novellis petiolisqiie pilis rigidis 
capitatis cousitis, I'oliis coriaceis elliptico-lauceolatis basi sub- 
acutis apice breviter acuminatis novellis supra subtusque ad 
costam setosis margiuequc dense setoso-ciliatis maturis iindique 
glaberrimis supra lucidulis subtus pallidioribus baud lepidotis 
laxe reticulatis venis omnibus gequalibus marginem versus arctius 
anastomosantibus utrinque modice elevatis 2^-5 poll, lougis 
incluso petiolo 3-7 lineali capitato-setoso 9-16 lin. latis, gem- 
marum floriferarum sicut foliigenarum squamis pluriseriatis 
ovatis exterioribus sensim miuoribus dense breviter albo- 
ciliatis, innovationibus dense glanduloso-pilosis inferne squamis 
oblougis distantibus 6-8 linealibus prsditis, tloribus quinis 
terminali-subumbellatis lilacinis vel amoene roseis suaveolenti- 
bus, pedicellis glanduloso-pilosis subpoUicaribus, calycis 5-partiti 
pbj'llis in^quilongis linearibus acutissimis dense glanduloso- 
setaceo-pectinatis 3-6 linealibus, corollre infundibulari-campan- 
ulatffi passim glaberrimaj bipoUicaris tubo sursum ampliato 
semipollicari lobis oblongis acutiusculis, staminum 10 dimidiam 
coroUam ada3quantium filamentis basi glanduloso-pubentibus 
superue glabemmis antberis obovoideis apice poris binis 
ovalibus debiscentibus, ovario oblongo dense fulvo-setoso 5-6- 
loculari, stylo glaberrimo breviter exserto, stigmate conspicue 
capitato indiviso. 

Speciosam banc arbusculam latera collium supra cffinobium 
buddbicum Fi-loi-tsz, ad angustias Tsing-iin fluvii Nortb River, 
provincia) Cantonensis, venustissimis tloribus abundanter ex- 
oruantem, d. 22 Martii 1881, invenit Eev. B. C. Henry, cui lubens 
sacravi. (Herb, propr. no. 21638.) 

Through the liberality of M. Maximowicz, I possess authentic 
specimens of nearly all the species enumerated in his 'Eho- 
dodendi-ea3 Asise orientalis ' ; but the present extremely hand- 
some plant does not, in my judgment, come very near to 
any of those known to me. I believe I have correctly indicated 
its position in this difficult genus, in the subseries containing 
7i. Dallwiism, Hook, fib, //. ciliatiim, Hook, f., 11. XtiWdlii, 
Booth, &c., and which is nearly equivalent to Nuttall's section 
CIciodandron ; '■' and perhaps its closest affinity is rather with 
the Himalayan li. barbatum, Wall., than with any Chinese species 
yet described. 



* Hook. Jouni. Uut. v. \ibi (1853). 



244 



NOTES ON THE FLOKA OF DEKBYSHIRE. 
By the PiEV. W. H. Painter. 

(Continued from p. 216.) 

TMtJnjrus pratensis, Linn. Common. 

Oyoh'iifi tiihrrnsus, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trcnt, Harris ; Dale 
Abbey Woods ! Var. tenuifolius, Roth. I. Stirrup Woods, Glossop, 
Whitel('fi[i. 

Prunvs spinnsa , lAnii. IV. Btirton-on-Trcnt, Harris; Eepton, 

Hagrier ', Morley ! 

P. insititia, Linn. IV. Ockbrook, near Derby ! 

P. aviiuii, Linn. I. Mellor, Hannan. IV. Kedlcston, near 
Derby ! 

P. Parh(s, Linn. I. Monk's Dale, West; Whatstandwell, 
Banks of River Derwent ! 

Spiraa Ulmnria, Linn. Common. 

S. Filipendula, Linn. I. MiUer's Dale, Wliitele(j(i ; Hartington, 
Harris ; between Newbaven and Middleton ; and IV. Between 
Chellaston and Walton-on-Trent, PurcJtas. 

Aiirimonia lutpatoria, Linn. Common. 

A. odorata, Mill. I. MiUer's Dale, Harris. 

Sanguisorha officinalis, Linn. I. Monk's Dale and Matlock, 
Jfest. IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Hrtrr/s ; Normanton-by-Derby ! 

Poterium Sani/nisorba, Linn. I. Cromford, Harris ; Monk's 
Dale, West; Dove Dale ! 

Alchemilla arrensis, Scop. I. Charlesworth, WJiitelef/ij ; The 
Wiunatts, Castleton. IV. Cauldwell, Harris ; Littleover ! 

A. vidgaris, Linn. Common. 

Potentilla Fraf/ariastrum, Ehrh. Common, 

P. verna, Linn. I. Dove Dale, PurcJtas ; Latbkill Dale, Smith; 
MonsalDale, Whitelcfifi; Miller's Dale, ii^awffm; Monk's Dale, West. 

P. Tormentilla, Scbenk. Common on heaths. 

P. procumhens, Sibth. I. Chatsworth, Wkitelegrj ; Dove Dale ! 
IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

P. rcptans, Linn. Common. 

P. Anserina, Linn. Common. 

Coynarumpalustre^Ijmn. I. Chrome Hill, BiTxton ! IV. Gresley, 
Harris. 

Fraijaria vesca, Linn. Common. 

F. elatior, Ehrh. IV. Discovered a few years since by Picv. G. 
Smith near Ockbrook ; now extinct. 

Fiubus Idaus, Linn. Common. 

R.corijlifolim,Sm. I. Miller's Dale, P<'«nso9i ; Cressbrook Dale ! 
IV. Bm'ton -on- Trent, Harris. 

E. ca:sius, Sm. I. Miller's Dale, Baileij ; Cressbrook Dale, 
Whitelegg; Chee Dale, West. IV. Ockbrook, Smith. 

R. saxatilis, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Harris ; Chee Dale, West ; 
Cressbrook Dale, Whitelegg; Ashford Dale, Bailey; Dove Dale, 
Purchas. 



THE FLORA OP DERBYSSIRE. 245 

R. Chamamorus, Linn. I. Kinder Scout, West ; Axe Edge ! 

Geiim urhanum, Linn. IV. Common. 

G. inter medium , Ehrh. I. Bakewell, Smith ; Chee Tor, Whitelegg; 
Miller's Dale, Bailey. 

G. rivale, Linn. I. Cressbrook Dale, Bailey', Miller's Dale, 
Whiteleyy ; Latbkill Dale ! 

Rosa spiyiosissima, Linn. I. Cressbrook Dale, Whiteleyg ; Monsal 
Dale, Smith. 

R. mollissima, Willd. I. Wormbill, West; Cressbrook Dale, 
Whiteleyy ; Dove Dale ! IV. Mickleover, near Derby ! 

R. scahriuscula, Sm. IV. Mickleover, near Derby ! 

R. Doniana, Woods. I. Monsal Dale ! 

R. Robertsoni, Baker. I. Monsal Dale ! 

R. lutetiana, Leman. IV. Morley ; Holbrook, near Derby ! 

R. dwnalis, Becbst. I. Buxton ! Dove Dale ! IV. Breadsall ! 

R. tirbica, Leman. IV. Willington, near Derby ! 

R. tomentella, Leman. IV. Ockbrook, Smith. 

R. Reuteri, Godet. I. Cressbrook Dale ! 

Fi. suhcristcita. Baker. I. Dove Dale ! 
■ R. Watsoni, Baker. I. Cressbrook Dale ! 

Pi. arvensis, Huds. I. Mellor, Hannan ; Dove Dale ! IV. 
Common. 

R. bibmcteata, Bast. IV. Holbrook, near Derby ! 

CratcByus oxyacanthqides, Jacq. I. Wardlow Hay Cop, Bailey ; 
Cressbrook Dale, Hannan ; near Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. vwnoyyna, Jacq. Common. 

Pyrus Aria, Hooker. I. Cbee Dale ; Blacky Mills ; Wormhill, 
West ; between Asbbourne and Newbaven, Pnrchas. 

P. rupicola, Bosw. I. Miller's Dale, Whiteleyy; Dove Dale ! 

P. Aiicuparia, Gaertn. Common. 

P. Malus, Linn. Common. 

Lythnnn Salicaria,Ijmn. IV. Bm'ton-on-Trent, i^flrr/.s ; Little 
Eaton, near Derby ! 

L. Hyssopifolia, Linn. IV. Calke Park, Rev. A. Bloxani, Harris. 

Epilobium anyiistifolinm , Linn. I. (?) Asbwood Dale, Pnrchas; 
Cromford, Harris. Var. brachycarpum, Leight. I. Burbage, 
Buxton, garden escape. 

E. hirsutum, hmn. I. Miller's Dale! Dove Dale ! IV. Burtou- 
on-Trent, Harris. 

K. parvijlorum, Scbreb. I. Hassop, Bailey. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris; Canals, Derby! 

K. montanum, Linn. Common. 

E. obscnrum, Scbreb. I. Baslow, Bailey ; near Buxton ! IV. 
Newton Solney, Harris. 

Circma lutetiana, Linn. I. Bakewell ; Matlock, West ; Miller's 
Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris : Horslcy Car. .^c. ! 

Myrio/ihyllum spicatii))i, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Treut, Harris ; 
Locko Park, near Derby ! 

Hippirris nilyaris, Linn. IV. Brctl)y Park, llayyer. 
Callitriche rerna, Linn. Common in streams and ponds. 
Bryonia dioica, Linn. IV. Common. 



246 THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 

Riles Grosmlatia, Linn, I. Wormliill, West ; Wliatstandwell ! 
Horsley Castle, Derby ! IV. Burtou-on-Trent, Harris. 

Ii. al})imun, Liun. I. Wormbill, West\ Miller's Dale, White- 
Icyg ; Dove Dale, Vurchas. 

E. rubnwi, hinn. I. MeUov, Haniian; Monk's Dale, West. 

Ii. niyrum, Linn. I. "Wormliill, West ; Whatstaudwell ! 

Seduiii TeJephium, Liiiu. I. Monk's Dale; Cromfbrd, West; 
Dove Dale ! Chrome Hill ! 

S. album, Linn. I. Asliford-in-tiie- Water, Harris', Matlock 
Batli, Whitelcijri. 

S. anylicniii, Hudson. I. Cliatswortli, Harris. 

S. acre, Liun. Common. 

S. reflexum, Linn. IV. Kepton ! 

Cotyledon Ihiihilicus, Linn. IV. Near Repton, Piaijne. 

Saxifraga tridactijlites, Linn. Common. 

S. granulata, Linn. I. and IV. Common in meadows. 

S. hyimoides, Linn. I. Bakewell Road, Buxton ! Dove Dale ! 
Var. genimifera, E. B. I. Cressbrook Dale, JJailey. 

Chrgsosjdcnium oj^positifolium, Linn. I. Mottram, Baileij ; 
Mellor, Hannan; Miller's Dale, Whitelegg; Dove Dale! IV. 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Dale Abbey Woods ! Morley ! 

C. alternifolium , Linn. I. Disley; Asliwood Dale; Miller's 
Dale, Whitelegg; near Ashbourne, Purchas; Tm-n ditch, Whittaker. 
IV. Wyaston J3rook, Smith. 

Parnassia pahistris, Liun. I. Hartiugton ; upper part of Dove 
Dale, Purchas; Monsal Dale, Harris; Buxton ! 

Hydrocotyle vulgaris, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; 
Morley Moor ! 

Sanicula europcrAi, Linn. I. Disley, Bailey; Via GeUia ! IV. 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Repton Shrubs ! 

Helosciadiimnodiflorum, Koch. IV. Gveslej, Harris; common, 
Derby ! 

H. repens, Koch. I. Miller's Dale ! 

H. inundatum, Koch. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris; Swarke- 
stone Bridge ! 

Sisoti Amomum, Linn. IV. Lullington, Harris ; Spondon ! 

Aegopodium Podagraria, Linn. I. Turnditch ! IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

Bunium fiexuosum. With. Common. 

Pimpinella Saxifraga, Linn. Common. 

P. magna, Linn. I. Monk's Dale, West ; Ashwood Dale ! Dove 
Dale ! Via Gelha ! TV. Burton-ou-Trent, Harris ; Ockbrook I 

Sium angustifolium, Linn. I. Youlgreave, Bailey ; Dove Dale ! 
IV. Burtou-on-Trent, Harris ; Derby ! 

Oenanthe Jistidusa, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Al- 
vastou, S)iiith; Swarkestone Bridge ! 

Oe. P/(('i'/rt»(//-/»j»,Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Hams; Swarke- 
stone Bridge ! 

Oe. fluviatilis, Coleman. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Aethusa Cynapiiun, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris, 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 247 

Silaus pratensis, Bess. IV. Drakelowe, Harris ; Ockbrook, 
Smith. 

Angdica sylvestris, Liun. I. Buxton ! Matlock Bath ! IV. 
Burton-on-TreDt, Harris. 

Pastinaca satira, Liuu. IV. Chaddesden, Derby ! 

Heracleum Sphondyliwit , Liuu. Common. A variety with 
narrow leaves, Miller's Dale, Whiteleiju. 

Daucus Carota, Liuu. I. Dove Dale! IV. Calke, Hacjjjer ; 
Burtou-ou-Trent, Harris. 

Torilis Anthriscus, Gaertu. Common. 

Clmrophyllum syhestrc, Liun. Common. 

C. teiimlum, Liun. Common. 

Myrrhis odorata, Scop. I. Matlock Bath, Harris ; Cromford ! 
Whatstaudwell ! IV. Breadsall, Whittaker. 

Coniuia maculatum, Linn. IV. Foremark, Harris ; Ockbrook ! 

Hedera Helix, Liuu. Common. 

Cormis sanyuinea,lA\m. I. Miller's Dale, Matlock, irt-si ; Dove 
Dale ! IV. Burtou-ou-Trent, Harris ; Mickleover ! 

Mscum. alhwn, Liun. IV. Morley, Whittaker. 
■ Adoxa Moschatellina, Linn. I. Monsal Dale ! IV. Winshill, 
Harris ; Morley ! 

Samhucus niyra, Liuu. Common. 

Vihurnum Opidus, Linn. I. Charlesworth, Hannan ; Monk's 
Dale, West. IV. Morley, Whittaker ; Breadsall ! 

Lonicera Periclymenum, Liun. Common. 

Galium. Cruciata, With. Common. 

G. verum, Linn. Common. 

G. saxatile, Linn. Common on heaths ! 

G. syhestre, Poll. I. Castleton, West; Ashford Dale, Whiteleyy ; 
Dove Dale ! 

G. palustre, Liuu. Wet moors. 

G. uliginosum, Liun. I. Axe Edge ! 

G. aparine, Liun. Common. 

Aspierula odorata, Liuu. I. Moors ! IV. Eepton Shrubs, Harris. 

Sherardiaarvensis, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, I rf.s/:; Lathkill Dale ! 
rV. Drakelowe ; Linton, Harris ; Derby ! 

Valeriana dioica, Linn. L ViaGellia! IV. Motley, Whittaker ; 
Drakelowe, Harris. 

V. officinalis, Linn. I. Buxton! Dove Dale! IV. Eepton, 
Hayyer; Burtou-ou-Trent, Harris. 

Valerianella olitoria, Mceuch. I. Matlock Bath ! IV. Cauld- 
well, Harris ; Morley ; 

V. dentata, Koch. I. Miller's Dale, West. IV. Cauldwell, 
Harris ; Morley ! Ockbrook ! 

JHpsacits sylvestris, Linn. IV. Chaddesden ! Swarkestone 
Bridge ! Tickuall, Hayyer. 

I), pilusus, Liuu. i. Via Gellia, Whiteleyy. IV. Newton Solney, 
1 1 arris. 

Scabiosa Succisa,'Lmn. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Ockbrook! Grcsley, 
Harris. 

S. Columbaria, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! Buxton ! 



248 THE FLOIU OF DERBYSHIRE. 

S. arvensis, Linn. Common. 

Carduiis nutans, Linn. Common. 

C. crispuK, Linn. Common. Var. acanthoides, Linn. I. Asli- 
wood Dale ! 

C. lanceoJatus, Linn. Common. 

C. palustris, Linn. Common. 

C. hrterojJnjUus, Linn. I. Monk's Dale, West ; Curbar Wood ! 
Ashwood Dale, Buxton ! 

C. arvensis, Curt. Common. 

Carlina vulgaris, Linn. I. Blackwell Dale, Bailey ; Wormhill, 
West ; Axe Edge ! Dove Dale ! 

ArctiwH via jus, Schkwhr. I. AshwoodDale ! MonsalDale! Win- 
natts, Castletou ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Scrratula tinctoria, Linn. I. Buxton, Ilannan ; Wormliill ; 
Matlock, TFfs^. IV. Repton Shrubs, //ar/'/s; Etwall Road, Reptou, 
Haycjer. 

Centaurea nigra, Linn. Common. 

C. Scabiosa, Linn. I. Wormhill ; Matlock, West; Ashwood 
Dale! Dove Dale ! 

Chrysanthemum segetum, Linn. IV. Milton, near Repton, 
Hayger ; Drakelowe, Harris ; Normanton-by-Derby ! 

C. Leucanthemuvi, Linn. Common. 

Matricaria Parthenium, Linn. I. Brambley, Bailey. IV. Newton 
Solney, Harris ; Swarkestono ! 

M. inodura, Linn. I. Baslow, Bailey. IV. Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris ; Morley ! 

Tanacetum vulgare, Linn. IV. Egginton, Harris ; R. Derwent, 
Derby ! 

Anthemis nobilis,ljmn. IV. Ockbrook ! Morley Moor ! 

Achillea Millefolium, Linn. Common. 

A. Ptar mica, Liinn. IV. Willington, Hagger; Gresley, Harris. 
Artemisia vulgaris, Linn. IV. R. Derwent, Derby ! Burtou-on- 

Trent, Harris. 

(jfnaphalium uliginoswn, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; 
Chellaston ! Morley Moor ! 

Lr. sylcaticum, Linn. I. Newhaven ! IV. Osmaston-by-Ash- 
bourne, Smith. 

G. dioicum, Linn. I. Glossop, West ; Axe Edge, Wild. 

Senecio vulgaris, Linn. Common. 

S. sylraticus, Linn. IV. Willington ! Breadsall Moor ! 

S. erucifolius, Linn. I. Matlock Bridge, Hannan. 

S. Jacohfea, Linn. Common. 

S. aquaticus, Huds. Common. 

Bidens cernua, Linn. IV. Locko Park, near Derby ! 

B. tripartita, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; canals, 
Derby ! 

Iinda Covyza, DC. I. Matlock Bath ! 
7. dysenterica, Linn. IV. Common. 
Bellis perennis, Linn. Common. 

SoUdago Virga-aurea, Linn. I. Buxton ! Matlock Bath ! IV. 
Gresley, Harris. 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 



249 



Tussilar/o Farfara, Linn. Common. 

Petasites ruJ^/aris, Desf. Common. 

Evpaturinm caunabinum, Linn. I. Matlock Bath ; Dove Dale ! 
IV. Burton-on -Trent, Harris. 

Lapsana communis, Linn. Common. 

H i/pochrrris radirata, Lmn. IV. Gresley, jf/fl>T<s ; Ockbrook ! 

Leuntodon hisjndiis, Linn. Common. 

L. avtumnalis, Linn. Common. 

Piois liicrariiAdes, Linn. I. Asliwood Dale! Miller's Dale! 
Dove Dale ! IV. Newton Solncy, Harris; common about Derb^y ! 

Trafiopofion jirateiisis, Liinn., \av. minor, Fries. IV. Stapenliill, 
Harris ; Breadsall ! Ockbrook ! 

Taraxacum Dais-lconis, Linn. Common. Var. hpviffatiim. 
IV. Kormanton by-Derby ! 

Lad uai muralis, Fvesen. I. Common on limestone ! IV. Wins- 
liill, Harris ; Morley ! 

Sunckus asper, Hoffm. IV. Stapenliill, Harris; Clicllaston 1 
Swarkestoiie ! 

b. arrmsis, Jainn. IV. Stapenliill, Harris: Ockbrook! 

('rc})is rircns, Linn. Common. 

Hicraciuui PiluscUa, Linn. Common on beallis. 

//. casiuin, Fries. I. Monsal Dale ; Blackwell Dale, Mldtelegg ; 
Castleton, Wliiichcad; Dove Dale ; 

yy. ruh/aUnii, Fries. I. Miller's Dale, M'cst ; Buxton ! Matlock 
Bath ! Dove Dale ! IV. Kepton ! 

H. tridcntatum. Fries. IV. Coton-in-the-Elms, Harris. 

H. jirenanthoidt's, Vill. I. Miller's Dale, Mlatelcfii/. 

H. uuibeUatum, Linn. I. Goyt's Bridge, Buxton ! IV. Eggin- 
ton, Harris ; Willington ! 

H . horcah', Fries. I. Common, Avoods aud heaths. 

Jasimic montana, Linn. I. Ambergate, Harris ; Dove Dale ! 
Duftield ! 

Campanula fflomerata, Linn. I. Bare ! 

('. Traclielium, Linn. I. ]\loiiks Dale, West: Millers Dale, 
J Sail CI/ : Dove Dale ! 

<J. latifolia, Linn. I. Baslow, Jjailc;/ ; Marple, Whitehead ; 
Matlock and Miller's Dale, W\'st ! Cressbrook Dale ! ]\Ionsal Dale ! 
Castleton ! i\. Bepton Bocks, Harris ; Bexiton Shrubs ! 

C. rotundifulia, Linn, Common. 

6'. patula, Linn. IV. Stapenhill, Harris. 

Vacciniuin (Kri/oiccos, Linn. I, Throve Edge, Buxton ! Axe 
Edge ; Coombes Moss, West ; Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

V. Yitis-idaa, Linn. I. Glossop Moors, Baileij ; Axe Edge! 

V. Mi/rtillus, Linn. Common on moors, 

Aictostaphi/los ['ca-nrsi, Wimm. I. Steuior Clough, Kinder 
Scout, Whitehead; near Cock's Bridge, Kinder Scout, Wild. 

Erica 'Petrali.r, Linn. I, IV. Common on moors. 

H. cinerca, Linn. I. Goyt's Clough ! IV. Shirlry Wood, 
Smith, 

L'aUuna rulr/ari-s, Salisb, I, Common on moors. TV. Grosley. 
Hatria. 



Z K 



260 'i'Hl' iM..'>KA UK IJKUitVSHlllK. 

LiilHslriDii rnliimr, Liim. I. Ashford Dale, llannan ; Monk's 
Dale, IFcst, IV. Micklcover ! Bui-tonon-Trent, Harris. 

ErylJmm Ceiitaurium, Pers. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Burtou-ou- 
Trent, Harris ; Ockbrook ! 

Gentiaiia Amarella,hm]\. I. Buxton! Wormliill, If'Vsi; Cncli, 

Whitelei/ff ! 

Puiemonium cccndeum, Linu. I. Buxton! Asliford Dale; 
Youlgreave, naUci/ ; Dove Dale, Purchas ; Chrome Hill, Buxton ! 
IV. Drakelowe, Harris. 

Cojivolrulas arvcnds, Linn. IV. Common. 

C. sepimi, Linn. IV. Common. 

Solanum Dulcamara. Linn. IV. Common. 

Hijosojamus niijer, Linn. I. Over Haddon, IJailei/. IV. Sta- 

penhill, Harris. 

Veriascum Thapsus, Linn. I. Cromford, /irtrm ; Dove Dale I 

IV. Ticknall, Hafnicr. 

V. Lijchnitis, Linn. I. Bare. 
■ V. nicjrum, Linn. I. Alport, BaHeij d- Purchas. 

Scrophularia IJalbisii. Horn. IV. Common. 

S. nodosa, Linn. l\ . Common. 

Digitalis purpurea, Linn. Common. 

Linaria Cymbalaria, Mill. I. Matlock Bath ! 

L. rulfiaris. Mill. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Common. 

L. miiwr, Desf. 1. Miller's Dale, Whitelcyg ; near Peak Forest 
Eailway Station, 117/'/. 

Veronica hederifolia, Linn. IV. Common. 

V. polita, Fries. TV. Ockbrook, Smith ; Milton, Harris. 

V. arp-estis, Linn. IV. Common. 

V. Buxhauwii, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Treut, Harris; Chellaston! 

Derby ! 

r. arvcnsis, Linn. IV. Common. 

V. serpyllifoUa , Linii. Common. 

V. otficinalis, Linn. i. Axe Edge 1 IV. Morley ! Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

Y. Chammlri/s, Linu. Common. 

T'. montana, Linn. IV. Kepton Shrubs, Harris; Dale Abbey 

Woods ! 

V. scutellata,'Linu. I. Coombe's Moss! IV. Burton-on-Trent, 

Harris ; Morley j\Ioor ! 

V. Anagallis, Linn. Common. 

V. Beccahunga, Linn. Common. 

Kuphrasia o'lficinalis, ]jinn. I. Heaths and hilly pastures. 

Bartsia Odontites, Huds. I, IV. Heaths, common. 

Pedicularis paJiistris, lAmi. IV. Eepton Eocks, Harris. 

P. sglratica, Linn. IV. Ockbrook ! Morley ! 

Bhinanthm Crkta-galli, Linn. Common. 

Mclampgrum pratoisr. Linu. Heaths, common. 

Lathrrra S(p(aiiiari(i,hinn. 1. 'MeWor, Ha nnan; Matlock Bath, 
Harris ; Via Gellia ! :\ I on sal Dale ! IV. Dale Abbey Woods ! 

\^'J'o lie cuntimiedj. 



251 
SHOBT NOTES. 



Viola lactea, Sm., in Bucks. — While l)otanisiug with Mr. 
Bolton King, of Balliol College, in Dropmoie Park, on some damp 
heathy ground near the artificial water, we found a few specimens 
of Viola lactea ; in a small pond near, Llttonila lacustris, Feplis 
Portula, and fine Callitriche hamulata wera seen. — G. C. Dkuce. 



Viola arenaeia, DC, and Polygala uliginosa Reich., in 
Teesdale. — In the ' Eeport of the Botanical Record Club for 
1874,' Dr. F. A. Lees speaks of the probability of these two plants 
being extinct. It may therefore interest British botanists to know 
that these Teesdale rarities have been gathered this June by Mr. 
H. T. Mennell. The latter occurs in several places with blue and 
pink flowers. I have living specimens of botli, and also of Alsine 
uliijinosa, Schleich., by Mr. Mennell's kindness, — A. Bennett. 



Zannichellia macrostemon. Gay. — This has been found lately 
in the canal near Oxford, and also in the Thames, growing in 
rather shallow water on muddy bottom. In Northamptonshire 
and Bucks it occurred in the Grand Junction Canal between 
Wolverton and Cosgrove. The aggregate plant is not recorded in 
' Top. Bot.' for either Berks or Bucks, and the above segregate is 
on very sparing record for Britain, although doubtless overlooked. 
Typical palustris is rare in Oxfordshire, but it is found in a brook near 
Headington Wick farm. In Northamptonshire it occurs at Kings- 
thorpe. Potters Pury, Castle Ashby, and Moreton Pinkney. — G. C. 
Dkuce. 

RuBUs spectabilis, Pursh, as a naturalised plant. — This 
shrub, a native of North-West America, conspicuous for its deep 
claret-coloured petals and orange-yellow fruit, has been for years 
naturalised and is largely increasing in a wood not far from 
Handling Park, Hythe, Kent. It may have originally escaped from 
the rectory -gardens at Saltwood, some half mile distant; but it has 
been known by the villagers to occur for thirty or more years in 
the above mentioned locality in a quasi-wild state, and has even 
acquired the local appellation of " The Woodman's Rose." — 
J. CosMo Melvill. 

SciRPus PAUciFLORus IN Berks. — Tliis plant occurs in consider- 
able quantity in some meadows between South Hinksey and the 
Abingdon road, near Oxford, accompanied by lihynchospora alba. — 
G. C. Druce. 

North Buckinghamshire Plants. — The following plants, mostly 
new records to ' Topographical Botany,' have been lately noticed 
in North Bucks, principally near tlie Bedford and Northampton 
boundaries. The district of Brickhill is especially rich, and would 



252 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

doubtless repay systematic search : — Raimnculus parviflorus, L., by 
the road-side near Calvertou, where it was shown me by the Rev. 
H. Wood. — Hellrbnrus fuitidii'^, L., in hedgerows and thickets at 
Hanslope ; and between Yardley Close and Olucy I should be 
inclined to consider it native. — CurijdaUa claviculata, DC, plentiful 
in Bow Brickhill woods. — Canhnnine aniara, L., very frequent by 
canal- side near Wt)lverton. — Apinm (jraveolens, L., brook between 
Walton and Bow Brickhill, also near Simpson and Woughtou. — 
TriJ'oJium vicdium, L., thicket by road-side near Denbighhall. — 
Sednm Fabarin, L., Bow Brickhill woods. — Rosa tomenteJla, Leman, 
hedge at Beachampton. — Rosa dinnalis, Bech., and R. urhica, W., 
Calverton hedgerow, rather common in many places. — Pi/nis 
comniunis, L., Woughton on the Green hedgerow. — Valeriana 
Mikanii is the commoner segregate in the portions of Bucks I have 
been over. — Vaccmium Mi/rtillus, L., Bow Brickhill woods. — Riimex 
nemorosus, Schrad., Leckhampstead. — Salixfrar/ilis, L., near 
Beachampton, Ouse side. — S. cinerea, L., Bow Brickhill woods. — ■ 
Ophnjs apifera, Huds., rail-banks near Denbigh-hall. — Putamofjeton 
zosterafolius, Schum., Grand .Junction Canal between Wolverton 
and Cosgrove (Bucks and Northampton), with P. mucronatus and 
P. pectinatus. — P. natans, E. B., pond near Bletchley, Beachampton, 
&c. — J uncus fflaucus, Sibth., common and generally distributed. — 
Scirjnts setaceus, L., Bow Brickhill woods. — Carer panicea, L., 
Hanslope rail-banks. — C. pcndula, L., in a lane near Hanslope. — 
Aira prcEcox, L., Bow* Brickhill. — Charafcetida, L., canal, Wolverton. 
— G. C. Druce. 



Extracts anJj Notices of BooUs antr iitcmoivs. 

OFFICIAL REPORT FOR 1S80 OF THE DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY 
IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM. 

By W. Carruthees, F.E.S. 

The ordinary work of the Department has iiecessarily been in- 
terrupted by the preparations for, and the actual removal of the 
collections to the New Museum, and by the subsequent arranging 
of the collections in the galleries allocated to the Department in 
the new building. The Herbarium was inaccessible to scientific 
men only during the two weeks when it was being transported 
from Bloomsbury to Kensington. The collection of fruits and 
seeds has been placed alongside of the plants in the great 
Herbarium, and arranged in the same order. Owing to the want of 
fittings in the public gallery, only a small portion of the exhibited 
collections were transferred to Kensington in ISSO. 

Attention has been given to the formation of a good working 
librai'y for the Department, rendered necessary by the separation 
of the collections from the Museum Library. Considerable time 
has been spent in selecting and collating suitable books. An im- 
portant addition to the library was received from John W. Miers, 
Esq., who presented the works which his father, the late .John 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICKS. 



258 



Miers, F.R.S., used when engaged on the numerous botanical 
memoirs he pubhshed. These works were annotated by him in 
rehition to the plants in his herbarium, which was bequeathed to 
the trustees, and became thair property in 1879. Sixty eight 
works, many of tliem voluminous and expensive illustrated publi- 
cations, were presented by Mr. Miers, who desired that the books 
and plants should remain associated. 

While continuous work in the Herbarium has not been possible, 
many small collections have been incorporated during the year, 
especially of plants belonging to the Natural Orders Sterculua-cie, 
liesedaceic, Crnci/mc, and Gentianaccw. The plants of Chelsea 
Gardens have been mounted and incorporated with the Herbarium. 
In the course of the work the following Natural Orders have been 
more or less re-an-anged : — Cappandece, MalcacecF, Ihdnacecc, 
Urchidece, Miisci, Ali/ce, and Fungi. 

There have been added to tlie Herbarium during the year a 
valuable collection of plants from the Kurrum Valley, Afghanistan, 
consisting of 422 species, formed and presented by Dr. J. E. T. 
Aitchison ; 125 species of plants from Java, collected by Forbes ; 
725 species of plants from Astrakan ; 151 species of plants from 
Songoria, collected by Schrenk ; an interesting collection from 
Natal, by the Rev. W. Greenstock ; a small collection from the 
Sierra Nevada, Cohmibia, made by F. A. Simmons; a collection 
from Guatemala, made by Keck, and from the Argentine Republic, 
by Hieronymus ; 984: plants of Northern Africa, collected by Gan- 
doger; 4G8 species from the South of Spain, collected by Huter, 
Porta, and Rigo ; 443 species from Italy, collected by Strobl ; and 
200 species from Sicily, collected by Lojacona. To the collection 
of cryptogamic plants have been added 144 species of Ferns from 
Madagascar, collected by the Rev. G. Shaw ; 50 species from 
Trinidad, collected by Feudler, and 150 species from Italy, in con- 
tinuation of the collections of the Cryptogamic Society; a small 
series of Hcjiatlccc, in continuation from Rabenhorst, and 100 
mosses from Fiedler ; 100 species of European Lichens, by Raben- 
horst ; and 150 from Egypt, collected by Larbalestier ; oOO species 
of European Algfe, collected and named by Le Joli ; a small col- 
lection by Rabenhorst, and another of Scandinavian species, by 
Wittrock and Nordstedt ; 400 species of Fungi, by Thuemen ; 120 
species by Spegazzini ; 100 species by Rehm ; 100 species by 
Oiideman ; and the same same number from Kunze. 

To the British Herbarium there have been added during the 
year a large collection of the plants of Oxfordshire, formed by the 
late Alfred French, and consisting of 2482 specimens ; autl the 
important Herbarium of Lichens, formed by Mr. \V. Joshua, con- 
taining 97G species (a small proportion being European), repre- 
sented by 1500 labelled specimens. In addition to these, there 
have been acquired a com[)lete set of Dr. Cocks's AlgJE, ccmsisting 
of 180 species, and a similar set of Chalmers's Scottish Algaj, con- 
sisting of 100 species ; and a collection of 350 species of Lichens, 
found by Larbalestier. 

To the histological collection there have been added 120 



254 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

preparations of Fungi, by Zimmerman, and 189 preparations of 
cellular plants by Joshua. 

The collection of fruits and seeds has received a series of fruits 
from Java, from Mr. Forbes, including fine specimens of Pandanus 
nuicrocarjius. 

To the collection of objects suitable for exhibition have been 
added a large specimen of WelwitscJna viirahiiis, stems of Ci/ccis 
revolutii, and of a Xanthorrhea, a section of the stem of Borassiis 
(EtldopicuH, a fine leaf of (Jorijpha umbniculifera, a branch with 
cones of Finns Edfiarimia, and several specimens of wood presented 
by Sir Joseph D. Hooker, Director of Kew Gardens ; 303 specimens 
of Indian woods from the India Museum, through the Director of 
Kew Garders ; stems of Areca concinna, Bauhinia scandrns, Entada 
scandnis, Flacourtia Cutaphracta, Anamirtd ('(iccniiis, Carallia intcijer- 
rinni, Desiiumcus major, Daniaiiorops Jilcire, Cdhivuis rudentnm, Ficus 
elastica, and Bomhax vialabaricnni, and the rhizome and stem of 
Bambusd Thoiiarsii, presented by Dr. Trimen, Director of the 
Botanic Gardens, Peradenya, Ceylon ; stems of Metroxijlon hsve, 
(,'i/cas circlnalis, Areca Catcclni, and Also/dtila, and specimens of 
Myrmecodia from Java, collected by Mr. Forbes. 

The collection of drawings and engravings of plants has been 
considerably increased during the year. A large series, formed by 
the late W. Wilson Saunders, was purchased, and is being incor- 
porated with the general collection, together with 2517 further 
drawings and engravings. Five volumes, containing 928 original 
drawings of the ramifications of plants, made by John Miller for 
John, Earl of Bute, have been acquired; and twenty-five original 
drawings of Fungi by W. G. Smith. 

The number of visits paid during the year to the Herbarium 
for scientific inquiry and research was 788. The following foreign 
botanists may be specified as having used the Herbarium in con- 
nection with their investigations: — M. A. DeCandolle, of Geneva; 
Prof. Asa Gray, of America ; Prof. Engler, of Kiel ; Dr. Hauss- 
kneclit, of Weimar; Dr. Piehman, of Cracow; Baron Ettingshau sen, 
of Gratz ; and the Piev. L. Menyharth, of Innsbruck. Of British 
botanists, the following may be specified : — Mr. J. G. P)aker, Mr. 

A. W. Bennett, Mr. A. Bennett, Mr. Bisset, Dr. Braithwaite, Mr. C. 

B. Clarke, Eev. J. M. Crombie, the :\Iessrs. Groves, Mr. W. P. 
Hiern, Mr. E. M. Holmes, Mr. Howse, 'Mv. B. Davdon Jackson, 
Mr. J. C. Mansel-Pleydell, Mr. S. le M. Moore, and the Rev. W. 
W. Newbould. 

Mr. W\ B. Hemsley has begun to publish, in the ' Gardeners' 
Chronicle,' a "List of Garden Orchids." which bids fair to be 
a very useful compilation. Tlie arrangenu'nt of the genera is that 
which will be adopted in the ' Genera PLintarum,' beginning with 
Plcuruthallis ; and Mr. Hemsley has been fortunate in obtaining the 
help of Mr. Bentham, who has " most generously placed the whole 
of his references, together with the manuscript descriptions of the 
genera, at the disposal of the compiler." The arrangement of the 
species is alphabetical. 



EXTKACTS AND NOTICES. 255 

The third volume of the ' Monographiiie Phauerogarum," of the 
MM. DeCaudolle, just issued, contains the following monographs : 
— Phili/draceif, by Professor Caruel ; Alisiiiacefr, Butomacetc, and 
fhmcac/uiecE, by M. Micheli ; ('ummeUnacecc, by Mr. C.B. Clarke ; and 
CucurbitaceiE, by M. A. Cogniaux. 

Two further Supplements to Baron von Mueller's ' Fragmenta ' 
have reached us, the first containing an enumeration of Australian 
CharacecE, compiled from Brauu's writings ; of Mosses, by Hampe 
(his last work) ; of Hepaticce, by Gottsche ; and of Lichens, by 
Krempelhuber : the second containing a list of the Fungi, compiled 
by Dr. Cooke, with subsequent additions by Baron von Mueller. 

Under the title ' Tavole per una Anatomia delle Piante Aqua- 
ticlio,' some very beautiful plates have been published at Florence 
under the superintendence of Prof. Caruel. They were designed for 
a work by the late Prof. Parlatore, which he did not live to complete. 

We are glad to announce the appearance of the thu-d i)art of 
Nyman's admirable ' Conspectus Florie EuropjBa?,' in wliich the 
enumeration is carried to tiie end of the Dicotyledons. One more 
part Vv'ill complete the work, to which we hope a full index will 
be added. 

New Books. — A. k. C. DeCandolle, ' Mouographite Phanero- 
garum,' vol. iii. (Paris, Masson, 30fr.). — C. F. Nyhan, ' Conspectus 
Florae Europiea3,' pt. iii. iCorullijionr — MoHoc/iliinn/dcit). — L. Giesen- 
HEYNEK, 'Flora von Kreuznach (Kreuznach, iSchmithals). — P. 
Sydow, ' Die Moose Deutchslands ' (Berlin, Stubenrauch). — E. Fiek, 
' Flora von Schlesien ' (Breslau, Kern). — S. Schlitzdeeger, ' Stand- 
punkt und Fortschrift dcr Wissenschaft in der Mykologie ' (Berlin, 
Stubenrauch). 

Articles in Journals. — June. 

Vxitanical (jaiette. — E. L. Greene, 'New Plants of iS'ew Mexico 
and Arizora ' (Vicia hucoplura, J'/taneolus jmrriilKs, I'olciinyiiiuni 
Jlariuu, Pcntstevion pniicifJonts, /'. jnni/oUiis, I luliiiiaiiii lircrifnlid, 
spp. nov.). — G. Engelmann, ' Additions to North American Flora ' 
[J>icentra oc/iroleuca, Tsuiia cayuUniana_ Yucca macmcurpn, Jtincusru- 
iiulusiis, spp. nov.). — C. H. Peck, ' New species of Fungi ' [Puccinid). 

Pot. Zeitunij. — H. Hoffmann, ' Eetrospect of Piesearches in 
Variation in 1855-1880.' — J. Wiirtmann, 'On the Biology of 
Mucoi-'umc.' — F. A. Tocherning, ' On the Embryo of CncurhUacCiP.' 

Flora (May). — F. Arnold, ' Lichcnological Fragments' (con- 
cluded). — J. Freyer, ' Phytographical Notices' [Achillea jililoho, 
Cardans xanlliacanthus, I licrariiiiii (isjicralinii, spp. nov). — F. M. 
Fries, ' Notes on Ehrhart's Lichens.' — J. Miillor, ' Lichenological 
Studies.' — Diagnoses of Thiinicn's ' Mycotlieca Universalis.' — 
(June). C. Nurner, ' On the development of the Embryo in 
(jramiiirif' (Itt.). — Diagnoses of Thiimen's ' Mycotheca Univer- 
salis ' (concluded). 

Hedwit/ia (May). — G. Winter, 'Notes ou Discunn/celes.' — (June). 
P. Richter, ' On Diatomacea:.' 



266 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

Journal of Linnenn Sodctij (Botany, vol. xviii. no. 112, June 3). 
— F. Darwin, ' On the Position of Leaves with regard to Light.' — 
G. Jlenslow, ' Proliferous condition of Verhascum. nii/nim'' (2 tt.). — 
W. JJidie, ' On tlie Indian Cofiee-leaf Disease.'— M. 'C. Cooke, ' The 
Coffee-leaf Disease in S. America' (2 tab.). — A. C. Christie, 
' Stipules in Th'.v Aquijnliitm.'' — C. P. Clarke, ' On Right hand and 
Left-hand Contortion .' 

Journal of lloi/nl Microscopical Socirty. — W. H. Shruhsole and 
F. Kitton, ' The Diatoms of the Loudon Clay.' 

yaturalist. — W. West, 'Yorkshire Naturalists' Union Crypto- 
gamic Eeport for 1880.' 

(Ksterr. Bot. ZeiUclirij't. — T. F. llanausek, 'On the fruit of 
Euchlaenn luxurlans: — Heidenreich, ' A Carex (C. ritilis) new to N. 
Germany.' — S. H. v. Muggenburg, ' Mycological Notes,' — H. 
Bteininger, ' Flora of the Podenweis ' (concluded). — P. Hinteuis, 
' Cyprus and its Flora ' (continued). — P. G. Strobl, ' Flora of Etna ' 
(conthiued). 



Botanical ^ith^ss. 



British botanists will learn with deep regret that Mr. H. C. 
Watson died at Thames Dittoii on the 27th of last month. We 
hope to give an extended notice of this eminent botanical writer in 
an early number. 

Dr. Asa Gray, the veteran American botanist, is staying in 
England for the summer, and is working assiduously at the National 
Herbarium, South Kensington, and the Herbarium of the Eoyal 
Gardens, Ivew. 

Prof. Babington has been appointed President of the Cambrian 
ArchfBological Society. We are glad to learn that a new edition (the 
eighth) of his ' Manual of British Botany' is in active preparation. 

We regret to announce the death, in Madagascar, of Dr. J. IM. 
H[ldebrandt, the well-known botanical traveller. 

A Free Library has been opened at Ftiehmond, SiuTcy, being 
the first which has been established within the London radius 
under the Free Public Libraries Act. The income being very 
small, it has been cndenvoured. with considerable success, to supple- 
ment it by donations of books ; and several of the more important 
literary societies have contributed their publications. The number 
of scientific books of reference at present upon the shelves is 
comparatively small and inadequate, and we gladly call the attention 
of our readers to the circumstance in the liope that some among 
them may contribute to remedy this deficiency. The Editor of this 
Journal will be glad to receive and acknowh clge any contributions ; 
or they may be sent direct to the Librarian, Mr. A. Cotgreave, 
Free Public Library, Eichmond, Surrey. 



257 



(J^vicjiUial ^rlicics). 



IN MEMOliY OF HEWETT COTTRELL WATSON. 
By J. G. Bakek, F.R.S. 

We have this month to moiu-u the loss of our veteran English 
botanical geographer, Hewett Cottkell Watson, who died at his 
residence at Thames Ditton, near Kingston, on Wednesday, the 
27th of July, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. Shortly before 
Christmas he had an accident whilst working in his garden ; he 
stepped backward against a heap of soil and rubbish which he did 
not notice, and injured his foot and leg, which was lame before. 
Acute inflammation set in, which resulted in gangrene, and he had 
been confined to his bedi-oom ever since Christmas ; and, although 
until the last fortnight he had been able to dress and lie on the 
sofa during the day, at times he suffered great pain, and his 
strength became gradually exhausted. 

He w^as born in the month of May, 1804, at Firbeck, a village 
on the Yorkshire side of the boundary betwx'en that county and 
Nottinghamshire, not far from W'orksop. When he was six years 
old the family removed to Congleton, in Cheshii-e. His father was 
Holland Watson, a country gentleman of antiquarian tastes and a 
magistrate for the counties both of Cheshire and Lancashire. On 
his mother's side he was descended fi'om the Lords Folliott, of 
Ballyshaunon. But, although upon both sides he could trace back 
his descent for many generations through ancestors of good social 
position, he W'as from a very early period of his life an uncom- 
promising democrat, not merely passively and theoretically, but 
takmg a lively active interest in political affairs. Li Mid- Surrey, 
where he lived for the last forty years of his life, he was one of the 
most active supporters of the liberal side in an overwhelmmgly tory 
constituency; and one his of last acts was to undertake a canvass 
fi-om house to house of his parish at the election of last year. In 
matters theological his views — which were much less common forty 
years ago than they are now — were of the advanced broad school. 
The society in w^hich he moved was principally composed of men 
of very different opinions ; and, as he delighted to speak out his 
mind freely, he was constantly drawn into animated arguments on 
social and pohtical questions, in wdiich, with his ready sarcasm and 
great command of illustrative recollections and anecdotes, no one 
was better qualified to hold Ids own against all comers. 

When he was a cliild, Dr. Stanley, afterwards Bishop of 
Norwich, was the rector of the neighbouring parisli of Aklerley, 
and Mr. Watson always considered that it was from him that his 

N. S. VOL. 10. [SEPTEMliKK, 1881. J 2 I. 



258 heweTt coTniKj.h Watson. 

love for Botany got its first encouragement. "During my school- 
days," he wrote, "a boyish fancy for plants and fioriculturo, which 
I had early inherited, attracted the favourable notice of Dr. Stanley, 
whose opportune instruction and encouragement gave a scientific 
direction to the taste, and rendered it the solace and relief of the 
child during a period of protracted bodily sufiering. The dh-ection 
once given was never wholly lost, though discouraged in my own 
home and the means of improvement withheld under mistaken 
views." The late Dean Stanley was one of his schoolfelloAvs, and 
as he was a frail delicate child, Mr. Watson, who was ten years 
older, often gave him cakes and interfered for his protection. 

At first he was intended for the army, but at an early age an 
accident from a cricket bat, which ruined in permanence the joint 
of one of his knees, put a stop to this. His father wished him to 
be a lawyer, but, although he followed up for some time the 
necessary studies, the idea was never congenial to his own mind. 
When he was about twenty-two, the bequest of a small estate in 
Derbyshire from a member of his mother's family placed him in 
what for a man of his simple habits were independent circum- 
stances. Upon this he removed to Edinburgh, where he stayed 
for several years, attending the ordinary classes of the medical 
curriculum, and giving special attention to Botany and Physiology. 
Just as he was going up for his examination his health broke down, 
and he was not able to go up for his degree ; and, as he did not 
wish to practice, he never took it. After travelling about for some 
time he purchased, about 1835, a small house (which he afterwards 
enlarged) with a x^leasant garden and orchard attached to it, a 
short distance north of the village of Thames Ditton, a stone' s- 
throw from the point where the branch to Hampton Court leaves 
the main London and South Western line ; and here he lived for 
the remainder of his life. He never married, but was fortunate in 
that the same housekeeper who came to him when he first settled 
down in a house of his own remained with him for the whole forty- 
six years, and nursed him through his last tedious illness. 

During his Edinburgh studentship he took great interest in the 
lectures of Professor Graham, whom he accompanied in an 
excm-sion into Sutherlandshire. Amongst his Edinburgh con- 
temporaries who took special interest in Botany were Dr. Balfour, 
Dr. Greville, Dr. Patrick Neill, Sir Walter Trevelyan, and Mr. 
Embleton ; and in those early days when he first settled down 
definitely into botanical work no one did more to help and 
encourage him than Sir William Hooker, to whom Dr. Graham 
gave him an introduction, who was then in the full tide of his pro- 
fessional career at Glasgow. He accompanied Sir William and his 
class upon several of their Highland excursions, and dedicated to 
him ' The New Botanist's Guide,' which he published in 1835. 

The following is what George Combe wrote of Mr. Watson in 
1846, when he was a candidate for one of the Professorships in the 
four Queen's Colleges, then just established in Ireland: — "Mr. 
H. C. Watson became known to me nearly twenty years ago, when 
he studied in this city, and my acquaintance with him has been 



HEWETT COTTRELL WATSON. 259 

continued to the present time. As a student he was characterized 
by steady application, great aptitude in acquiring knowledge, and 
a comprehensive power of appreciating its relations. He devoted 
his attention to the various branches of science usually included in 
the curriculum for a medical degree, and was elected by his fellow- 
students President of the Royal Medical Society of Edinburgh, in 
which office he distinguished himself by superior abilities and 
attainments. Judging from his writings, conversation, and corre- 
spondence, I have no hesitation in saying that his intellect is 
acute, exact, profound, comprehensive, and logical in no ordinary 
degree. He combines the powers of accurate observation, analysis, 
and induction, with the power of clear expression ; and his manner 
of communicating the great and valuable store of scientific infor- 
mation which he possesses is at at once lucid and logical. I have 
considered his personal friendship as a source of pleasure and 
advantage ever since 1 knew him, and shall consider any College 
or University fortunate that shall enrol him amongst its professors 
in the branch of science to which he has devoted his chief 
attention — Botany. ' ' 

The followmg is Sir J. D. Hooker's testimonial of the same 
date : — " Mr. H. C. Watson has been personally known to me for 
nearly fourteen years as a zealous and excellent botanist, from 
whose writings and experience I have derived great instruction. 
His knowledge of plants is very extensive, and of European, 
especially British, species, complete, and acquired by actual 
investigation. In the departments of physiological, structural, and 
systematic Botany he is well grounded ; and his numerous works 
on that of Geographical Botany are pronounced by all to be of the 
highest order. Mr. Watson's education, general information, and 
gentlemanly manners, together with his desire of, and facility in, 
imparting information are so obvious, that his society was greatly 
desired both by the professors and students in Botany in Edinburgh 
and Glasgow, during the many seasons when as a distinguished 
student of Dr. Graham he devoted himself to the study of the 
geographical distribution of the British Flora." 

As a waiter on the geographical distribution of the British 
plants his books extend over more than forty years, beginning with 
1882, when he was twenty-eight years old, and ending with 1874. 
From first to last, so far as Botany was concerned, he concentrated 
his attention upon this special field, and worked at it with 
unremitting diligence and patience. The paragraph from Hcrschell 
which he chose as a motto for the ' Cybclo ' indicates with charac- 
teristic clearness the spirit in which he worked : — " There is 
scarcely any well-informed person who, if he has but tlie will, has 
not also the power to add something essential to the general stock 
of knowledge, if he will only observe regularly and nu-thodically 
some particular class of facts which may most excite his attention 
or whicli his situation may best enable him to study with clTect." 
And although as a general proposition one may reasonably demur 
to it as an overstatement, there can be no question that in his own 
particular case it was carried into effect with signal completeness. 



2GU JIEWKTT CvJTTIUCLL WATSON. 

When he took iip the subject in 1832, tlic principal notion in 
registering plant-stations was to guide collectors to the places 
where they could gather the species. When he published the last 
volume of 'Topographical Botany' in 1874, the distribution of 
British plants from all possible points of view was so thoroughly 
searched out and placed on record that all that remains for his 
successors is to fill in a few small points of detail. His first work, 
' Outlines of the Distribution of British Plants belonging to the 
division Vasculares,' is a small octavo of 834 pages, which was 
printed in Edinburgh in 1832 for private distribution. Under the 
title of ' Remarks on the Distribution of British Plants, chiefly in con- 
nection with Latitude, Elevation, and Climate,' what may be con- 
sidered as another edition of the same work was published in London 
by Longmans in 1835. It was translated into German by Beilschmidt 
in 1837, and acknowledged by the German botanists by a diploma 
of membership from the Imperial L.-C. Academy ' Nature 
Curiosorum,' of which Nees von Esenbeck was at that time the 
president. In the same year (1835) Mr. Watson published the 
first volume of the ' New Botanist's Guide,' and the second followed 
in 1837. This is planned upon the lines of the ' Botanist's Guide' 
of Tiu-ner and Dillwyu, and enumerates the special localities of the 
rare plants of England and Scotland, taking them county by county. 
In 1843 he issued the first part of a much more elaborate work on 
the plan of the outlines. This was only carried out through the 
series of plants, foUowmg the Candollean sequence of orders, as far 
down as Papaverace(£ ; when, the plan being found to be too cumbrous, 
the work was not carried on. The first volume of his inaijnuin opits, 
' Cybele Britannica,' appeared in 1847, and it was followed by 
volume ii. in 1849, volume iii. in 1852, and volume iv. in 1859. 
It was his own original idea to apply the term Cijlicle to a 
systematic treatise on the geography of the plants of any particular 
country, applying it as parallel to the term Floni, which has been 
used for a long time for a systematic description of the orders, 
genera, and species of any given tract. It is in the ' Cybele' that 
we have his j)lans for registering the details of plant-distribution 
brought out and used in their full development. These of course 
are so familiar to most of those who will read this notice that it 
seems almost a work of supererogation to explain them. To each 
individual species he applies, at it were, four different measuring 
scales, each adapted to register its distribution from a different 
point of view. To record its range of station he uses a series of 
adjectival terms, such as agrestal, paludal, glareal, sylvestral, &c. 
To register the horizontal distribution of the species he divides 
Britain into eighteen provinces, founded as far as possible on river- 
drainage. Yorkshire is the only county that claims a province to 
itself. The Peninsula province includes the three counties of 
Cornwall, Devonshire, and Somerset, and so on through the series. 
He traces the distribution of the species through these eighteen 
j)roviuces by giving under each name a line of figures showing in 
which province that particular species grows, For fuller detail, to 
be used in local work, these provinces were afterwards subdivided 



HEWETT COTTRELL WATSON. 



2GI 



into 38 snbprovinces and 112 counties or vice-counties. Tlie 
vertical range of the siiecies lie registers by means of two regions of 
climate and altitude, each divided into three zones. The Agrarian 
region includes that j^art of Britain in which it is possible, so far as 
climate is concerned, to cultivate the cereal grasses and potatoes. 
It of course hicludes the whole area of the island at sea-level from 
north to south ; and the hills up to about 600 yards in the North 
of England, and 400 yards in the North of Scotland. All above 
this is mountain, heather, and rock, with a temperature like that 
of the low levels in Arctic latitudes. This upper region he called 
the Arctic region, and the zones Superarctic, Midarctic and Infer- 
arctic, Superagrarian, Midagrarian and Inferagrian. The Infer- 
agrarian zone, for instance, includes all the low-level country south 
of the estuaries of the Humber and the Mersey. He estimated that 
average annual temperature sinks at the rate of one degree 
Fahrenheit for every hundred yards of elevation, and that in 
Britain the range of mean annual temperature is from 52° to 84'', 
which makes a zone to be equal on an average to three degrees of 
Fahrenheit's scale. Then he deals with each species from a 
historical point of view, classifying them into Natives, Colonists, 
Denizens, and Aliens, according to whether they appear to have 
come into the country without man's help, or to have been intro- 
duced by human agency acting directly or indirectly. And finally 
he separates out the species into their types of distribution, British, 
English, Atlantic, Germanic, Scotch, or Highland, according to 
whether they preponderate in some particular part of the island 
or are dispersed, broadly speaking, through the whole of it. In a 
' Supplement of the Cybele,' which came out in 1860, the horizontal 
range of the species is traced out through the thirty-eight sub- 
provinces. In the three volumes of the ' Compendium' (1868-1870) 
a mass of additional information obtained after the publication of 
the ' Cybele ' is incorporated, and the distribution of the species 
beyond the bounds of Britain worked out. And finally, in 
' Topographical Botany,' 2 volumes, 1873-1874, the horizontal 
distribution of the species is traced through the 112 vice-counties. 
Altogether the earlier small octavos run on to about sixteen 
hundi'cd pages, and the later volumes of larger size to four 
thousand pages ; these were printed entirely at his own expense and 
in most cases never offered for sale at all, but given away to the 
public scientific libraries and those correspondents wlio had helped 
him by sending catalogues or specimens, or who were known to 
him as being interested in the subject. 

Cautious and unspeculative as he was to an extreme degree in 
his theoretical conclusions in scientific matters, there was one 
point bearing upon the evolution theory which attracted his 
attention from an early date, and on which he strongly advocated 
the views winch are now generally current huig before Darwin 
made them popular. At a time when all our leading systcmatists 
were dealing with species as if they possessed a clearly-marked 
and definitely separable individuality, their miccrtainty and their 
inequality formed one of his I'avourite theses. An article on the 



262 IIEWETT COTTKELL WATSON. 

subject, which he wrote in the ' Phytologist ' for 1845, will be 
found reprinted in ' Cybcle,' vol. iv., p. 59, and a full statement of 
his views on this subject in ' Cybele,' vol. iv., pp. 35 to 52. At 
one time he was a copious contributor to the periodical journals 
which take Botany as a subject partially or wholly. His principal 
papers are to be found in Loudon's ' Magazine of Natural History,' 
in Sir Wm. Hooker's ' London Journal of Botany,' in the old 
series of the ' Phytologist,' which dates from 1841 to 1854, and 
in the earlier volumes of this Journal. In the ' Pliytologist' he 
wrote not unfrequently reviews and anonymous notices, but in 
his case anonymity is a very thin veil. His last word in print 
was the letter to Mr. Newbould on the subject of the authorship of 
third edition of 'English Botany,' which appeared at page 8U of 
this Journal for March of the present year. 

He was the main stay of the London Botanical Society, as Dr. 
J. E. Gray and Mr. G. E. Demies have borne testimony in print. 
He did not join for some time after its commencement, but for 
several years he was the only good critical botanist amongst the 
resident London members, and all the parcels were sent down to 
Thames Ditton for him to supervise. When Dr. Boswell under- 
took the curatorship, this of course was no longer necessary. The 
' London Catalogue of British Plants ' is now in its seventh 
edition. The earlier editions were, I believe, almost entirely 
drawn up by Mr. Watson, whilst in the later ones he had Dr. 
Boswell's aid. The only excursion beyond the bounds of Britain 
which he ever undertook was a trij? to the Azores in the summer 
of 1842. From their position far out in the Atlantic, about mid- 
way between Europe and America, the flora and fauna of these 
islands possess a peculiar interest. A surveying expedition was 
planned by the English Government, and the war steamer Styx 
detailed for the service, and notice was given to Sir Wm. Hooker 
that a botanist would be allowed a place on board if he would 
himself defray all the necessary expenses incident on his explora- 
tions. Sir William communicated with Mr. Watson, and he 
undertook the post on these conditions. Though much hampered 
in carrying out his plans by the martinet ways of the captain, and 
being able to visit only four out of the nine larger islands, he 
made a collection of 338 out of a total flora of under 500 species, 
about one hundred of which were not knoWn in the group before, 
several of them being new to science. Through this visit he in- 
troduced into cultivation several of the more interesting endemic 
Azoric plants, such as CamjKOiuli Vidalii and Myoaotis azorica. 
When in 1870 Mr. Godman planned a complete natural history of 
the Archipelago, Mr. Watson wrote for him the botanical part of 
the work, which is not only valuable as a scientific production, but 
is in style eminently characteristic of its author. 

During his early years, long before railway times, he made 
many excursions in different parts of Britain, especially for the 
purpose of tracing out the vertical range of plants in the moun- 
tainous districts, a subject to Avhicli very little attention had been 
ju'eviously paid. A great part of what is given in the ' Cybele ' 



HEWETT COTTRELL WATSON. 263 

under this head is the result of his own field-work. For the last 
thirty years of his life he travelled very little, aud for many years 
hefore his death never spent a night away from his own house. 
For many years he sent regularly to the Botanical Society and 
Exchange Club a large supply of the rarer plants that came 
within the range of his daily excursions, selected and dried with 
characteristic care. His own British herbarium is a large one, 
and possesses a special relation to the ' Cybele,' as he laid in the 
specimens mainly to exhibit not so much the characters as the 
geographical range of the species. When ' Topographical Botany ' 
was finished, he entertained at one time the notion of making a 
' Xunc dimittis' bonfire of his herbarium, but we all of us, from 
Sir Joseph Hooker aud M. Alphonse DeCaudolle downward, pro- 
tested energetically against the carrying out of the idea, and it 
was finally settled that on his death it should be offered to Kew. 
One of the special instructions which he has given to me, as his 
executor, is that upon his death all his botanical manuscripts were 
to be burnt. At one time he gathered together and cultivated a 
large number of the rarer and more critical British plants, and to 
the end his garden was to him a great source of pleasure and 
interest. A biographical notice would certainly be very incom- 
plete which did not take count of his merits as a writer of letters. 
His letters were always thought out carefully, and so full of matter 
so pithily expressed that, as one who is peculiarly Avell qualified to 
judge remarked at his funeral, a selection from them would be 
worth publishing on literary grounds alone. 

Next to Botany, the subject that most engaged his attention 
was Phrenology. Whilst studying at Edinburgh he made the 
acquaintance of George Combe (wdiose estimate of his character 
and capabilities I have already cited), and, through him, of his 
brother Andrew and Dr. Spurzheim. This is not the place to 
attempt an appreciation of his work in this field, and I am not in 
the least qualified to deal with the subject. He always maintained 
that Phrenology rested on a sound scientific basis. His two 
phrenological works are ' Statistics of Phrenology, being an 
account of the progress and present state of that science in the 
British isles,' published in 188G, and a controversial pamphlet in 
reply to an attack by Mr. Scott on Combe's ' Constitution of Man.' 
He edited the 'Phrenological Journal' from 1830 to 1840, and 
wrote various articles in it at other times. His reason for giving 
up the editorship, as stated in ' Men of the Time,' is so charac- 
teristic, that I cannot forbear citing it. 

" For some years he edited the ' Phrenological Journal,' but 
eventually withdrew from it, on finding that grave oiTeuce was 
given to more zealous advocates of that study, through his too 
freely pointing out the imperfect character of its evidences and 
definitions, and the need of more exact investigations." 

In early life he devoted a good deal of attention to Entomology, 
and made a collection of upwards of a thousand J>ritisii and eight 
hundred exotic species of insects. As he gradually settled down 
to Geographical Botany, he gave up insect collecting, ami in 1831 



264 HEWKTT C'OTTKKLL, WATSON". 

sent the collection to Sir J. D. Hooker, who was thirteen or 
fourteen years his junior. It is interesting to notice that our 
leading botanists of the present time, Sir Joseph Hooker, 
Professor Babington, Dr. Boswell, and Mr. Watson, were all 
ardent entomologists before they finally settled down to Uotany. 

He was a man of great individuality and of many-sided 
character, and I have often been amused to note how differently 
different people estimated him, according to the parts of his dis- 
position with which they had been brought in contact. From a 
scientific point of view, he finished the task which in early life he 
set himself to accomplish with admirable perspiicacity and com- 
pleteness. When M. Alphonse DeCandolle lately made out a list 
of botanical epochs, he counted the publication of the ' Cybele ' as 
one of them. But in some ways it was not the l)est part of his 
disposition that his published writings show. With him botanical 
geography is not simply a gathering together of statistics, and a 
working out of impersonal theoretical conclusions. His fondness 
for character-analysis led him so readily from plants to people 
that he did not always remember how it might pain a man to see 
his little weakness and shortcomings pilloried in print. He loved 
an argument like a man who can ride well loves a gallop on a 
spirited horse. He was accurate and clear-headed to a wonderful 
degree ; he had a splendid memory, he was unimaginative, and 
never worked in a hurry ; and all this made him impatient of other 
people's bungling and blundering. He was a pioneer, and in 
making a firm macadamised road he had much rubbish to shovel 
away. He was a man of warm temper and strong prejudices ; and 
if he once got a notion that a man was radically careless or con- 
ceited, he did not sj)are to slash at him in print whenever his 
name turned up. One of his pet prejudices was an objection to 
new names for plants, and the name-givers were a favourite 
target for his arrows. And thus it comes that those old papers in 
the ' Phytologist ' and the tail-paragraphs in the geographical books 
are often full of lively personal interest. " Ah !" he said more 
than once during the latter years of his life, as we talked over 
these things on the quiet Sunday afternoons, " they read too 
bitter. You don't know what it is to have a large organ of 
destructiveness." 

But this same slashing critic was in some ways almost mor- 
bidly self-distrustful and considerate of other people's feelings, 
xllthough he wrote so much, he never seemed to like that his 
books should be sold ; and so several of them never found their 
way into the hands of the booksellers at all, but he gave all the 
copies away, and never recoiip)ed himself one penny of the cost of 
paper, print, and binding. He had a scruple against ever inviting 
anyone to pay him a visit, lest they should be bored ; and some- 
times when a botanist of a younger generation, who was all the 
wdiile looking up to him as a great master in science, would venture 
to call uninvited, he would, after devoting several hours of bis 
time to instructing and entertaining him, thank him on parting 
for the visit, in a way to which it was very difficult on the spur of 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 265 

the moment to make any suitable response, because it was so 
unexpected. The encouragement and help which he gave to many 
young beginners in Botany is remembered by them with feelings of 
gratitude and affection. On this point I can mysolf insist with 
emphasis, for when I left school and became immersed in business 
engagements, and was surrounded by friends and relations who 
knew and cared nothing about Botany, I should probably have 
di'ifted away from it altogether if I had not made his acquaintance. 
In answering letters, in helping his correspondents to name 
critical plants and fill up gaps in their herbaria, in referring 
back to his notes and catalogues (as he was asked to do so 
often in his latter years), to explain the details on the faith of 
which he had stated some record in general terms, his patience 
and assiduity were unbounded, and no one but those who lived 
with him knew what a large proportion of his time was often 
occupied in this way. In helping by money to the full extent of 
his pecuniary means, and by judicious counsel, such of his friends 
and acquaintance as fell into illness and misfortune, his liberality 
was very great. Such traits as these can, from the nature of the 
■ case, live only in the memory of one here and another there who 
knew him by personal contact. 

His funeral took place at the rustic church of the village with 
which he has been so long identified, on the afternoon of Wednes- 
day, August 3rd. The closed shutters of the village shops testified 
to the respect in which he was held by his neighbours, and, in 
addition to his relatives, the following botanists resident in London 
and the neighbourhood were present : — Sir J. D. Hooker, the Hon. 
J. L. Warren, the Eev. W. W. Newbould, Prof. Lawson, Messrs. 
Baker, Blow, Boulger, Britten, Dyer, H. Groves, and B. D. Jackson. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

By J. G. Bakek, F.R.S. 

(Continued from p. 23^.) 

19. P. FURFURACEA, Jacq. Eclog. 117, t. 79 ; Sims in Bot. Mag. 
t. 2057. — P. rcnnosa, Jacq. Eclog. 154. — Leaves linear, about 2 ft. 
long, about an inch broad, acuminate, not distinctly petioled, 
green and naked on the face, white-furfuraceous on the back, 
spiny towards the base. Peduncle 2-8 ft. long, including the 
inflorescence, liacemes 8-5, rather dense, the end one about a 
foot long; axis stout and floccose ; pedicels ascending, ^-^ in. 
long; bracts lanceolate, as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, 
J-|- in. long. Petals 2-2:|- in. long, bright red, scaled at the base. 
Stamens and style not protruded. — Known to me only as a garden 
plant, and doubtfully distinct specifically from P. lati/olia. 

20. P. ALbuc.-EKoLiA, Sclirad. Comment. Blumenb. 24, t. 3. — 
P. aj/iim, K. Kocli, ^lon. 5. — Leaves linear, 11-2 ft. long, an inch 
broad at the middle, acuminate, nut distinctly petioled, green and 

'A .M 



2G(_) A SYNOPSIS OK THK GENUS I'lTCAIRNIA . 

naked on the face, wliitc-furfuraceous ou the hack, sphie-mavghied 
towards the hase. Peduncle 2 ft. or more long, with many erect 
leaves. Raceme dense, always simple, 3-9 in. long ; axis slightly 
cottony ; pedicels ascending, the lower f— |- in. long ; hiacts 
lanceolate, often twice as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, 
f-|- in. long. Petals bright red, twice as long as the sepals, scaled 
at the hase. Stamens and style not cxserted. — Martinique, Halm, 
855 ! 582 ! 879 ! 1052 ! Venezuela, Cnujcr ! Differs fi-om latifulia 
by its simple dense racemes and large bracts ; so that it is midway 
between latifulia and bracteata. 

21 . P. BEACTEATA, Dryand. in Ait. Hort. Kew. edit. 2, ii. 202 ; Hook, 
in Bot. Mag. t. 2818.— /\ Uaifotia, lied. Lil. t. 74, non Ait.— P. 
Gireoudiana, Dietr. in Allgcm. Gartenzeit. xxi. 105. — -F. coinmutata, 
Eegel Gartentl. 18G7, 289, t. 557. — Leaves in a dense tuft, linear, 
H-2 ft. long, f-1 in. broad, acuminate, not petioled, moderately 
firm in texture, entire or slightly prickly towards the base, green 
and naked on the face, Avhite-fiirfuraceous on the back. Peduncle 
a foot long, stout, floccose, with numerous reduced leaves. Piaceme 
simple, dense, ^-1 ft. long, 3-4 in. diam. ; pedicels erecto-patent, 
the lower only \ in. long; axis cottony; bracts lanceolate, the 
lower 1-1^ in. long, the upper shorter. Sepals lanceolate, f-1 in. 
long. Petals in the tj^pe bright red, decurving, subsecuud, twice 
as long as the sepals, scaled at the base. Stamens and style as 
long as the sepals. — St. Vincents,. dim^ersow/ Guildiny! — P.sulphnrea, 
Andrews Bot. Piep. t. 219, is a variety with yellow flowers. Both 
varieties have long been known in cultivation. 

22. P. ALTA, Hasskarl Retzia, ii, 5. — P. ramosa, K.Koch Monogr. 
5, non. Jacq. — Acaulescent, densely cfespitose. Leaves 12-20 to a 
stem, linear, 2-3 ft. long, f-1 in. broad at the middle, very acuminate, 
narrowed to ^ in. above the dilated base but not distinctly 
petioled, spine-edged towards the base, green and naked on the 
face, white-furfuraceous on the back. Peduncle 2-3 ft. long below 
the inflorescence, tioccose, with many reduced leaves. Racemes 
several, arranged in a deltoid panicle about 2 ft. long and broad, 
the lower branches compound; racemes lax; lower pedicels ^-i^in. 
long, ascending or spreading ; bracts lanceolate, not longer than 
the pedicels. Sepals bright red, lanceolate, f-^ in. long. Petals 
bright red, 2. in. long, i in. broad, minutely scaled at the base. 
Stamens and style reaching to the tip of the petals. — Dominica, 
Imray ! This is in cultivation under various names, amongst 
which are broinelia-folia, intermedia, and Sldimeri. My description 
is mainly taken from a plant that flowered at Kew in August, 1877. 
Mr. Bull had it in flower in October, 1878. 

23. P. coNSiMiLis, Baker. — Very like P. fcrnnjinea, but much 
smaller in all its parts. Leaves linear, sessile, ^ ft. long, -J in. 
broad at the base, firm in texture, very acuminate, channelled 
down the glabrous face, white-furfuraceous on the back, prickle- 
margined all the way up. Peduncle glabrescent, a foot long below 
the inflorescence, all its leaves bract-like. Racemes 3-6, very lax, 
arranged in an ample panicle, the end one a foot long ; pedicels 
ascending, ^-f in. long ; bracts oblong-lanceolate, scariose, densely 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PlTCAIRNlA. 207 

ferrugineo-pubescent on the back, the lower as long as the pedicels, 
the upper half as long. Sepals lanceolate, glabrescent, about au 
hich long. Petals whitish, spirally twisted after expansion, more 
than twice as long as the sepals. Stamens and style included. — 
Andes of Bolivia, temperate and subalx3ine zones, alt. 8500-12,000 
feet, Mandun, 1173 ! 

24. P. Jacksoni, Hook, m Bot. Mag. t. 4540. — Lamin-oconus 
Jacksoni, Lemaire, Jard. Fleur. t. 127. — Acaulescent. Leaves in a 
dense tuft, linear, a foot or more long, -|-f in. broad at the middle, 
narrowed to ^ in. above the dilated base, not petioled, spine- 
serrated in the upper half, green and naked on the face, white- 
furfuraceous on the back. Pedimcle short. Eaceme lax, simple, 
8-9 in. long; rachis tioccose ; lower pedicels |-J in. long; bracts 
lanceolate, not more than half as long as the pedicels. Sepals 
lanceolate, ^-f in. long. Petals bright red, three times as long as 
the sepals, scaled at the base. Stamens reaching to the tip of the 
petals. Stigma liually exserted. — Guatemala, imported by Jackson, 
of Kingston, about 1850. 
♦ 25. P. suBPETioLATA, Bakor. — Acaulescent. Leaves with a 
channelled petiole a foot long, spine-edged at the dilated base, with 
an entire linear lamina 2-3 ft. long, ^ in. broad at the middle, 
narrowed very gradually to both ends, green and naked on the face, 
white-furfuraceous on the back. Peduncle above 3 ft. long, with 
many reduced leaves. Eaceme simple, very lax, a foot long ; 
pedicels erecto-patent, the lower -^-f in. long ; rachis slightly 
floccose ; bracts lanceolate, not more than half as long as the 
pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, glabrescent, f-l in. long. Petals red, 
scarcely twice as long as the sepals. — Eastern Peru, near Tarapoto, 
Spruce (not distributed with any number) ; and a form with leaves 
twice as broad and shorter, from San Carlos, in the Amazon 
Valley, Sj'ruce, 3054 ! 

26. P. BROMELLEFOLiA, L'Herit. Sert. 7, t. 11 ; Swartz Fl. Ind. 
Occ. 1971, t. 12 ; Bot. Mag. t. 834 ; Eed. Lil. t. 75 ; Lindl. in Bot. 
Eeg. t. 1011. — Acaulescent. Leaves in a dense tuft, linear, 2-3 ft. 
long, ^-f in. broad at the middle, acuminate, not distinctly 
petioled, spine-edged towards the base, green and glabrous on the 
face, white-furfuraceous on the back. Peduncle about a foot long 
below the inflorescence, furnished with several long leaves. 
Eacemes simple or slightly compound, reaching a foot in length, 
lax, with a slightly-floccose rachis ; lower pedicels f-1 in. long, 
spreading or ascending ; bracts lanceolate, shorter than the 
pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, glabrescent, bright red, i-} in. long. 
Petals bright red, about 2 in. long, scaled at the base. Stamens 
and style as long as the petals. — Jamaica, Wrujld! lumcmjt! Purdie! 
and a nearly-allied plant with shorter sepals from Tarapoto, in 
Eastern Peru, Spruce. This is the oldest-known species. There 
is a specimen in the Smithian herbarium from the younger 
LinnEEUs, and one at the British Museum from Chelsea Gardens 
in 1787. 

Judging from the description P.plati/phi/lUi, Schrad., is a robust 
broad-leaveil variety of this species. 



2Ub A SYNOPSIS OK THE GENUS PITCAIKNIA. 

27. P. FiRMA, Baker. — Leaves linear, very firm and rigid in 
texture for the genus, 1-li ft. long, ^i| in. broad, sessile, acumi- 
nate, the margin armed throughout with distant ascending 
stramineous spines |— |- in. long, the upper surface bright green, 
the lower paler, but not furfuraceous. Peduncle li-2 ft. long, 
subglabrous, all its leaves small. Eaceme lax, simple, O-D in. long ; 
rachis nearly naked ; pedicels ascending, the lower ^\ in. long ; 
bracts lanceolate, ^-^ in. Sepals lanceolate, naked, |-f in. Petals 
bright red. Ungulate, 2 in. long. Genitalia included. — Known to 
mc only from a garden specimen in K. Koch's collection, where it 
was labelled P. Jacksoni. 

28. P. coRcovADENsis, Wawra Bot. Ergeb. IGO, t. 27. — Acau- 
lescent. Eudimentary leaves deltoid, unprickly. Produced leaves 
about half a dozen, with a petiole ^ ft. long and a linear lamina 
2-3 ft. long, f-| in. broad at the middle, thin in texture, tapering 
to both ends, green on both sides, entirely free from prickles 
down to the base. Peduncle slender, leafy, 1-1^ ft. long. Eaceme 
lax, simple ; lower pedicels f— f in. long ; bracts lanceolate, longer 
than the pedicels. Sepals naked, lanceolate, reddish, ^-f in. long. 
Petals bright red, 2-J- in. long, scaled at the base. Stamens nearly 
as long as the petals. Style exserted. — South Brazil, near Eio 
Janeiro, Waicra,'d; Gl<(^ion, 12237! 

29. P. ciNNABARiNA, A. Dictr. in Allgem. Gartenzeit. xviii. 202. 
— Acaulescent. Produced leaves linear, sessile, 1-| ft. long, g-f iii- 
broad at middle, quite without spines down the base, green on both 
sides, with only a few scattered brown lepidote spots beneath. 
Peduncle a foot long, naked, with several reduced lanceolate leaves. 
Eacemes dense, simple, about | ft. long ; rachis dotted with lepidote 
scales, but not at all floccose ; pedicels ascending, the lower f-1 
in. long; bracts lanceolate-acuminate, as long as the pedicels. 
Sepals lanceolate, naked, f-| in. long. Petals bright red. Ungulate, 
2 in. long, not scaled at the base. Stamens as long as the petals. 
Style a little exserted. — Brazil. Of this I have only seen cultivated 
specimens. 

30. P. Karewinskiana, Schultes fil. Syst. vii. 1239. — P. rinyens, 
Klotzsch in Link, Klotzsch et Otto Ic. Ear. Berol. 63, t. 23 ; 
Eegel Gartenfiora, t. 53. — P. splendens, Warcz. in Otto et Dietr. 
Allgem. Gartenzeit. xix. 176. — P. Warcewicziana, muntalbensis et 
fuhjens, Hort. — Acaulescent. Produced leaves linear, 1^-2 ft. long, 
h-\ in. broad, acuminate, distinctly petioled, green on both sides, 
moderately firm in texture, usually Avithout prickles. Peduncle 
1-2 ft. long, slightly floccose, with many reduced leaves. Eaceme 
dense, simple, about -| ft. long ; rachis slightly floccose ; pedicels 
ascending, lower \-^ in. long; bracts lanceolate, twice as long as 
the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, naked, reddish, f in. long. Petals 
lingulate, secund, bright red, 2-J- in. long, not scaled at the base. 
Stamens as long as the petals. Style finally exserted. — Mexico, 
Kariiinski, Finch ! Well known in cultivation. My description is 
taken from a plant that flowered with Messrs. Veitcli in June, 1877. 
A plant, gathered by Botteri in the province of Orizaba (No. 911), 
differs from the type by its broader leaves, densely cottony raceme, 
rachis and pedicels, and larger sepals. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIKNlA. 2G9 

31. P. spATHACEA, Giiseb. Symb. Fl. Argent, ii. (1878), 329.— 
Leaves linear, 2-3 ft. loug, au iucli broad, spiue-eJged at the base 
only, slightly fui'fiu'aceous on the upper surface, glabrescent 
beneath. Kacemes several, arranged in a lax panicle, 6-8 in. 
long ; pedicels very short ; bracts lanceolate, reaching about half- 
way up the flowers. Sepals lanceolate, very acuminate, an inch 
long. Petals J in. longer than the calyx, not scaled at the base. — 
Ai-gentine Territory, on the banks of the Eio Janeiro, Lorentz. 

32. P. Lechleki, Baker. — Whole plant about 4 ft. high. Outer 
unproduced leaves with a long pectinate rigid tip, as in F. hetc- 
rophylla and i^umjens. Produced leaves linear, entire, not petioled, 
moderately firm in texture, green and glabrous on both surfaces, 
li— 2 ft. long, f-l in. broad at the middle, narrowed to both ends. 
Peduncle about 2 ft. long, all its leaves much reduced, the lower 
spine-edged. Eacemes several, arranged in a lax panicle ; end one 
dense in the upper half, 8-10 in. loug ; rachis not at all floccose ; 
pedicels very short ; bracts lanceolate, the lower \-\ in. long. 
Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, ^ in. long. Petals bright red, half as 
long again as the sepals. Stamens and style included. — Eastern 
declivity of the Peruvian Cordilleras at Sachaporta, Leehler, 3132 ! 

33. P. coNCOLOR, Baker. — Acaulescent. Outer unproduced 
leaves with a rigid pectinate narrow linear tip. Produced leaves 
linear, above 1 ft. long, f-l in. broad, tapering from the middle to 
the apex and more gradually to the base, without teeth, not 
petioled, green and glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle about 
1 ft. long, floccose, all its leaves small and bract-like. Eaceme lax, 
simple, 3-6 in. loug ; rachis densely floccose ; pedicels ascending, 
the lower ^^ in. long ; bracts lanceolate, cottony, the lower 
f-l in. long. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, floccose, 1 in. long ; 
petals bright red, twice as long as the sepals. Stamens and style 
included. — Canta, Peru, Maclean I 

34. P. NUDA, Baker. — Acaulescent. Leaves not seen fully deve- 
loped, linear, acuminate, spine-edged in the lower part, green and 
glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle 1 ft. or more long, glabrous, 
its leaves much reduced and spine-margined. Eacemes in a deltoid 
panicle 2 ft. long, with erecto-patent branches, very long ; axis 
slender, naked ; pedicels drooping, f-l in. long ; bracts minute, 
lanceolate. Sepals lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 1^ in. long, 
twisting together when the flower fades. Petals bright red, not 
more ^ in. longer than the sepals. Stamens included. Stigma 
exserted. Seeds minute, wedge-shaped, with a broad white horny 
border surroimding the nucleus on all sides but one, not tailed at 
either end. — British Guiana, on the banks of the Eapammi, 
Appun, 1582. 

35. P. suaveolens, Lindl. in Bot. Eeg. t. 1069. — Acaulescent. 
Produced leaves linear, 1-J ft. long, ^-f in. broad at the middle, 
acuminate, not petioled, entirely without prickles, green and 
glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle above 1 ft. loug, naked, with 
many much-reduced leaves. Eaceme 6-8 in. loug, simple, mode- 
rately dense; rachis glabrous, pedicels ascending, :i^-^ in. loug ; 
bracts lanceolate, naked, the lower 1-1 ^ in. lung. Sepals lanceolate. 



27U A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

glabrous, 1 iu. long. Petals twice as long as the sepals, Ungulate, 
subsecuud, whitish, scaled at the base. Stamens mcluded. hjtigma 
finally exserted. — Organ Mountains, South Brazil, Gardner, 5695 ! 
Introduced into cultivation in 182G. I cannot, from the description, 
separate l'. mu-raittha, Lindl. in Bot. lieg.xxix.. Misc. -14, imported 
from liio by Sir Chas. Lemon, of Garden, in 1841. This may be 
Tillundsia Iccvk, Vellozo. Flum. iii. t. 12G, = L'itcairnia Iccvis, Beer. 
Brom. GO. 

8G. P. ALBiFLOs, Herb, in Bot. Mag. t. 2642. — Cochliopctalum 
albijlos, Beer Brom. 68. — P. odorata, liegel Gartenfl. 1855, 46, 
t. 114. — Tillmuhia Schuchil, Feuzl. in Otto et Dietr. Allgem. 
Gartenzeit. xiv. 2GG. — L'uchUopetaLiun Schuchil, Beer Brom. 69. — 
Leaves many to a tuft, linear, 1^-2 ft. long, i-f iu. broad at the 
middle, obscurely petioled, without any prickles, green and glabrous 
on both surfaces, acuminate. Peduncle 1-2 ft. long, its lower 
leaves long, its upper short and bract-like. Eaceme simple, lax, 
1-1 ft. long ; rachis sHghtly pilose ; pedicels spreading, the lower 
i in. long ; bracts lanceolate, shorter than the pedicels. Sepals 
lanceolate, glabrous, f in. long. Petals white, three times as long 
as the sepals, scaled at the base, revolute at the tip after expansion. 
Stamens as long as the petals. Stigma exserted. — Eio Janeiro, 
Glaziuu 8022 ! 8023 ! Introduced into cultivation about 1826. So 
far as the description goes P. data, Liebm. Ind. Sem. Hort. Hafn. 
1849, 14, agrees with this, but it is said to come from East 

Mexico. 

37. P. Andreana, Luaden. Cat. 1873 ; 111. Hort. n. s. t. 139, 
Baker in Bot. Mag. t. 6480.— P. lepidota, Kegel in Act. Hort. 
Petrop. ii. 435. — Whole plant under 1 ft. high. Produced leaves 
four or five to a stem, lanceolate, not distinctly petioled, 16-20 in. 
long, 1-1^ in. broad at the middle, narrowed to ^ in. above the 
base and to a long point, white all over beneath and scattered over 
with lepidote scales on the upper surface. Peduncle densely leafy, 
4-6 in. long. Piaceme simple, 4-6 in. long ; pedicels ascending, the 
lower \-\ in. long ; bracts very small. Sepals green, lanceolate, 
% in. long, lepidote on the back. Petals one-sided, lingulate, 
21-23. iu. long, yellow at the tip, red lower down. Stamens and 
stigma reaching to the top of the petals. — New Granada and 
Venezuela. Introduced into cultivation by Eoezl about ten years 
ago. My description is taken from a specimen that flowered at 
Kew in July, 1879, sent by Dr. Eegel. 

38. P. PRmNosA, H. B. K, Nov. Gen. i. 295.— Produced leaves 
lanceolate, 1^-2 ft. long, 1-1^ in. broad, acummate, spine-edged 
towards the base, green and glabrous on the face when mature, 
furfuraceous beneath. Peduncle 2 ft. long, copiously leafy. 
Eacemes lax, simple or sparingly compound ; axis slightly pilose ; 
pedicels ascending, pilose, i-J in. long ; bracts lanceolate, mostly 
shorter than the pedicels. Sepals red-tinted, glabrescent, lanceolate, 
f-| in. long. Petals bright red, scaled at the base, 2 in. long. 
Genitalia included. — Venezuela, on the banks of the Orinoco, 
Humholdt. La Guayra, Moritz, 1232 ! A near ally of P. latifolia. 

39. P. FULOfcNs, Becne in Otto et Dietr. Allgem. Gartenzeit. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 271 

xix. 26. — p. Decaisnei, K. Koch Monogr. 5. — Acaulesceut. Outer 
rudimentary leaves pectinate. Produced leaves as many as twenty 
to a tuft, ensiform, 2-3 ft. long, 1-1 i in. broad at the middle, 
obscurely petioled, erectly falcate, very acuminate, green and 
glabrous on the face, white and distinctly lineate all over the back, 
margined with small green ascending prickles all the wa}' up and 
larger black ones towards the base. Peduncle 3 ft. long below the 
inflorescence, copiously leafy. Racemes several, very lax, 8-6 in. 
long, forming a deltoid panicle ; pedicels ascending, ^-^ in. long ; 
bracts minute, lanceolate ; rachises bright red, nearly or quite 
naked. Sepals bright red, lanceolate, glabrous, f-| in. long ; 
petals bright red, 2-2^ in. long, with a large truncate scale at the 
base. Stamens and stigma not protruded. — Brazil. A fine plant, 
well-known in cultivation. We had it at Kew as long ago as 1858, 
but I have not been able to meet with wild examples. 

40. P. Olfersii, Link in Verhand. d. Yer. z. Bef. d. Gartenb. 
vii. 368, t. 3. — P. V Herminieri, Hort. — Acaulcscent. Produced 
leaves ensiform, distinctly petioled, 2-8 feet long, 12-16 lines 
broad at the middle, acuminate, green and naked on the face, 
white-furfuraceous on the back, neither lamina nor petiole spine- 
edged. Peduncle 2-3 ft. long, its lower leaves long, its upper much 
reduced and bract-lilie. Raceme simple, rather dense, reaching 
a foot long; racliis naked; pedicels ascending, |-1 in. long; 
bracts lanceolate, as long as or longer than the pedicels. Sepals 
lanceolate, glabrous, an inch long. Petals bright red, liugulate, 
2-2^ in. long, scaled at the base. Stamens and style about as long 
as the petals. — Rio Janeiro, Glaziou, 8021 ! 

41. P. FLAMJiEA, Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1092. — Acaulescent. 
Produced leaves ensiform, 2-2^ ft. long, l-l-j- in. broad at the 
middle, not distinctly petioled, acuminate, green and glabrous on 
the face, persistently white-furfuraceous on the back, not at all 
spine-margined. Peduncle 1-H ft. long, bright red, copiously 
leafy. Raceme rather dense, simple, -I— 1 ft. long ; rachis thinly 
pilose; pedicels ascending, J-^ in. long; bracts lanceolate, twice 
as long as the pedicels. Sepals red, lanceolate, glabrous, f-J in. 
long. Petals bright red, more than twice as long as the sepals, 
scaled at the base. Stamens and stigma not protruded. — Brazil, 
on rocks of the Ox'gan Mountains, (Tcirdncr, 5896 ! Introduced 
into cultivation about 1826. I expect it will prove to be conspecilic 
with P. Olfersii. 

42. P. PULVEKULENTA, Ruiz ct Pavou Fl. Peruv. iii. 36, t. 259. 
— r. paniculula, R. & P. Fl. Peruv. t. 260. — F. (owiifulia, Hook, in 
Bot. Mag. t. 4775. — P. e.vcelsa, E. Morren in Belg. Hort., 1875, 
881. — Whole plant 6-12 ft. high. Produced leaves ensiform, 
3-4 ft. long, li^-2 in. broad at the middle, narrowed to an 
acuminate point and ^ in. above the dilated base, spine-margined 
towards the base, green and glabrous on the upper surface, white- 
furfuraceous beneath. Peduncle elongated, with several leaves. 
Racemes many, arranged in a lax deltoid panicle, lax, i-l ft. 
long; rachises fioccose ; pedicels ^-jt in. long; Ijracts minute, 
lanceolate. Sepals lanceolate, fioccose, 'i in. long. Petals bright 



272 A SYNOPSIS OP THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

red, about 2 in, long, scaled at the base. Genitalia not exserted. 
—Andes of Peru, I'aiym! Mattheir.s, 20S9 \ 3132! Introduced into 
cultivation by Nation about 1850, and again by Roezl. 

43. P. coKALLiNA, Liudeu et Andre ; Carriere in Eev. Hort., 
1875, 251, cum icoue. — Produced leaves lanceolate, distinctly 
petioled, 4-5 ft. long, 3^-4J in. broad, spine-edged low down, 
plicate like those of a Curculii/o, green and glabrous on the face, 
white-f'urfuraceous on the back. Peduncle bright red, 1 ft. long, 
deflexed, all the leaves much reduced. Eacemes dense, simple, 
deflected, above a foot long. Pedicels i--i in. long ; bracts 
lanceolate, f-1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, naked, bright red, 
above an inch long. Petals bright red. Ungulate, 3 in. long, 
scaled at the base, edged with white. Style and stamens reaching 
to the tip of the petals. — Choco, New Granada. Introduced by 
Linden about 1874. A very fine and distinct species, well marked 
by its broad plicate leaves. It has flowered with Sir G. Maclean, 
at Pendell Court, this spring. 

44. P. ECHiNATA, Hook, iu Bot. Mag. t. 5709 ; Lemaire Jard. 
Fleur. t. 407; Flore des Serres, t. 844.— Whole plant 5-6 ft. 
high. Outer unproduced leaves deltoid, not prickle-edged. Pro- 
duced leaves 12-20 to a stem, lanceolate, 3-4 ft. long, 1-2 in. 
broad at the middle, obscurely petioled, bright green on the face, 
white-furfuraccous on the back, margined all the way up with 
minute prickles. Peduncle 2-4 ft. long below the infioresceuce, 
mealy, with 8-10 leaves, the lower a foot long. Racemes several, 
very lax, arranged in an ample deltoid panicle ; rachises slightly 
floccose ; pedicels glandular, i-1 in. long ; bracts lanceolate, 
shorter than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, densely glandular, 
15-18 lines long. Petals whitish, nearly twice as long as the 
sepals. Stamens and stigma included. — New Granada, Goudot! 
Holtun ! Stated in Bot. Mag. to be also received from Mexico. 

45. P. xANTHocALYx, Mart. Ind. Sem. Hort. Monac. 1848, 
Adn. 4. — P. flavescens, Baker in Bot. Mag. t. 6318. — Cochliojjetahtm 
flavescens, Beer Brom. 69. — Produced leaves up to 20 to a stem, 
lanceolate, 2-3 ft. long, 1-1^ in. broad at the middle, obscurely 
petioled, quite free from prickles, green and glabrous on the face, 
white-furfuraceous on the back. Peduncle li^-2 ft. long, thinly 
pruinose, the lower leaves ^-1 ft. long. Eaceme simple, lax in the 
lower half, 1-li or even 2 ft. long ; axis thinly floccose ; pedicels 
ascending, the lower |— f in. long ; bracts lancelolate, longer than 
the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, f in. long. Petals Ungulate, 
primrose-yellow, 2 in. long. Stamens as long as the petals. 
Style finally a little exserted. — Brazil. This flowered at Kew in 
the summer of 1877. I find from Dr. Karl Koch's specimen that 
ouv flavescens is quite identical with the Munich xanthocalyx. The 
nearest resemblance to the plant is P. bmcteata var. sulpharea. 

46. P. AUSTKALis, K. Koch Ind. Sem. Berol, 1857, 8. — P. ruhi- 
cnnda, K. Koch Mon. 8. — P. Moreliana, Hort. — Acaulcscent. Stem 
bulbiform at the base. Outer unproduced leaves deltoid, brown- 
black, not prickle-edged. Produced leaves about half a dozen to a 
tuft, ensiform, 1\-A ft. long, 1-1 j in. broad at the middle, 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA, 278 

narrowed to ^ in. above the dilated base, not petioled, not at all 
prickly, greeu and quite glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle 
1-1^ ft. long, glabrous, the lower leaves ^-1 ft. long, the upper 
small and bract-like. Eaceme simple, lax, erect, 0-9 in. long ; 
rachis glabrous ; pedicels ascending, bright red, the lower ^ in. 
long ; bracts lanceolate, much longer than the pedicels. Sepals 
lanceolate, naked, bright red, ^-1 in. long. Petals bright red, 2 in. 
long. Genitalia just exserted. — Eio Janeiro, Glaziou, 12238 ! 
Minas Geraes, Clausscn! 

47. P.NUBiGENA, Planch, in Flore des Serres,t. 847. — Acaulescent, 
csespitose. Produced leaves ensiform, petioled, an inch broad, 
narrowed to both ends, entire, bright green on both surfaces. 
Peduncle leafy, 1-1^ ft. long. Piaceme simple, moderately dense, 
6-8 in. long ; pedicels ascending, the lower i— f in. long ; bracts 
lanceolate, as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, red, glabrous, 
1-1 i in. long. Petals bright red, scaled at the base, more than 
twice as long as the sepals. Stamens and style shorter than the 
petals. — Venezuela, amongst the mountains of Merida, alt. 8000- 
9000 ft., Funck cO Schlim. 

48. P. Lehmanni, Baker. — Produced leaves ensiform, 2-3 ft. 
long, above an inch broad at the middle, green and naked on both 
surfaces, copiously spiny towards the base. Eacemes dense, 
panicled ; pedicels ascending, the lower ^— ^ in. long ; bracts lanceo- 
late, shorter than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, j-fin. 
long. Petals bright red, 18-21 lines long. Stamens and style as 
long as the petals. — Southern New Granada, near Pasto, Lehmann ! 
A plant received lately from Dr. H. G. Eeichenbach. 

49. P. IvALBREYERi, Bakcr. — Produced leaves with an acuminate 
lanceolate lamina 2-3 ft. long, 2^-3 in. broad at the middle, entire, 
narrowed moderately to the base, green and naked on both surfaces, 
and a distinct petiole 6-8 in. long, with a few squarrose prickles 
near its base. Peduncle 3-4 ft. long, slightly furfuraceous, its 
leaves distant and much reduced. Eaceme very lax, simple, a foot 
long; lower pedicels ^-^^ in. long ; bracts lanceolate, f-^ in. long. 
Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, f-^ in. long. Petals red, above 2 in. 
long. Stamens and style just exserted. — New Granada, in the 
mountains of Ocana, 4500-5000 ft., Kalhreycr, 1103. 

50. P. oKGYALis, Baker. — Whole plant ft. high. Produced 
leaves ensiform, 2-3 ft. long, 18-20 lines broad at the middle, not 
distinctly petioled, more firm in texture than is usual in the genus, 
green and naked on both surfaces, free fi-om prickles. Eacemes 
copiously panicled, moderately dense ; rachiscs glabrous ; lower 
pedicels ]-i in. long; bracts minute, lanceolate. Sepals lanceolate, 
glabrous, -^-^ in. long. Petals bright red, an inch longer than 
the sepals. Genitalia included. — Montana de Canelos, Andes of 
Ecuador, Spruce, 5399 ! 

(To be coutinued.) 



2 N 



274 



ON A NEW ARALIACEA OF UNCEETAIN OEIGIN. 
By H. F. Hance, Ph.D., &c. 

Some thirty and odd years ago a West of England journalist, in 
chronic warfare with an energetic prelate, emphatically one of the 
church militant, wrote of his adversary that, " though always in 
hot water, he never came out of it any the cleaner." There is 
perhaps no order of flowering plants which has within a com- 
paratively recent period heen more h'equently examined than that 
of Andiacar ; but it must be admitted that the polishings and 
brushings-up to which it has successively been subjected have not 
resulted in reducing it to such a respectable condition as its manipu- 
lators might have hoped for. It has been taken in hand, either 
partially or wholly, by Planchon and Decaisne, Seemann, C. Koch, 
Miquel, Bentham, and Baillon ; but I am afraid the late Mr. 
Latimer's dictum will api)ly to its present state quite as fully as it 
did to his ecclesiastical antagonist. And this is owing to the fact 
that it seems well nigh impossible to form clearly defined groups in 
it. Almost every newly discovered species has something or other 
peculiar''' Avhich, in the eyes of many botanists, entitles it to 
generic rank ; and, on the other hand, those systematists who hold 
to synthetic views are puzzled how to fix the limits of genera, so as 
to include i^lauts diflering in a variety of minor points of floral 
structure, and often very widely in habit. With few exceptions, 
indeed,— of which Heptapleurum and Oreopanax may perhaps be 
taken as the best examples, — most of the genera which have been 
proposed consist of groups of species disagreeing in a number of 
characters ; and hence those who, like Seemann and Miquel, were 
inclined to multiply genera, did not fail to avail themselves of this 
fact in dealing with AraliacetF. Bentham, with his usual acumen 
and philosophical insight, steadily discountenanced this tendency ; 
but he himself expressed his dissatisfaction with the scheme he 
had elaborated, I and Baillon has since greatly cut down the number 
of genera, and also reduced Araliaceic to a tribe <jf Ajnacca , in 
which view I certainly feel strongly disposed to concur. M. Mar- 
chal, of Brussels, is, I believe, at present engaged in the study of 
the order : his task will be a very difiicult one, for it is abundantly 
evident that all the genera require a thorough recasting. 

My attention was directed to this group by receiving fi-om 
Mr. Ford, Superintendent of the Hong Kong Botanic Gardens, 
herbarium specimens of a plant of which he brought two livin 
examples from the Calcutta Garden in 1876, given him by Dr. 
George King, the Director, as Brassaiopsis hispida, Seem. On 
examining this, I was very greatly surprised to find, not only that it 
had nothing to do with the genus to which it had been referred, but 
that it would not fall under any one, as hitherto characterized, and 

* See the remarks 6f Dr. Beccari on Osmoxylon (' Malesia,' i. 104), which 
iuvaliclates the claim of Flerandrece to be maintained as a series: Baillou had 
lireviously denied that of Mackinlaijiece (' Adansonia,' xii. 131). 

+ Gen. Plant, i. 9:J2. 



o 



A NEW TREE-FERN FROM JAMAICA. 275 

ormed a very distinct uew section in Plermulra/'- distinguished by 
having eight petals, sixteen uniseriate stamens, a 12-13-celled 
ovary, and simple exstipulate leaves, for which I propose the name 
of Diplasdndra. The origin of the plant is quite uncertain ; it may 
have come from the Andamans or New Guinea, but it is perhaps 
more likely to be Polynesian. I subjoin a diagnosis, drawn up 
from Hving specimens : — 

Plerandra [DipUmandra) jatrophifolia, sp. nov. — Arbuscula 
caule aculeis sparsis rectis armato, foliis petiolo 2-4-pedali aculeis 
parcis brevissimis priedito fultis simplicibus rigidis coriaceis glabris 
1-2-pedalibus ambitu orbiculatis valide palmatim 9-nerviis ultra 
medium in lobos 7 palmatim divisis lobis parce incisis serratis, um- 
bellis pedunculatis multilioris in paniculam amplam terminalem 
divaricato-ramosam dispositis, pedicellis sesquipollicaribus inarticu- 
latis, tloribus diametro semipollicaribus, calycis tubo hemisphierico 
levi limbo brevissimo truucato multideuticulato scarioso, petalis 
plerumque 8 liberis flaventibus crassis ovato-triaiigulatis apice 
incurvis uninerviis symptyxi valvatis, staminibus duplo petalorum 
uumero uuiseriatis petala vix superautibus filamentis crassiusculis 
subulatis antheris oblongis, disco complanato foveolis 16 radiantibus 
notato medio in conum stylare validum subcompressam abeunte, 
ovario 12-13 loculari, stigmatibus circ. 13 in anulum ad coni stylini 
apicem connatis, fructu globose Cerasi mole. 

Culta in hort. hot. Hongkongensi, ubi iiores fructusque primum 
mm. Martio Aprili a. 1880 prajbuit. (Herb, propr. n. 21G82). 



A NEW TEEE-FEKN FKOM JAMAICA. 

By G. S. Jenman. 

Cyathea monstrabila, Jenman, n. sp. — Trunk erect, 4 or more 
feet high, 3 inches in diameter ; stipites 15-18 inches long, 
chestnut-brown below and straw-coloured higher, densely armed 
with short, mostly straight, spines, and clothed, especially on the 
upper side, at the base with linear, acuminate, castaneous scales; 
fronds spreading, 3 or 4 feet long, 15-20 inches wide, hi- (tri-) 
pinnate ; pinnjB spreading, subdistant, nearly sessile, the superior 
sometimes fm'cate at the base, the larger ones 10 inches long and 
4 inches wide ; pinnuliE subdistant, sessile, ligulato, their apices 
obtuse and rounded, lv-2i inclies long, 4 or 5 lines wide, cut 
almost to the costulfe into close, broad, rounded, crenate and 
slightly decurrent lobes, which arc 2 lines deep and rather more iu 
width ; rachis sparsely prickly, silky-pubescent down the face, as 
are the costa} and costuhc also ; costae furnished beneath with 
small, scattered, brownish scales, the costula) with minute bullato 
scales, also dark; upper surface dull green, the under pale, sub- 
pruinose ; texture firm ; veins forked, spreading flabellately or 
3 or more jugate ; sori sparse, situated at the forking of the veins ; 

* I understand tlie genus substantially as limited by Baillon (' Adansonia,' xii. 
I'Ui ; Tiist. d. 111. vii. l<i!)) ; l)ut respect lor tlii^ djiiiiidii ol" so iilile a botanist as 
Mr. C. 15. (Jlarke, wlio still keeps it distinct (Fl. Jirit. hid. ii. T-IO), makes me 
liesitate sibout including Tupidanthns. 



276 REaiNALD PRYOR. 

involucre fragile, breaking down into 3 or more parts ; receptacle 
elevated, scaly. 

Jamaica ; rare at Portland Gap, below Blue Mountain Peak, 
where it was recently discovered by Mr. Nock, late of the Govern- 
ment Cinchona Plantations. Very distinct from any of the other 
Jamaican species, and will be distinguished by the lax habit, 
narrow, ligulate round and subcntire pinnulfe (resembling in 
cutting the pinnae of ?<cjilirodiwn. unltuw), and the broad shallow 
lobes, wider transversely than deep. The lowest pinnule is on 
the superior side of the costa, and this is usually enlarged, with a 
tendency to become furcate, the branch being again pinnato- 
pinnatifid. Mr. Nock says that, as seen growing in the forest, at a 
short distance it has the appearance of a Marattia. 



IN MEMOEY OF KEGINALD PEYOR. 

British botanists, more especially those of the "critical" 
school, win have noticed with regret the brief announcement 
(at p. 96) of the loss which they have sustained by the deatli of 
Mr. Alfred Eeginald Pryor. He was born at Hatfield, in Hertford- 
shire, on April 24th, 1839. Never of a strong constitution, he 
was unable to carry out the intention which had been formed for 
him of attending one of the great pubHc schools ; and his delicate 
health was probably instrumental in directing his attention to 
literature and science. After a preparatory course of instruction 
at Tunbridge School, he proceeded to University College, Oxford, 
where he took his B.A. degree. About this time his attention was 
directed more especially to Botany, in which he had always taken 
an interest. In 1872 I pubhshed in the ' Transactions of the New- 
bury District Field Club ' a paper upon Berkshire plants : this led 
to a correspondence with Mr. Pryor, who had botanized in that 
county ; and from that period may be dated his more active interest 
in Botany. His first contribution to this Journal, in which most of 
his botanical papers appeared, was in 1873; since which time our 
pages have been enriched by notes and papers of increasing value, 
his last paper, which was not published until after his death, 
showing more fully than any of his previous contributions the 
extent of his critical and literary knowledge. In 1874 he 
associated himself with the Ecv. E. H. Webb in the prepara- 
tion of a Supplement to the 'Flora of Herts'; later on this 
idea developed into the plan of a fresh flora — a work which, 
during the last five years, occupied all his time and attention, 
although serious attacks of illness hindered its rapid progress. 
His notes on a proposed reissue of the Flora of Hertfordshire, 
pubhshed in 1875 in the 'Transactions' of the Watford (now 
Hertfordshire) Natural History Society (of which body he was a 
Vice-President), and a second paper on the same subject in 1876, 
are good examples of his painstaking work ; in the latter he drew 
out a plan for the division of the county into sixteen districts, a 
number which he afterwards considerably reduced. He personally 



REGINAX.D PRYOR. 277 

visited the greater part of the county; I had the privilege of 
accompanying him on two or three of his excursions, and was 
greatly struck by his critical knowledge of plants, extending to 
forms not recognised in British books ; as well as with the care 
and perseverance with which, at the close of the day, he would 
write out his rough notes in a form available for easy reference. 

An unusually severe attack of illness in the winter of 1879-80 
caused him to s^Jend the early spring of the latter year abroad. 
On his return he devoted himself to the ' Flora ' with renewed 
energy. His attention having been directed to certain matters 
connected with nomenclature, the idea suggested itself to me of 
drawing up for publication a new ' Nomenclator ' or ' Pinax ' of 
British plants. Into this idea Mr. Pryor entered with enthusiasm; 
his extensive botanical library enabled him to do much of the work 
at home, and about Christmas he paid several visits to the Natural 
History ]\luseum in connection with this work, appearing in 
unusually good health and spirits, and looking forward to the 
issue of the first part of the ' Flora,' which was to have taken 
place in the spring of the present year. Early in January, 
however, he was alarmed by a serious attack of heart-disease, which 
left him prostrate ; he was conveyed to Hastings, but became 
worse, and was brought home in February to die, his death 
occurring on the 18th of that month. On the 24th he was buried 
with the rites of the Catholic Church — which body he had joined 
while at Oxford in 1858 — in the parish churchyard at Baldock. 

As a critical botanist he had few equals ; and his characteristic 
accuracy and extensive acc^uaintance not only with botanical 
literature, but with a variety of subjects, rendered an excursion 
with him of great interest. One who knew him well writes 
thus: — "His conversation was most pungent, amusing, clever, 
and at the same time kind. His keen clear mind helped him 
to appreciate the truths of Eevelation in a most rare way. 
He was naturally a theologian — he saw the consequences of re- 
vealed truth so clearly and so logically. And then under his 
sharpness and definiteness of mind I always saw a tenderness of 
character." Another, more closely connected with him, said to 
me: "He never forgot anything which he had once read" ; and, 
although this may sound exaggerated, it seemed almost justified by 
the fund of information, often extending to minute details, which 
he possessed upon matters connected with art and general literature, 
and which he was always ready to bring out to a sympathising 
listener. His graphic descriptions of the places which he visited 
were very amusing ; and his letters were eminently characteristic. 
Like the great botanist who has so recently been taken from 
us — Mr. H. C. Watson — Mr. Pryor might have conveyed to those 
who were but slightly acquainted with him an idea of severity and 
hardness; he had an epigramnuitic way of expressing linnsdf 
which sometimes sounded harsh to those who did not know him ; 
and his state of health sometimes causeil him to be abrupt in 
manner and a little unsparing in censure. But those who knew 
him could not fail to detect beneath all this a gcuuiuc spirit of 



278 SHORT NOTKS. 

kindness and sympathy with others ; indeed, to such even the 
above sentence may read harshly, and seem to convey a false 
impression. 

This is not the place in which to speak of his many acts of 
generosity and kindness, manifested chielly, though not entirely, 
to his poorer co-religionists, and fully displayed in the disposition 
of his personal property. 13ut the readers of this Journal will be 
"lad to know that the Flora on which so much time and labour has 
been expended is not to remain unpublished. With his botanical 
library, his herbarium, and a bequest in money, this was willed 
to the Hertfordshire Natural History Society. The library is 
extensive ; the herbarium is comparatively small, but is supple- 
mented by that of the Kev. W. H. Coleman, which Mrs. Webb has 
presented to the Society; the British Museum Herbarium contains 
a large number of Mr. Pryor's specimens. The MS. Flora_ has 
been placed in my hands for editing by the Hertfordshu-e Society ; 
it is fortunately in an advanced state, and, although it can never be 
what it would have been had its author lived to see it through the 
press, it will form a valuable and important addition to the list 
of county floras. Mrs. Alfred Pryor, Mr. Pryor's mother, has 
generously offered to contribute to the cost of its production. A 
lorospectus of the work will shortly be issued, giving additional 
particulars. j^^^^^ Britten. 



SHOET NOTES. 



Plantago arenaria, W. & K. — In the month of August, 1879, I 
gathered this plant in great abundance in the sandy fields between 
the road and the sea at S. Brelado's, Jersey. There must have 
been many hundred plants, and it appeared to be thoroughly 
estabhshed, and not on, or near, ballast. — Henry T. Mennell. 



New Locality for Chara stelligera, Bauer. — On the Bth of 
August I found this Chara in great abundance in the Thirne, or 
Hundred Stream, near Potter Heigham, East Norfolk. It was 
growing intermixed with Chara hhpida, C. fra<iiHs, and other 
species of the genus, but the most abundant of all, and with 
nucules in fair number. This is about six miles from Filby 
Broad, its first- discovered station. — Arthur Bennett. 



NiTELLA tenuissima, Kiltz., IN Cajieridgeshire. — Early in this 
month (August) I gathered this rare little Nitella in Burwell Fen, 
Cambridgeshire, where it was growing with Chara aspera, ^Villd., 

a plant not given for the county in Prof. Babington's 

'Flora' nor in the Messrs. Groves's ' Keview,' — C fatida and 
C. hispida. Prof. Babington had not known of its being gathered 
for "more than twenty years," so Mr. Lynch wrote last year. — 
Arthur Bennett. 



SHORT NOTES. 279 

Notes on Surrey Plants. — Cai'ex arenaria, Linu. — This species, 
rare as an inland plant, is abundant on Frensliam Common. In 
Freusliam Little Pond Chara aspera occurs in profusion ; also in 
one corner of the pond a very small compact form, which may be 
the var. laciistris. Elatine hexandra is abundant in the canal about 
Brookwood, and also in the pond in which Mr. Watson found 
Span/anium ajjinc. This pond has unfortunately been thoroughly 
cleared of weeds, and the Sijurtjaniuiii has accordingly disappeared 
fi-om its only Surrey station. In the Wey, at Guildford, Potamoijeton 
scrratus, Huds., occurs, and is well marked. I have seen this plant 
in several places, but never as it grows here, viz., in large dense 
masses, precluding the idea that this state is altogether dependent 
on the growth of the plant. The leaves of the plants from this 
station are remarkably entire, being only serrulate at the extreme 
tip. — W. H. Beeby. 

PoTAMOGETON MUCRONATUS, Schrad., IN SuSSEX AND HanTS. 1 

found the above last July in the canal between Billhighurst and 
Pulborough, West Sussex. It occurs just below New Bridge, near 
the former village, and also about half-way between the two places ; 
in both stations only sparingly, Mr. Arthur Bennett has found a 
specimen from West Sussex in Borrer's herbarium, but I believe it 
has not been recorded for the county. There also occurs in this 
canal a small-flowered Nnphar. It is, in all its parts, less than half 
the size of the average Nnphar luted of the canal, and the stigmatic 
rays are nim' only, but it seems to be without the wavy edge to the 
stigma which characterises intermedia. I saw the leaves in several 
places, but could only obtain one flower. It may be a later bloomer 
than N. lutca, as I understand is the case with a small-flowered 
Canadian plant. Potamoyeton mucronatus also occurs copiously in the 
Basingstoke Canal about Aldershot, both in Surrey and Hampshire, 
for which latter county it is, I believe, a new record. It was (July) 
in fine fruit at this station ; but although the plant also occurs 
abundantly lower down the canal at Woking, it does not appear to 
fruit there at all. P. rufc.scens also occurred in the Basingstoke 
Canal near Aldershot ; it is new to North Hants. — W. H. Beeby. 



A Note on Specific Names. — Since the March number of the 
' Journal of Botany' appeared, I have repeatedly been asked why 
should adjectival specific names derived from other genera be 
spelled with a small letter instead of a capital ? I purpose 
answering this briefly, and at the same time take the opportunity 
of alluding to one or two matters related to it. It may be stated at 
the outset that we have a choice of three methods: (]) we may 
slavishly copy every name as set forth by its author ; (2) we may 
copy his plan of working, following the spirit rather than the 
letter; (3) we may frame entirely novel methods of writing. Tlie 
last may be set aside without further cereuiony ; the first plan 
would entangle us in absurdities without number. Here arc a few 
samples of the guise under which some plants were first published 



280 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

by Linnnsus : — Jji/t/irnni, hijluii [folia [= thi/mifolia] ; Alstramcria 
peler/incB [= pdcyriiia] ; Cassia Sojihera \== 0. Suplwra, sec. auct. 
plur.] ; Aiiin)inmi (iran. parad. ; Veronica Anaijall. We arc, there- 
fore, obliged to follow the second plan, and adopt the sensible 
plan of finding out the master's method and falling in with it. 
Linna3us appears to have cared comparatively little for consistency 
in printing his specific names. Compare the following : — Ant/ie- 
ricuiii. .isj>hu(U'loides, ajud He Ion las aspliodeluides ; L. Tlujiidfolia, and 
E. thymifolia ; SteUaria Cerastoides, and Silene cerastoides ; Cherleria 
Sedoides, and Pentlwrum sedoides. It would be needless to give 
further examples ; suffice it to say that without attempting a 
complete census, in at least three cases out of four, in spite of 
these variations, the usual practice of Linnasus was to use a small 
letter for specific names, excepting in the cases particularised 
under the headings a, b, d, and e on page 81 of this volume. As 
regards the item of using a capital in such cases as Eucalyptus 
Globulits, La Billardiere, I do not think it can be maintained, as a 
rule ; for if it were we must, perforce, alter such names as 
Calijsteijia sepinm, E.Br., Vicia sepiiuii, L., Fninus avium, L. (which 
is often written Avium in British books), Semqiervivmn tectorum, L., 
Amomum tiuiMicliinornm, Thev., and similar instances. I am in- 
debted to Dr. Ahrling, of Arboga, for pointing out to me the 
earliest use of the binominal system of nomenclature by Linn£Bus : 
it occurs in the index of his ' Olandska och Gothliinska resa,' 
which was published in 1745 ; whilst the ' Pan Suecus ' was not 
issued before December, 17-41). — B. D. Jackson. 



Notices of BooUs antr ilTcmoivs* 



Manual of British Botany, containing the Floweriny Plants and Ferns, 
arranyed accordiny to the Xatural Orders. By Charles Caedale 
Babington, M.A., F.R.S. Eighth edition, corrected through- 
out. London: Van Voorst, 1881 (pp. xlviii., 485). 

The issue of a new edition of ' Babington's Manual' is always 
an event of great interest to the British botanist, especially if he be 
of the critical school. The words " corrected throughout " which 
appear upon the title-page are always amply justified by the 
contents of the volume : and although many of the alterations 
introduced into each successive edition seem in themselves trifling, 
they show a gratifying anxiety for accuracy in details, and that no 
pains have been spared to ensure a satisfactory result. Of the 
general scope and plan of a book so well known it is quite needless 
to speak. But a little space may be profitably occupied in pointing 
out the more important alterations which are contained in this 
eighth edition. The additions to the list of species and varieties 
are as follow ; many of them are akeady familiar to our readers 
through the j)ages of this Journal : — 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIKS. 281 

Rannncidus triphyllus, Wallr. A Batrachium from Guernsey, 
which, however, is not iuchicled iu square brackets, as is usual with 
Channel Island plants. 

Swjina apetala, L., (i. prostmta, Bab. The prostrate form of 
this species, "common on gravel walks"; it was referred to, but 
not named in ed. 7. 

'■■■Laratera sijlvestris, Brot. See ' Journ Bot.,' 1877, pp. 257-259, 
where it is recorded not only from the iScilly Isles, but also from 
Penzance. 

[Lathi/rus spJucricus, Eetz. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1874, p. 205.] 

liubus liemistenum, Miill. From Warwick, Cardigan, and 
Aberdeen. 

11. iliscolor, W. & N., /3. j)i(l)i;/erus, Bab. 

IL hirtijolius, MiiU., and R. mutahilh, Genev. These two 
Brambles lind a place iu Mr. Briggs's ' Flora of Plymouth.' 

R. emersistylus, Miill. This was formerly placed under R. 
fusco-ater as var. Brujtjsii. 

R.foliosus, Weihe, ft. R. adornatus, Miill. 

Ri. Koehleri, Weihe, ^. R. cavatifoUus, Miill. 
• '^' Claijtonia alsinoides, Sims. 

Apium nodifiuriuii, Eeicli., y. ocreatum. 

Artemisia vuh/aris, L., /3. A. coaictata, Forcell. 

Senecio spathulatus, DC. This is the Holyhead plant which has 
in preceding editions been regarded as a variety of S. cainpestris, 
DC. Nyman (' Conspectus,' p. 352) places this under Cineraria 
lanceolata, Lam., but does not give it as British. 

Hieraciiun Dewari, Syme. 

Campamda rutundifolia, L., var. arctic/i, Lange (Tunis Boffin, 
Ireland). This seems to be the variety called speciusa iu ' Journ. 
Bot.,' 1876, p. 373. 

Erijthraa capitata, Willd. See 'Journ. Bot.,' 1881, p. 87, 
where, besides the Isle of Wight locahty given by Prof. Babington, 
it is recorded from Newhaven, Sussex, by Mr. Townsend. A 
section of the genus, characterised by having the " stamens from 
base of cor. -tube," has had to be formed for this remarkable little 
plant, which stands in the 'Botanical Exchange Club Keport ' 
for 1880 as K. splmrocepliala, Townsend; it has not, however, 
})reviously been actually published under that name.''' PI. tenuijiora, 
Link (see ' Journ. Bot.,' 1879, p. 329), is placed by Babington as a 
variety of K. pulchella, Fr. — an opinion in which we fully concur ; 
Nyman, however ('Conspectus,' p. 502), follows Grisebach, 
Willkomm, Grcnier and Godrou, and other continental botanists, 
in uniting it with /•,'. lati folia, Sm. ; a proceeding agamst which we 
have protested in this Journal for 1872 (p. 1U7). 

rtricularia Rronii, Heer. See 'Journ. Bot.,' 187G, p. 146. 
Although numbered, this is placed in square brackets, and is only 
spoken of as " probably" growing "in Moss of Inshoch, Nairn, and 
Loch of Spynie." 



* The propfT iiamc! of the English plaut is Enjthrcea capitata, Willd., var. 

spharoccpliala, Towusuud. 

2 o 



282 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

I'lanttKjo intrrwedia, Gilib. (placed under P. major, L.) " L. 
downy, scapes terete downy arcuate spreading, is probably 
distinct. It is not very rare in England." 

Rnnu'x rnpoitrlH, Le Gall. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1876, 1. 

Salix Sadlcri, 8yme. " I have not seen this plant, and it may 
be misplaced here." See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1875, p. 33. 

F.jnpacLis cioJacm, Br. = E. media, Fr. /3. purpii7'at(i of ed. 7. 
See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1881, p. 71. 

Potamo(jeton Zizii, Eoth. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1879, p. 289. 

Carex ornithopoda, Willd. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1875, p. 192. 

C. ])UHlif('ra, L., var. Leesii, Kidley. See 'Journ. Bot.,' 1881, 
p. 97. The locality " Glen Callater, Braemar," is given in addition 
to the original one. 

AntJwxanthu))). Puellii [Puelii] , Lee. & Lam. See 'Journ. Bot.,' 
1875, p. 1. Admitted as a true native. 

C.frigida, All. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1875, p. 34. 

Nitella prolifera, Iviitz. 

Chara steUiz/era, Bauer. See ' Journ. Bot.,' 1881, p. 1. We note 
that this name is allowed to stand, instead of C. oUusa, Desv., 
with which the Messrs. Groves identify C. stelligera. 

C. contraria, A. Br. " Frensham Little Pond, Surrey (1881), 
Mr. W. H. Beeby." The first announcement of this species as 
British. 

(!. polyacantha, Braun. 

C. baltica, Fr. First notice as British. 

C. connivens, Braun. 

C.frayifera, Desv. 

The account of the Characeie is almost entirely re-written, and 
repeated reference is made to " Messrs. Groves's valuable paper" 
in this Journal for 1880. The genus Nitella is separated from 
Chara, with which it was combined in preceding editions. 

As a set-off against these additions, we note the disappearance 
of a considerable number of plants whose always doubtful claims 
to admission in British lists may now be considered finally disposed 
of. Such, for example, are Cardamlne heUidifolia, Silene alpistris, 
Arenaria fastyjiata, SteUaria scapigera, Spergula pentundra, Malva 
verticillata, Hypericum harhutum, Staphi/lea pinnata, Potentilla alba, 
P. tridentata, Uosa rabella, E, Dicksoni, Pi. cinnamomea, Cotyledun 
lutea, Charophglliuii aureum, C. aromaticum, Gentiana acanlis, 
Swirtia perennis, Echinospermum. Lappula, Euphorbia Characias, 
Salix petiolaris, S. hastata. Crocus sativus, Scilla bifolia, Junrua 
temiis, Tijpha viinor, Carex Jiordciformis, and Lgcopodium complanation. 
Some of our older botanists may be inclined to regret, upon 
sentimental grounds, the rejection of names which have always 
been familiar to them in British books ; but, with the possible 
exception of Kchinosjieriinon Lappula, which makes its appearance 
from time to time, although in no great quantity, the plants above 
named have no more claim to appear in our lists than others which 
have disappeared at an earlier date — such as lianunculus gramineus, 
E. alpestris, and Papaver nudicaide. We should not have been 



NOTICES OK BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 283 

sorry had the list of exchisions been extended so as to iuchide 
Sempervivum tectoriivi and Farinas alpinus. There are a few 
omissions upon other grounds : Thalictrum saxatile, for example, of 
ed. 7, " appears to be a smaller form" of T. majus, and is placed 
with it; and Potentilla intennedia, liumex ibiiosufi, and Farietaria 
erecta have disappeared ; there is no reference to Ranunculus 
Boreanus under //. acris, and Uuhus Lecui, the distinct position of 
which has for some time been doiibtful, becomes a variety of R. 
Idceiis. 

The changes in nomenclature are few ; fewer indeed than we 
suspect would be the case if "the author's wish to adopt in all 
cases those names which have the claim of priority unless good 
cause should be shown for a contrary proceeding " had been 
strictly carried out. We are glad to welcome back Arenaria 
trinervia (the specific name erroneously spelt Avith a capital initial 
letter) after its long exclusion in favour of A. trinervis (see ' Journ. 
Bot.,' 1881, p. 78); Riibus jjrcpniptorwn, BouL, replaces R. pyymcBUs, 
"Bab., not Weihe" of ed. 7; Rosa hihructeata, Bast., formerly 
ranked as a variety of R. arvensh, now supersedes R. stijiosa 
of ed. 7; Crepis hieracioides, W. & K., takes precedence of C. 
succiscefolia , Tausch.; Hieracmmpratense,Yv., replaces "ii^. dubium, 
L. — Fr.," of ed. 7 as a name for the plant figured and described in 
this Journal for 18G8 as H. collinum; Atriplex deltoidea, /3. tri- 
an(/ularis, takes now the varietal name salina; Romulea Coiumna 
Eeich., supersedes Triclionema ; Crocus argentea, Salisb., replaces 
( '. hijlonis, ]\Iiill. ; the variety /3. of Agrostis alba is A. stolonifera, L., 
instead of subrepevs. Here and there a name for a previously un- 
named variety has slipped in ; as in the case of the prostrate form 
of Sagina ajietida, already referred to, and in that of the purple- 
flowered Scilly form of TnJ'olium repens, which is here called 
T. Townsendii. Even so small a matter as the including of 
certain species in square brackets has been attended to and 
revised ; we find the following plants, Tamaiix avgliva, Pulmovaria 
officinalis, and Rumex covspersus so distinguished now, ^vhicli were 
not bracketed in ed. 7 ; while the brackets have been removed 
from (Knothera Idennis, (K. macrucarpa, Centrantlius Calcitrapa, 
Valeriana injrenaica, Lyciuni barbarum, Allium, triquetruni, and 
Serrafaicus arvensis. One or two introductions seem to us to 
deserve the *, which signifies "certainly naturalized," at least as 
much as some, if not all, of the preceding; Lepidiuiii Draha, for 
instance, although mainly increasing by means of roots, never- 
theless sometimes produces ripe seed; Geranium striatum seems to 
deserve a rather more detailed notice, as it is " quite established" 
about Plymouth (sec ' Flora of Plymouth,' p. 69) and elscAvhere. 

A few small matters seem to have escaped notice : Xujihar 
pu)iiila, for instance, is of Smith, not of IJeCandolle ; Galium 
cruciatitm should ])e Galiu)u Cruciata : Carduua ]\'i)()dicardsii {it.'IOHj 
should be C. Woodnardii; Polyyonum macidatuiu, Dyer, should be 
assigned to Dyer & Trimen (see 'Journ. Bot.,' 1871, p. 30); and 
" Knapwell" (p. 04, and in Index) should be " Knawell." These 
are small matters ; but it would be well to ])revent their repetition 



284 NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 

in another edition. We are glad to note that " Iluds.'' is sub- 
stituted for " L.'' as the authority for Trifolium meditiiii. In a few 
cases the records in this Journal, which are as a rule referred to in 
iin[)oi-taiit cases, seem to have been overlooked : ^._r/., the range of 
liarliarcd stricta in the London district extends considerably beyond 
the "Thames near Kew" (see ' Journ. Bot.,' 1871, p. 218; 1878, 
p. 3-47) ; the Somersetshire station for Althcea hirsuta (where 
Mr. Baker considers it "a true native," 'Journ. Bot.,' 1875, 
p. 358) should have been added, as well as the Kent locality for 
Lathi/ni.s liirsutiis (ih,, 1878, p. 247) ; there is no mention of 
Medirai/o lappacea, a plant brought into notice by Mr. R. A. Pryor 
(/7^, 1870, p. 22), and seemingly at least as noteworthy as his 
Lat/ii/nis sijIuBrictis, which Prof. Babington includes; the established 
Asters might have been increased by a species which has long 
been quite at home in various localities near London (ib., 1870, 
p. 8) ; and Mr. French showed clearly {ib., 1875, p. 292) that Suli-id 
pratensis in Oxfordshire was by no means restricted to the single 
locality of Middleton Stoney. 

Some of the remarks added to this edition are very suggestive, 
as is also the way in which descriptions are often improved by the 
addition of characters previously unnoticed ; such, for example, as 
those derived from the stamens and styles in the species of Iltibus. 
Of this genus, Prof. Babington says that "when the continental 
plants are better known, it is feared that considerable changes of 
nomenclature will be necessary" ; while of liosa he writes, " We 
want a thorough monograph of this genus." Ononis has received 
important revision : O. arvensis, L., is stated to be stolonifcrous, 
while 0. eampestris, Koch, is not so ; of the former, two forms are 
given: " o. glandular, fl.-l. equalling or surpassing cal., pod 
shorter than calyx. — /3. maritima : glandular-villose, fl.-l. falling 
short of cal., pod as long or longer than calyx." "Nutlets" is 
substituted for "nuts" in the descriptions of the fruit of Ldbiatir. 
and Borrcujinecr. The most important of the alterations which 
have attracted our notice (apart from the introduction of new 
species and others already mentioned) will be found in the genera 
Euphrasia, Utricularia, Jvpipactis, Potamogeton, ZanniclieUia, and 
Phhmm. 

It would savour of impertinence were we to compliment Professor 
Babington upon his work. But we may be allowed to congratulate 
British botanists upon the fact that the writer who has done more 
than anyone else to encourage the critical study of British plants, 
during a period extending over more than forty years is still 
working in their interest. J. B. 

We have received from the authors, Messrs. Chas. F. Wheeler 
and Erwin F. Smith, a well-printed and handy ' Catalogue of the 
Ph.enogamous and Vascular Cryptogamous Plants of Michigan, 
indigenous, naturalized, and adventive.' The number of species 
enumerated is 1G34 ; many additions are expected, as some parts 
of tlie State have been rarely visited by botanists. The Catalogue 
contains cue new species, Sali.r (jlaucupliylla, M. S. Bebb; and is 



NOTICES OF BOOKS AND MEMOIRS. 285 

preceded by a good map of the State. We are sorry to see pro- 
miueuce given to so-called "English" names: such names as 
"Naked-gland Orchis" for Habenaria tridcnt.ata, or "Divaricate 
Phlox" for Phlox dintrlatta, have nothing to recommend them, 
and should not be encouraged. 

The National Society has commenced the issue of a series of 
' Botany Reading Books, in accordance with the New Code of 1880.' 
The first of these has reached us ; it contains a good deal of 
information, expressed in the dialogue form which seems to be 
considered almost essential in books of the kind ; and the cuts, 
although old friends, are clean and well chosen. This part is 
designed for the " second standard," and is devoted to " vegetable 
life, illustrated from plants easily met with." The author is the 
Eev. A. Johnson. 

OuK old correspondent, Dr. A. Ernst, of Caracas, sends us a 
summary of, course of lectures on systematic botany delivered by 
him in the University of that place, and devoted to jjrief diagnoses 
of the more important families cf plants represented in the flora of 
Venezuela. 

Mr. G. C. Druce is publishing what appears to be a carefully 
executed Flora of Northamptonsliire in the ' Journal of the North- 
ampton Natural History Society.' The 'Journal' itself deserves a 
word of praise on account of the great prominence given in its 
pages to local Natural History. 

The ' Report of the Distributor [Mr. James Groves] for 1880 ' 
of the Botanical Exchange Club has been issued : we hope to give 
extracts from it in an early number. 



New Books. — C. C. Baeington, ' Manual of British Botany,' 
ed. viii. (London : Van Voorst, 10s. Gd.). — C. F. Wheeler and 
G. F. Smith, ' Catalogue of the Phtenogamous and Vascular Crypto- 
gamous Plants of Michigan ' (Lansing : George, 1881 ; 50 cents.) 



Articles in Journals. — July. 

Botanical Gazette. — G. Engelmann, ' Additions to N. American 
Flora ' [Portulaca su^'rutescens, Campanula scahrella, spp. nov.). — 
C. H. Peck, ' New Species of Fungi' ( Uromyces Fsoralm, U. Zyrjadeni, 
jEcidium Sarcobati, Synchytriuiii Jonesii, Bulgaria fipon(iiosa). 

Botanisrhc Zeitnng. — H. Hoffmann, ' Eotrospect of Researches 
in Variation in 1855-1880 ' (concluded). — T. W. Engelmann, 'New 
methods for investigating the giving off of Oxygen by plants.' — 
H. G. Reiclicnbach, ' Orchidea; Hildobrandtiana).' — F. Kamicnski, 
'The Vegetative Organs of Munotrujni lli/jioijiti/s.' — J. Rostaliuski, 
' On the lied Colouring-matter of some Chlorophycea:.' — F. Darwin, 
' On Circumnutation in some unicellular organs,' 

BiiUt'tin of 'lorrci/ Hat. Cluh (June). — G. E. Davenport, ' A now 
N. American Fern' {('/icilantlus J'Kria/iii, 1 tab.). — 11. L. Fairchild, 
'A recent deterniiinition of Lejddodendron.' — J. 13. I'Ulis, 'New 



28(5 BOTANICAL NEWS. 

N. Amoricon Fnn,oi.' — W. G. Farlow, ' Unusnal habit of i'njn-invR.' 
— Id., ' Note oai IjnuinarUe.' — W. Trelease, ' Note on perforation of 
Flowers.' — M. E. Jones, 'Notes from Utah' {Gilia scapulorum, 
n. s[).).— (July). J. B.Ellis, 'New N. American Fungi.' — E. P. 
Bicknell, ' Stamens within the Ovary of Sali.v.' — F. L. Scribner, 
' Cohesion of Glumes in Atjrostis data,' ' List of State and Local 
Floras of United States.' 

Flora. — E. Arnold, ' Lichenological Fragments' (1 tab.) (con- 
cluded). — M. Gaudoger, ' Salices Nova3.' — H. G. Reichcnbach, 
' Orchideffi describuntur.' — D. Gronen, 'On two new Plants from 
Karnten ' ( PJujteuma confiisum, Kerner, and Rhanmus carniolica, 
Kerner). 

Hedirujia. — G. v. Niessl, ' A new Pyreuomyceta ' {Leptosph(eria 
mirabilis). 

Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany, vol. xviii., No. 113). — 
M. T. Masters, ' On the Conifers of Japan ' (2 tab.).— C. B. Clarke, 
' On [dimorphism in] Arnehia and Macrotomia.' 

M(((ji/ar Xovemjtani Lapok. — Biography of Schlciden. 

Naturalist. — W. West, ' Cryptogamic Eeports for 1880 of York- 
shire Naturalists' Union ' (continued). 

CEsterreicldsche Bot, Zeitschrift. — J, A. Knapp, 'Vincent v. 
Borbas ' (portrait). — C. Henning, ' On the torsion of Tree-stems 
as a principle of stability.' — A, Tomaschek, ' Development of 
lenticels in Avi^ielopsis hederacea.' — C. Untchj, ' On the Flora of 
Fume.' — G. Winter, ' On the /Ecidium of TripltraipDium.'' — B. 
Biocki, ' On Dr. Weiss's Herbarium in Lemberg University.' — 
P. Sintenis, ' Flora of Cyprus ' (contd.). — P. G. Strobl, ' Flora of 
Etna' (contd.). 

Scottish Xaturalist. — J. Stirton, 'On the genus Usnea, and 
another (Eumitria, gen. nov.) allied to it ' (many new species). — J. 
Knox, ' Life of George Don ' (contd.). — J.Stevenson, ' Mycologia 
Scotica ' (contd. : Peziza [Sarcoscypha) hulbocrinita, Phillips MSS.). 
— J. Cameron, ' Gaelic Names of Plants ' (contd.). — F, B. White, 
' Preliminary List ' of Perthshire Plants. 



Botantcal Nclwss. 



We learn from the ' Bulletin ' of the Torrcy Club for July that 
]\Iuhlcnberg's Herbarium is in the possession of the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. Muhlenberg was one of the 
earliest American botanists, — he died in 1815, — and his collections, 
altliough at the present day they would be considered small, are of 
liistoric value as containing the materials upon which his descrip- 
tions were based. The plants are in fine preservation, but 
unfortunately are not localised. 

GoTTLOB Ijudwig Ea]5enhorst was born on the 22nd March, 
1800, at Treuenbrietzeu, in Brandenburg. After a private education 



BOTANICAX, NEWS. 287 

he entered on the study of pharmacy in 1822, and passed the 
necessary examination with much lionour in 1830, after serving the 
conditional time, performing his military duties, and attending the 
Berlhi University. In 1831 he married, and bought an apothecary's 
business in Luckau, in Niederlausitz. On the death of his first 
wife in 18-40 he left his business and went to Dresden, where he 
devoted himself entirely to botanical studies. He obtained the 
degree of Doctor in Jena in 1841. From 1849, when he married 
a second time, to 1875, he remained in Dresden, prosecuting his 
work. In the latter year he removed to Villa Luisa, near Meissen. 
Age, and an affection of the heart, Avith its consequences, overtook 
him, and, in spite of his residence in the country, from which he 
had hoped for relief, at last ended in his death on the 24th of April 
of this year. As early as the time of his pharmaceutical studies, 
Kabeuhorst earnestly carried on botanical researches, as appears 
from the ' Flora Lusatica,' published in 1839-40 ; but after his 
removal to Dresden his activity in botanical matters increased. 
His works are so well knoAvn to our readers that it will not 
be necessary to say much of them here. A critical and very just 
estimate of them appeared in the ' Botanische Zeitung ' for the 8th 
of July last, written by Prof, de Bary, from which the information 
as to his life given here is taken. Of perhaps his most useful 
work — the published sets of cryptogamous plants — it may be well to 
say that they receive the highest praise from the Professor. One 
point as to the nature of these collections it may be well to notice. 
Kabenhorst treated them (consisting as they did largely of contri- 
butions from correspondents) as an editor of a scientific journal 
treats the authors of the papers it contains, namely, he gave it to 
be understood that each contributor is responsible for the nature 
and naming of his specimens. Looking at these published sets 
with this in mind they are, says Prof, de Bary, " an unrivalled 
performance," and those who have had occasion to prove their 
usefulness will heartily concur. In addition to his systematic 
books, he was editor until 1878 of ' Hedwigia.' 

John Duncan, 'weaver and botanist,' died at Alford, Aberdeen- 
shire, on the 9th of August. He was born at Stonehaven, in 
Kincardineshire, on December 24th, 1794, was early sent to work, 
and became a country weaver — an occupation which he followed 
until his death. He was a man of little education, but from an 
early period took much interest in Natural History. In 1885 he 
made the acquaintance of Charles Black, a working man, twenty 
years his junior, and apparently a man of a wider range of study 
and a more liberal education ; and from that time his scientific 
study of plants may be said to date. His investigations of the local 
botany were painstaking and extensive ; and these were for many 
years extended by his hiring himself as a harvester to farmers in 
different parts of the country, thus securing a fresh field for his 
observations, while at the same time adding to his income. His 
herbarium, which was extensive, containing over 1100 species, was 
lately presented, as noticed at p. 04 of this journal, to the University 
of Aberdeen. " His memory being as strong as his use of the 



2Bb BOTANICAL NEWS. 

pen was weak, lie did uot write down any details of the plants 
collected, but be could tell all these when asked with unerring 
precision, as well as relate the varied incidents, interesting, 
humourous, happy or hard, connected with their discovery. The 
names and localities have been successfully obtained from him 
and written down by the help of one of his disciples, Mr. J, M. B. 
Taylor, of Aberdeen, who prepared the herbarium for the Uni- 
versity." (' Nature,' Jan. 20, 1881). Interesting as his life must 
have been, and valuable as an example of w'hat may be done 
under most unfavourable circumstances, it is scarcely more re- 
markable than the life spent by many working-men naturalists in 
Lancashire and Yorkshire at the present time. In saying this we 
are far from wishing to disparage in the faintest degree the subject 
of this notice ; we only wish to show that so gratifying a trait is 
probably more widely extended than the readers and writers of 
the lives of men of the Duncan stamp are apt to suppose. 

We learn from the ' Botanisches Centralblatt ' that Dr. Oluf 
ExEROTH, the author of the ' Svensk Pomona,' an elaborately 
illustrated work, died at Upsala on 21st May last. He w^as born 
loth April, 1825, and was therefore in his fifty-sixth year. 

Matthias Jakob Schleiden, who died 23rd June of this year at 
Frankfurt-am-Maiu, was born 6th April, 1804, at Hamburg. He 
was intended for the legal profession, but not liking it he tiu'ned 
his attention to botany, and in 1839 was appointed Professor at 
Jena ; in 1863 being transferred to Dorpat. Pritzel gives fifteen 
titles, exclusive of translations, as proceeding from his pen, the 
most widely-known being his ' Grundziige der wissenschaftlichen 
Botanik' in 1842-43, of which an English version, by Dr. Edwin 
Lankester, was issued in 1849. His latest productions were 'Die 
Eose, Geschichte uud iSymbulik,' in 1873 ; and a pamphlet on the 
importance of the Jews in the Middle Ages, in 1877. 

Michael Pakenham Edgewoeth, brother of Miss Edgeworth the 
novelist, died on the 30th of July in the island of Eigg, Inverness- 
shire, aged 69. He belonged to the Civil Service Department 
of the Bengal Presidency, and paid great attention to botany whilst 
in India. His principal papers on the subject are : — " Descriptions 
of some unpublished species of plants from Noi'th- Western India," 
in the Liunean Society's Transactions, vol. xx. ; " Catalogue of 
plants found in the Bauda district, 1847-49'' ; and "A couple of 
hours' herborisation at Aden,"' in vol. xxvi. of the ' Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal' ; and his "Florula Mallica '" and " Flora 
of Banda," in the 6th and 9th volumes of the ' Journal of the Lin- 
nean Society.' His most recent systematic work is in the 'Flora 
of British India,' for which (in 1874), in conjunction with Sir J. D. 
Hooker, he monographed the CanjophjUacccr. His collections are 
in the Kew Herbarium. He came home to England many years 
ago, W'ith health a good deal impaired, and since then has resided 
in the neighbourhood of London. Durmg the later years of his 
life he worked a good deal with the microscope, and his book on 
' Pollen ' was noticed at p. 315 of this Joiu-ual for 1877 ; a second 
edition of this w'as published in 1879. 



280 



^viginal ^litcics. 



ON THE NATUEAL OliDER TACCACEA^ ; WITH 
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS. 

By Henby Fletcher Hance, Ph.D., F.L.S., &c. 

The small order of Taccaceas has consisted hitherto of but two 
genera, containing about a dozen or rather more species, distributed 
throughout the mountainous regions of India, the Malayan archi- 
pelago, the Philippines, Australia, Polynesia, Madagascar, and 
Guiana. Its relationship has been diversely interpreted. Tacca 
was placed by A. L. de Jussieu, together with Hypoxis, Pontederia, 
Poliaiithrs, and Alstncmeria, amongst the "genera Narcissis non 
omniuo affinia," of the precise position of which he felt no doubt.''' 
Robert Brown remarked — " Inter Aroideas et Aristolochias locanda 
sit Tacca, illarum nonuuUis foliis peculiaribus similis, nee scminum 
germinatioue multum diversa ; his tamen fioris et pericarpii 
structura propius accedcns " t ; and a similar view was taken by 
Blume. The elder Reichenbach located Tacca in his family 
Aroidece, associating with it Acorm, (Jruntiu)ih, Peliosanthem, Krio- 
spermeoi, and Tupistrccc, as well as yepenthes, Sarracenia, and 
Pi.oxhurijhia.\ At a later period, in a work apparently little known 
to botanists, he made several important modifications in this 
scheme, — transferring Aconis, Kriospermeif, and liijxhun/hia to 
Smilacecr,, at some distance from Aroidea;, bringing Ncpcntlies and 
NymphiBaceic under Hi/drochaiidecB, and altogether removing Sarra- 
cenia to ('IstinecE.l Bartling ranged it as a special family of his 
grand division Dieotyledonete chlamydoblastse, between Asarinetc, in 
his class Aristolocldece, and Saururea;m. that oi Piperinea-.W Lindley, 
in his ' Nixus Plantarum ' (1833), placed it next to Burmanniaceoi, 
at the end of his Narcissales, in the epigynous cohort of Endogens, 
and touching Iridccc in Ixialcs ; but in his latest work he con- 
sidered the true relation to be with Aracece, or at least with those 
bisexually-flowering genera wliicli he separated under the name of 
Orontuiceai, and of which these appeared to him to be an epigynous 
form : he added that the resemblance to ArUtolocldaceui seemed so 
slight as to be unworthy of notice.^' By Martius Taccece were 
classed in his cohort Stegocarpea; hexandra;, between IH(m'orc(r and 
J li/jiuxidece ;'■''•'■ whilst Herbert, though he doubtfully enumerated 

• Gen. riant. 50 (17ft0). § Report, lierbarii, .'(2, 34, 18K (18-11;. 

t Trodr. Fl. Nov. Roll., Isis eclu. b»2 || Oril. nat. plant. 82 (1H;J0). 

(1810). II Vef?. Kinf-il. 1-11) (ISif)). 

I Couspuct. icgii. vef,'. il (1H2K). •* Consp. regn. veg. !J (1835). 

N. s. VOL. 10. [OcTOitKi;, 1H81.] 2 V 



290 



UN THE NATURAL ORDER TACCACEA;. 



them as a suboi'cler of A)ii«ri/llidacece, declared it as his opinion that 
this was not their true place, but that they formed a distinct 
" subspadiceous subcorolliform " order, with an evident affinity to 
Orontiaceff.-'- Endlicher, remarking that by artificial characters they 
must be stationed next DioscoreacecR, considered their natural 
position to be between Aracetv and Aristol<)clii(icc(r.\ Perleb 
expressed utter uncertainty as to then- systematic place;:]: whilst 
Baskerville inserted them between Aracem and Pandanacea; ',^ A. 
Brongniart between Asteliea and IHoscoridecr , in his class Liriuidetc :\\ 
Meissner between Liliacccv. and Dioscoreacca: .•"' Horaninow at first 
between Tamaccoi and Pandanacea, combining with them Tupistrece 
and PeUosantlieoi/''''^' but in a subsequent publication between 
Tamacea and Araceff, adding to them Thisiniecc.]^ According to 
Kunth the family stands between Dioscureacem and AuuinjUiditcecr ; J| 
whilst Grisebacli reduced both it and AmaryllidacecB to mere tribes 
of LiliaceiC.l^ J. G. Agardh writes : — " Taccacece sunt Aristolochieis, 
Dioscoreis, Bromellaceis, Puxhurghiaceis plus minus analogge, Aspi- 
distreis proxime coUaterales, formam superiorum hermaphroditam 
Cryptocorynearum, ut videtm', constituentes."|||| Miquel placed 
Taccacecr between Dioscureacem and In'daccfE ;%*^. J. D. Hooker 
merges them in Biuiiunmiacea;, stationed between Awaryllidacea and 
Dioscoreacece ;*''''^ and in Alexander Braun's classification, now a 
good deal followed in Germany, they stand betweeii Dioscoreaceai 
and Ha:mudoraceic .■\ j- i In his very original system of classification, 
Mr. Benjamin Clarke places Taccacett in the same alliance with 
Biinnanniacea;, in his Orchidal group of procarpous endondiizal 
Endogens, and he remarks that he has no doubt the family is nearly 
allied to OrchidacecE.H'l Simultaneously also Baillon, as the result 
of an organogenic study of the flowers of Tacca, arrived at the 
conclusion that Taccacece are substantially (hxhidacecr. with regular 
fiowers.§§§ Le Maout and Decaisne, following as they say A. da 
Jussieu, ranged the order between Iridncea: and Diuscoreace(r.\\\\\\ 
In a paper on Aristolochia, Dr. Masters showed that, regard being- 
had to a number of the most important characters which they 
possess in common, Taccacece hold about the same relation to 
Arktolocliiacecc as Santalacece and Araceir., but agree less than do 
Dioscoreaceai •,*<*v^' but he of course admitted that the dicotyledonoiis 
orders were ipso facto removed from close affinity. M. Lerolle, in a 
brief note on the arrangement of Monocotyledons, places Taccacece 
in the Amarylloideous alliance of his petaloid Monocotyledons, next 



* AmarylUdacea, 45, 48, 03, 3:3:1 (1830). |]|| Theor. svst. plant. 33 {185H). 

+ Gen. Plant. 139 (18:36); Enchir. bot. H'l Fl. Ind. bot. iii. 570 (1850). 

93 (1841). *** In Thwaite.s's Enum. pi. Zeyl. 

+ Clavis regn. veg. 14 note (1838). 3-25 (1804). 

§ Affin. of Plants, 92(1839). ftt Oiven in Sachs's Text-book of 

II Enum. d. genr. de pi. xv. (1843). Bot. 555 (1804). 

1[ Plant, vase. gen. 403 (1843). \\\ New arrangeni. of Phanerog. PL 

** Tetractys Natuiic, 23 (1843). 10, tab. 1 (1800). 

tt Prodr. monogr. Seitam. 4, note (1872). §§§ Adausonia, vi. 242 (ISOG). 

+ + Enum. plant, v. 457 (18.50). |l|||| Traite gen. de bot. 572 (1808). ' 

§§ Grundr. d. syst. Bot. 104 (1854). *\ 11 1i Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv. 491 (1875). 



ON THE NATURAL OKDER TACCACEiE. 291 

to TDioscoreacem ;* and Eichler, who alludos to tliem under that 
family, avows that he can say nothing of them h-om his own 
investigations.! In his last sketch of the systematic grouping of 
Monocotyledons, Bentham stations Taccacea; in his epigynous cohort, 
between AmanjU idaceoi and Dioscoreacece, considering Burmanniaceoi 
as a very faudy limited distinct order. | And finally, to close this 
long, and I fear, to the reader, tedious recapitulation, Beccari has 
recently expressed his opinion that Taccacea. are closely allied to 
Dioscureacea, Burnianniaced; (ineluiling Thismia), lia^cdacecB, and 
Aristolocldace<c, all of which orders he regards as belonging to 
Monocotyledons. § 

From the above view it will, I think, appear that a majority of 
modern botanists are disposed to regard Taccacecu as most nearly 
allied to AviaryJlidaceic [sensu latiore) and Diuscoreacea;, Without 
entering into any general discussion, I may say that I am unable 
to concur in the view maintained by Brown, Pieichenbach, and 
J. D, Agardh that there is a dii'ect afiiuity with Aracea, considering 
the asserted resemblances as merely siinulamina ; that I cannot help 
also regarding the relationship with Aspidistra, Tnpistra, and 
especially Plectoi/i/ne, which later botanists have been disposed, as 
it seems to me, to rate too low, as very close indeed, more so than 
with AmaryllidacccB, notwithstanding their hypogynous flowers and 
few- seeded fruit ; and the varying degree of cohesion with or 
freedom from the ovary of the calyx-tube in Bromeliacea may, 
I suppose, be adduced as an argument in favour of my view. I 
believe also that there is a singular analogy, if nothing more, 
through Asarum, with Aristolockiacect, which indeed seem to stand 
on the line separating the two vast primary divisions of the world 
of phfenogamous plants. I fail to recognise any dii'ect affinity with 
Orchidacem. 

As already observed, the order has hitherto consisted of but 
two genera, Tacca and Ataccia, the latter differing in comparatively 
few particulars, so that it has been admitted with hesitation by some 
writers, II and altogether rejected by others, as Miquel, Bentham, 
and J. D. Hooker. The differential characters, as given by authors, 
may be thus formulated : — 

Tacca. Ataccia. 

1. Perigone-lobes nearly equal. Perigone-lobes unequal. 

2. Filaments cucullate upwards. Filaments concave upwards. 

3. Style 3-lobed at apex, lobes Style 3-lobed at apex, lobes 

bifid. emarginate. 

4. Fruit 1 -celled. Fruit semi-trilocular. 

5. Embryo next the basal hilum. Embryo basal, remote from 

the ventral hilum. 

6. Leaves much divided. Leaves quite entire. 

* Bull. soc. bot. de France, xxii. 270 J Journ. Liiin. Soc. xv. 493-4: (1877). 

(1«75). § Malesia, i. 24S {1.S78). 

+ Bliithendiagramme, i. 159 (1875). 

II "An genus satis a I'acca diversum"? (Endl. Gen. 159 ; Kuntli, Enum. 
Plant. V. 4(54). " Genre a peine autonoine" (Caillou, Diet, de bot. i. 007). 



292 ON' THE NATURAL, ORDER TACCACE^. 

Now it appears to me that these differences, in so small and 
comparatively isolated a family, are amply sufficient to justify the 
retention of hoth Tacca and Ataccia ; if this, however, be cc)ntested, 
the discovery of the very distinct and well-marked genus with 
which I have now the good fortune to augment this interesting 
group demonstrates, I conceive, the necessity of so doing. For, 
whilst it agrees with I'acca in the second, fourth, and fifth of the 
characters above noted, it accords with Ataccia in the first, third, 
and sixth, disagreeing with both notably, besides a few minor 
points, by its capsular fi-uit, from which circumstance I have given 
it the name of 

SCHIZOCAPSA. 

Perigonium calycinum ; tubus cum ovario connatus ; limbus 
superus, sexpartitus, infequalis, demum deciduus. Stamina 6, ea 
laciniis perigonii exterioribus opposita infra medium ipsarum, ea 
laciuiis interioribus opposita juxta basm inserta ; filamentis basi 
ad utrumque latus processu carnosula auctis, brevibus, apice cucul- 
latis, intus in cornua duo brevia deorsum productis ; antheris inter 
cornua adfixis, loculis parallelis, adproximatis. Ovarium cum 
perigonii tubumconnatum, 1-loculare; placentis parietalibus tribus, 
nerviformibus. Ovula plurima, adscendentia, ope funiculi adfixa, 
horizontalia, anatropa. Stylus brevis, 3-lamellato-alatus, alls 
inferne glanduloso-fimbriolatis, lobis 3 verticis umbraculiformis, 
latis, emarginatis, purpureo-marginatis, infra stigmatiferis, alter- 
uantibus, iisque tequilongis, alulisque 3 vix promiuulis, glanduloso- 
fimbriolatis, iis interjectis. Capsula 1-locularis, secus angulos in 
valvas 3 spongiosas mox recurvas, medio semuiiferas, ad basin 
usque dehiscens. Semina oblonga, curvula, testa primum vesicu- 
losa, mucosa, demum sicca, brunnea, longitudinaliter sulcatn- 
striata. Embryo minimus, in basi albuminis carnosi, hilo 
proximus. 

Herba austro-chinensis, radice perenni, tuberosa ; foliis radi- 
calibus, integris, nervosis, ptyxi plicativo-conduplicata ; scapis 
indivisis, floribus umbellatis, pedicellatis, pedicellis angulatis, 
sterilibus filiformibus iutermixtis, basi involucro tetraphyllo foliaceo, 
fultis. 

S. PLANTAGiNEA. — Tota glaberrima, foliis latiuscule lanceolatis 
integerrimis acutis inferne uudiilato-crispis in petiolum semi- 
pollicarem basi vaginantem sensim angustatis 8-9 poll, lougis 
2-2 i poll, latis costulis arcuatis utrinque 5-6 supra impressis 
subtus elevatis primordialibus orbiculato-ovatis longius petiolatis, 
scapis ancipitibus plurisulcatis 3-pollicaribus prostratis, iuvolucri 
phyllis 4 jBqualibus ovatis acutis 10 liu. longis, umbella 15-20- 
fiora,-'' floribus pedicello angulato 7-lineali fultis filamentis fili- 
formibus! flavis eos duplo superantibus intermixtis, perigonii 
flaventi-viridis lobis exterioribus lanceolatis primum erectis mox 



* According to Baillon (Adans. vi. 24S) the inlloresceiice is really composed 
of cincinni, or imiparous scorpioid c\mes. 

+ Baillon suspects these may really lepresent latiral bractlets ratlicr than 
abortive pedicels, as they aie always described to be. 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 293 

reflexisinteriores late ovatos emarginatos primo conniventes demum 
erectos duplo superantibus, capsula trigoua vertice convexo- 
coinplanata vestigiis alarum styli notata primum perigonii laciniis 
marcesceutibus niox delapsis corouata. 

In prov. Cantonensi, secus fl. North Eiver, m. Januario 1879 
detexit Eev. E.Faber, societatis Rheuanfe apud Siuas missiouarius. 
(Herb, propr. n. 21033.) 

I may note that the above description is drawn up from the 
living plant, which I have had in cultivation for upwards of a year 
and a half, flowering and ripening fruit in profusion. 



NOTES ON THE FLORA OF DEEBYSHIRE. 
By the Rev. W. H. Painter. 

(Concluded from p. 250.) 

Verbena officinalis, Linn. IV. Linton, Harris ; Morley, Wldttaker ; 
Melbourne ! Borrowash, Smith. 

Li/copiis enropcBus, Linn. IV. Repton, Haf/t/cr ; Derby ! 

Mentha rotundifolia, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, MluteUyi/. 

M. Piperita, Huds. IV. Winshill, Harris. 

M. sylvcstris, Linn. II. Aldercar, Smith. 

M. hirsjtta,Ijmii. IV. Morley! 

M. sativa, Linn. I. Youlgreave, Bailey. IV. Derby ! 

M. arvensis, Linn. I. Youlgreave, Bailey. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

Thymus Serpylluui, Fries. I. Baslow, Bailey ; Castlcton ! 
Buxton ! Dove Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Ori<jamu}ivuhiare,ljmn. I. Youlgreave, Jiailey; AshwoodDale! 

Calani iiitha Cliiinpodium, ^-ponn. I. Lathldll Dale; Via Gellia, 
Bailey ; Mousal Dale ! Dove Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. ^4 cm OS, Clair V. I. Wormhill, TIVs^; Dove Dale! IV. Fore- 
mark, Harris. 

C. menthifolia, Host. IV. Ockbrook, Smitli ; Linton, Harris, 

Nepeta Glechoma, Benth. Common. 

Prunella vulgaris, Linn. Common. 

Scutellaria yalericulata, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; 
Derby ! 

,S'. minor, Linn. IV. Repton Shrubs, Hayyer. 

r>allota ni'jra, Linn., vav.fietida, Linn. IV. Derby! Stapenhill, 
Harris. 

Stachys Betonica, Benth. I., IV. Heaths, common. 

S. palnstris, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Spondon ! 

S. amhiyud, Sm. I. Baslow ; Hassop, Pxiiley. IV. Linton, 
Harris ; Willington ! 

iS. sylvatica, Linn. Common. 

.S'. rtnwi.s7.s-, Linn. IV. Cauldwell, Harris; near Duflield ! 

Galenpsis fjidanuiii, Linn. I. Monsal Dale, Bailey ; Peak 
Forest Railway Station, Wild. ; Dove Dale ! 

(t, Tetrahit, Linn. Common. 



294 THE FLORA OF OERBYSHIRE. 

Leuniirm L'ardiaca, Linn. I. Via Gellia, Wldtclcf/;/. 

Laiiiiton amplexicaitle, Linn. IV. Borrowasli and Osmaston-by- 
Aslibourne, Smith ; Drakelowe, Ihtrris. 

L. purpnrciDii, Liuu. Common. 

L. mticnlntnni, Liun. 1. Baslow, lUiiJcy ; Wirkswortb , Harris. 

L. albwn, Linn. Common. 

L. Gah'ohduhni, Crantz. I. Stirrup Wood, Cbarleswortb, WihJ.; 
Belper ! Buxton ! Eepton Shrubs, Harris. 

Ajxuja reptans, Linn. IV. Morley ! Repton Shrubs, I lanijcr ; 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Teuerium Sconxlonia, Linn. Heaths, common. 

Eclimm vuhjare, Linn. IV. Willington, Plaync ; Winshill and 
Drakelowe, Harris. 

LJthospcrniuiii ofjicinaJe, Linn. I. Via GelHa, Rev. H. Miles. 
IV. Stapenhill, Harris, 

L. arvense, Linn. IV. Eepton, Plaijne ; Bm'ton-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

Mi/osotis ccrsjiitosa, Schultz, I. Ashford-in-the- Water, Bailcij. 
IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; WilKngtou ! Swarkestone Bridge ! 

M. painstris, With. Common. Var. strigulosa, Eeich. IV. 
Morley, Whittaker. 

M. rcpens, Don. I. Kinder Scout, Bailei/ ; Cbarleswortb 
Coombes, WMtele<j(i ; Axe Edge, West ; Coombes Moss ! 

M. siilvntica,tA\xh.. I. Disley, LV/Z/c// ; Marplc, Wild; Miller's 
Dale, Whitelerpj ; Via Gellia ! Ashford Dale ! Cressbrook Dale ! 
Dove Dale, Harris. 

M. arvensis, Hoffm. Common. 

M. coUina, Eeich. I. Miller's Dale, Baileij ; Monsal Dale ! 
Matlock Bath ! Wii-ksworth ! Dove Dale, Harris. IV. Drakelowe, 
Harris. 

M. versicolor, Eeich. I. Miller's Dale, Wild. IV. Eepton, 
Plaijne ; Drakelowe, Harris ; Willington ! 

SymjiJnjtuiii oj/icinale, Linn. I. Via Gellia, Bailey. IV. Newton 
Solney, Harris ; Derby ! 

Cynoylossum ofjicinaJe, Linn. I. Bradford Dale, Bailey. 

Pinyuicula vuhjaris, Liun. I. Bakewell Eoad, Buxton ! Had- 
field, Whiteleyg, 

tltricalaria vnlyaris, Linn. IV. Swarkestone, Br. Heivyill; 
Harris. 

Hottonia palustris, Linn. IV. Morley ! Osmaston-by-Derby ! 
Egginton, Harris. 

Priiiiiila ruhjaris, Huds. Common. Var. intermedia. I. Wliat- 
standwell ! 

P. officinalis, Linn. Common. 

LyshiiacJiia Xnuiiiiidaria, Linn. IV. Eepton, Hafiyer ; Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris ; Osmaston-by-Dcrby ! Swarkestone ! 

L. nonorum, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris; Dale Abbey 
Woods ! 

Anayallis arrensis, Linn. Common. 

Plantayo major, Linn. Common. 

P. media, Liuu. Common. 



tHE FLORA OJ' DERBYSHIKE. 



29S 



P. lanceolata, Linn. Common. 

P. Coronopus, Liuu. IV. Little Eaton, near Derby ! Cauldwell, 
Harris. 

Clienopodimn album, Linu. Common. 

C. ruhrum, Linn. IV. Keptou, Hugger; Coton-in-the-Elms, 
Harris. 

C. Bonus-Henrims, Linn. I. Wormliill, West ; Miller's Dale ! 
IV. Stapenliill, Flarris ; Breaclsall ! Swarkestone ! 

Atriplex angustifuUa, Sm. I. Great Longstone ! IV. Stapen- 
liill, Harris. 

Piuine.v conglomeratus, Miirr. I. Bakewell, Hannan ; Buxton ! 
Dove Dale ! IV. Burton-onTrent, Harris ; Breaclsall ! 

R. nemorosns, var. viridis, Sibtli. I. Bakewell, Bailey ; Miller's 
Dale, West. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

K. obtiisifolius, Auct. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Burtou-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

E. crisjms, Linn. Common. 

E. Hydro! apatlmu), Huds. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; 
Swarkestone ! Osmastou-by-Derby. 

'^'E. aJ/nmis, Linn. I. One Ash Grange, Monyasli, Bailey. 

E. Acetosa, Linn. I. Buxton ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

E. Acetosella, Liun. Heaths, common. 

Polygonum Convolvulus, Linn. Common. 

P. aviculare, Linn. Common. 

P. Hydropiper, Linn. Common. 

P. Persicaria, Linn. Common. 

P. amphihium, Linu. IV. Brctby Ponds, Harris ; Osmaston- 
by- Derby ! 

P. Pyistorta, Linn. I. Charlesworth, Hannan ; Wormliill, 
West. IV. Morley, WJiittaker. 

Daphne Laureola, Linn. I. Cromford, and IV. Morley, Whit- 
takei- ; Ockbrook, Smith. 

Empetruui nigrum, Linn. I. Glossop Moors, Pailey; Axe Edge! 

Euphorbia Helioseopia, Linn. Common. 

E. Peplns, Linn. Common. 

E. exigua, Linn. IV. Cauldwell, Harris ; Ockbrook ! 

Mercurialis perennis, Linn. Common. 

Parietaria diffusa, Koch. IV. Kepton. 

Urtica dioica, Linn. Common. 

U. urejis, Linn. Common. 

Humulus Bupidus, Linn. IV. Linton, Harris. 

Ulmus montana, Sm. I. Latlikill Dale ! IV. Burton-ou- 
Trent, Harris. 

Quercus Eobur, Linn., var. peduurulata, Ehrh. IV. IMoiicy ! 

Fagus sylvatica,'Ln\n. IV. Kedlcston ! Burton-on-Trcut, 7y«yvw. 

Corylus Avellana, Linn. Common. 

Carpinus Petidtcs, Linn. I. Buxton; Mellor, 11 '//*/. IV. Bretby, 
Harris. 

Al.nus glutinosa, Linn. I. Dove Dale. IV. Derby ! Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris. 

Beiula alba, Linn. iV. Comiuon. 



296 THE FLORA OF DEKBYSHIRE. 

Poimlusalha,ljinn. I. Ashwood Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Treut, 
Harria. 

P. trcmula, Linn. I. Cressbrook Dale, Sntlicrland. 

P. canescens, Sm. I. Marple, Wild. IV. Bretby, Harris. 

Salix pentaiidra, Lima. I. Ashwoocl Dale ! IV. Hoguastou, 
Smith ; Egginton, Harris. 

S. frcKjilia, Liun. I. Marple, and Mellor, Hannan. IV. Eg- 
ginton, Harris. 

S. alha, Linn. I. Cromford, Siinderhnid d Hannan. IV. Eg- 
ginton, Harris. Var. vitcllina, Linn. IV. Burton -on -Trent, Harris. 

S. purpurea, Linn. I. Marple, Hannan. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

S. rubra, Huds. I. Marple, Hannan. IV. Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris. Var. HelLr, Linn. I. Marple, Hannan. IV. Burton-ou- 
Trent, Harris. 

S. riviinalis, Linn. Common. 

S. Siiiithiana, Willd. I. Marple, Wild. 

S. cinerea, Linn., var. aquatica, Auct. I. Marple, IVild. IV. 
Burton-ou Trent, Harris. 

S. aurita, Linn. I. Stirrup Wood, Cliarleswortli, Whiteh'(jij. 
IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Harris. 

[S. Caprea, Liun. I. Marple, Hannan. IV. Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris; Osmaston Park, Ashbourne, Smith.] 

S. ambi[/ua,'Ehvh. I. Mellov, Hannan. Var. s/jai/at/a^rt, WiUd. 
IV. Sudbury, Harris. 

Typha latifolia, Linn. I. Piiver Etherow, Hannan. IV. Biu'ton- 
on-Trent, Harris ; "WiUington ! 

T. amjustifolia, Linn. IV. Kare, Morley, Whittaker. 

Sparf/aiiium- ramosum,'H.nds. I. Dove Dale! IV. Normanton- 
by-Derby ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Arum maculatum, Linn. Common. 

Lemna minor, Linn. Common. 

Potamoijeton natans, Linn. Common. 

P. perfoliatus, Linn. IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Harris. 

P. crispns, Liun. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Locko Park, Derby ! 
Bm-tou-on-Trent, Harris ; Repton, Hazier. 

P. densus, Liun. IV. Picpton, Har/i/er. 

P. zoster iful ins, Schum. IV. Drakelowe, Harris ; Spondon ! 

P. pectinatus, Linn. IV. Drakelowe, Harris ; Derby ! 

P.jiliformis, Nolte. IV. Rare, near Aslil)ourne, S)iiith. 

Zannichellia. palnstris, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, P>ailey. IV. 
Egginton, Harris ; Ockbrook ! 

Triglochin palustre, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, West. 

Saijittaria sayittifolia, Linn. IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Harris ; 
Chaddesden ! 

Alisma Plantago, Liun. IV. Common. 

Butomus umhellatus, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, HarHs ; 

Derby ! 

Elodea canadensis, Mich. IV. Repton, Hayyer; Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

Orchis pyramidalis, Liun. I. Matlock Bath, Bailey ; Dove 
Dale ! III. Auuesley, near Mansfield, Smith. 



THE FLOKA OF DERBYSHIRE. 297 

U. iistulata, Linn. I. Eare, Matlock, IVhitc'le;/;!. 

0. Mono, Linn. I. Matlock liatli, Wliitdcijii. IV. Moiiey, 
Whittaker ; Normanton-by-Derby ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

0. mascula, Linn. Common. 

0. latifolia, Linn. I. Monsal Dale, Bailey. 

O. maculata, Linn. Common. 

G>/»madenia conopsea, Brown. I. Wormbill, West ; Massou, 
Matlock Batb! IV. Ockbrook. 

Habenaria viridis,Bvoyvn. I. Buxton! Matlock Batli, 7xou7a?u/«. 

III. Aunesley, near Mansfield, Smith. IV. Foremark, Harris. 

H. chlorantha, Bab. I. Latlikill Dale ; Matlock Bath, W/iitelcii;/. 

Ophrys apifera, Huds. I. Matlock Bath, lioiclands ; Monsal 
Dale ! III. Annesley, near Manstield, Si)iith. 

0. miiscifera, Huds. I. Matlock Bath ! III. Annesley, near 
Mansfield, Smith. 

Listera ovata, Brown. I. Buxton, West ; Cressbrook Dale, 
Hannan ; Via Gellia ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Neottia Xidns-avis, Eeich. I. Latlikill Dale, Whiteleyg ; Dove 
Dale, Smith. 

Epipactis latifolia, Auct. I. Dove Dale ! Cressbrook Dale ! 
Chatsworth, Harris ; Cromford, Smith. IV. Calke, I'urchas. 

Iris Pseudacorus, Linn. IV. Osmaston-by-Derby ! Willington ! 
Burton-on-Treut, Harris. 

Crocus nudifiorus, Sm. IV. Derby ! 

Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, Linn. I, Whatstandwell ! Horsley 
Castle, Whittaker. IV. Spondon, Suuth. 
*N. poeticus, Linn. IV. Kedleston ! 

Galanthus nivalis, Linn. IV. Morley, Whittaker ; Elvaston, 
near Derby, Smith. 

Tamils communis, Linn. IV. Common. 

Paris quadrifoUa, Lmn. I. Matlock Bath, West', Via Gellia ! 

IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

Pohjgonatum officinale, All. I. Eare, near Ashbourne, Purchas. 

Convallaria viajalis, Linn. I. Dove Dale, Purchas ; Lathkill 
Dale, Whiteleyg ; Monsal Dale ! Via Gellia. 

Scilla mitans, Sm. Common. 

Allium, vifieale, Linn., var. compactiim, ThuiU. I. Castlcton, 
Hannan ; Dove Dale, Purchas. IV. Sawley, near Derby, Smith. 

A. ursinum, Linn. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris ; Breadsall ; 
Deal Abbey Woods ! 

Colchicum autumnale, Linn. IV. Foremark Meadows, Harris ; 
Morley. Whittaker ; Breadsall ! 

Luzula sylratica, Bich. I. Mellor, Hannan. IV. Eci^tou 
Shrubs ! Drakelowe, Harris. 

L. campestiis, DC. Common. 

L. vmltijlora, Koch, var. conycsta, Sni. IV. Burtou-ou-Treut, 
Harris ; Eepton Shrubs ! Horsley Car ! 

Juncus conylomeratus, Linn. IV. Common. 

J. effusus, Linn. IV. Common. 

J. ylaucus, Sibtli. IV. Drakelowe, Harris ; I^rcadsall ! 

J. acutijlorus, Ehrh. 1. Axe Edge ! IV. Spondon, Smith. 

2q 



29B THE FLOEA OF DEKBYSHIKE. 

J. Idiii/inicrir/ius, Ehrh. IV. Spondon, Smith. 

J. sKjiiuus, Mcciicli. I. AxG Edge ! 

</. hufonius, Linn. IV. Near Eepton Shrubs ! 

-/, siinarrosus, Linn. I. Axe Edge ! IV. Greslcy, Harris. 

JUi/swus coiiiprcssus, Panz. I. Miller's Dale, Wldtelajfj ; Dove 
Dale! 

Scirjms j^alusiris, Linn. IV. Common. 

S. caspitosm, Linn. I. Axe Edge ! 

S. lacustris, Linu. IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris; Swarkestone 
Bridge ! 

Eriophorum vaginatum, Linn. I. Axe Edge! Moors, N.Derby- 
shire, West. 

E. anyustifolinui , Roth. I. Coombes Moss, Buxton ! Moors, 
N. Derbyshire, West. IV. Eepton Rocks ! 

Carex pulicaris, Linn. I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, 
Schojield ; Monk's Dale, West ; Road near Harper's Hill, Buxton ! 

C. disticha, Huds. I. Lathkill Dale, Wliitelegcj. 

C. 2'Xiincidata, Linn. I. Charlesworth, Hannan. IV. Repton 
Rocks, Harris ; Kedleston ! 

C. vulpina, Linn. IV. Burtou-on-Trent, Harris ; Willington ! 
Kedleston ! 

C. muricata, Jjinn. I. Mousal Dale, Whitehead; Lathkill Dale, 
Sunderland. IV. Stanton-by-Bridge, Harris. Var. pseudu-divulsa. 
I. Lathkill Dale, Bailey. 

C. stelhdata, Good. IV. Breadsall Moor ! Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

C. remota, Linn. I. Marple, Wild. IV. Egginton, Harris ; 
Breadsall Moor ! 

C. curta, Good. I. Axe Edge, West. 

C. oralis, Good. I. Axe Edge, West ; Marple, Wild ; Dove 
Dale ! IV. Ockbrook, Smith ; Burtou-ou-Trent, Harris. 

C. acuta, Linn. IV. Stapenhill, Harris. 

C. vidgaris. Fries. I. Axe Edge, West ; Marple and Miller's 
Dale, Wild. IV. Repton Rocks ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. glauca, Sco-p. I. Marple and Miller's Dale, TFt7(/ ; Matlock 
Bath ! IV. Derby ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. Var. stietocarpa, 
Sm. I. Monsal Dale, West. 

C. diyitata, Linn. I. Monsal Dale, Percival d Rogers. 

C. ornithopoda, Willd. I. IMiller's Dale, discovered by the late 
Mr. Rogers ; Cressbrook Dale, Bailey. 

C. jdlulifer a, hinn. I. Ghai-leswortli, Whitehead; Monk's Dale, 
West. IV. Biu'ton -on- Trent, Harris. 

C. prcfxox, Jacq. I. Miller's Dale and Marple, Wild ; Dove Dale, 
Fu'v. J. H. Thompson. IV. Little Eaton ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. jiallescens, Linn. I. Turnditch ! 

C. panicea, Linu. I. Miller's Dale and Marple, Wild. IV. 
Breadsall Moor ! Repton Rocks ! 

C. pendula, Huds. I. Mellor, Hannan ; Ludworth, Whitehead ; 
Miller's Dale and Marple, 11'//*/. 

C. sylvatica, Huds. I. Cressbrook Dale ! IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 299 

C. IcBvifjata, Sm. I. Charles worth, Wkiteleyy ; near Harwood 
Grange, Chesterfield, Sutherland. 

C. binervis, Sm. I. Valley of the Goyt ; Axe Edge and 
Castleton, West. IV. Burton-ou-Trent, Harris. 

C.fiilva, Good. I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Schofield. 

C. flava, Linn., var. lejddocarpa, Tauscli. I. Charlesworth 
Coombes, Schojield ; Axe Edge, Wild. IV. Morley Moor ! 

C. hirta, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, West ; Monsal Dale, Hannan ; 
Charlesworth Coombes, Schofield. IV. Biirtou-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. paludosa, Good. I. Lathkill Dale, Hannan S Sunderland. 
IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. riparia, Curtis. I. Bakewell, West. IV. Hilton ! Willington ! 
Eepton ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. rostrata, Stokes (C ampullacea, Good.). I. Miller's Dale, 
West; Bakewell and Baslow, Bailer/; Lathkill Dale, Whiteleyy. 
IV. Bui'ton-on-Trent, Harris. 

C. vesicaria, Linn. I. Near Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, 
Schojield ; Miller's Dale, West. 

Anthoxanthum odoratum, Linn. IV. Common. 

Diyraphis arundinacea, Trin. I. Miller's Dale, Hannan. IV. 
Breadsall ! Holbrook, near Derby ! Drakelowe, Harris. 

Alopecurus ayrestis, Linn. IV. Common. 

A. yeniculatuSfLtmn. IV. Breadsall! Burton-on-Trent, /:Z^arm. 

A. ptrateyisis, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! 

Phleum ^jrrti(!;ise, Linn. I. Wormhill, West ; Dove Dale ! 
Var. nodosum, Linn. I. Ashford Dale, Hannan ; Miller's Dale, 
Whitehead ; Marple, Wild ; Dove Dale ! IV. Stai)enhill, Harris. 

Ayrostis alba, Linn. I. Cressbrook Dale ! IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

A. vulyaris, With. Heaths, common. 

Calamayrostis Epiyeios, Roth. IV. Gresley, Harris. 

C. lanceolata, Eoth. IV. Gresley, Harris. 
\Phray mites communis, Trin. IV. Drakelowe, iJarm; Duffield! 

Milium ejfiisum, Linn. IV. Dale Abbey Woods, Smith ; 
Drakelowe, Harris ; Eepton Shrubs ! 

Aira coispitosa, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! Ashwood Dale ! IV. 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

A. Jiexuosa, Linn. I. Valley of the Goyt, Buxton ! IV. 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

A. caryophyllea, Liun. I. Miller's Dale, Hannan; Horsley Car! 
IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

^. prceccf, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, /./ajwmn. IV. Bretby Park, 
Harris. 

Arena flavescens, Linn. I. Litton, Whiteleyy ; Buxton, Wild ; 
Miller's Dale, West. IV. Burtou-ou-Trcnt, Harris. 

A. jiubescens, hinn. I. Ashford Dale, Whiteleyy; Miller's Dale, 
Hannan ; Buxton, Wild. IV. Willington ! Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

A. pratensiSfhinu. I. Miller's Dale, /iaH?u<?i. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

A. elatior, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, West, IV. Willington I 
Stapcnhill, Harris. 



800 THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 

Hnlctis niollis, Linn, I. Valley of the Goyt, Buxton ! IV. 
Burton-on Trent, Harris. 

H. Imiatus, Linn. IV. Common. 

Triodia decumbens, Beauv. I. Valley of the Goyt, Buxton ! 

Koelcria cristata, Pers. I. Miller's Dale, Wild ; Monsal 
Dale ! 

Molinia ccRrulea, Moench. I. Newhavcn ! IV. Shirley Woods, 
Smith. 

Melica nutans, Linn. I. Cressbrook Dale, Whitcle<j(j ; Miller's 
Dale, Wild ; Monk's Dale, West ; Dove Dale ! 

M. uniJiora,Y\Qiz. I. Miller's Dale; Dove Dale! IV. Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris. 

Catabrusa aquatica, Beauv. I. Near Ebbing and Flowing Well, 
Buxton, Purchas. 

Glyccria fluitans, Br. IV. Common. 

G. aquatica, Sm. IV. Swarkestone Bridge ! Willington ! 
Burton - on - Trent , Ha rris . 

Sclerochloa riyida, Link. I. Miller's Dale, Wkitelegg. 

Poa annua, Linn. Common. 

P. nemoralis, Linn. I. Wormhill, West ; Miller's Dale ! IV. 
Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

P. compressa, Linn. I. Buxton, Whitelegg. 

P. pratensis, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Wkiteleyg. IV. Breadsall 
Meadows ! Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

P. trivialis, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

Briza media, Linn. Common. 

Cynosurus cristatus, Linn. Common. 

Dactylis fjlomerata, Linn. Common. 

Festuca ovina, Lmn. I. Valley of the Goyt, Buxton ! IV. 
Horsley Car ! 

F. rubra, Linn. I. MiUer's Dale, Hannan. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. Var. durixiscida, Linn. IV. Horsley Car ! Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris. 

F. sylvatica, Vill. I. Stirrup Wood, Charlesworth, Whitehead ; 
Ashwood Dale ! 

F. elatior, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, Hannan. IV. Burton-on- 
Trent, Harris. 

F. pratensis, Huds. IV. Newhall, Harris. 

Bronuis asper, Murr. I. Stirrup Wood, Glossop, Whitehead ! 
Dove Dale ! Ashwood Dale ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, Harris. 

B. erectus, Huds. I. Miller's Dale, Hannan. 

B. sterilis, Linn. I. Horsley Car ! IV. Burton-on-Trent, 
Harris. 

B. secalinus, Linn. I. Charlesworth, Whitehead. 

B. mollis, Linn. IV. Common. 

Brachypodinm sijlcaticum, K. &. S. I. Cock's Bridge, Wild ; 
Cressbrook Dale, Hannan ; Ashwood Dale ! Dove Dale ! 

B. jnnnatnm, Beauv. I. Crich Stand, Whiteleyy. 

Triticnm caninum, Huds. I. Matlock Jjixih, Sunderland. IV. 
Burton on-Trent, Harris. 



THE FLORA OF DERBYSHIRE. 301 

T. repens, Linu. I. Cressbrook Dale, Hannan. IV. Burton- 
on-Trent, Harris. 

Lolium perenne, Linn. Common. 

Hordeum sijlvaticum, Hiids. I. Asliwood Dale, Buxton, Baling- 
ton ; Stirrup Wood, Charles worth, Hannan. 

H. murimun, Linn. IV, Common 

Nardiis stricta, Linn. I. Coombe's Moss, Buxton ! IV. Lin- 
ton Heath, Harris. 

Pteris aquilina, Linn. Common. 

Lumaria Spicant, Desv. I. Axe Edge ! IV. Repton Shrubs, 
Harris. 

Asplmiwii liuta-muraria, Linn. Common. 

A. Trichomanes, Linn. I. Dove Dale ! IV. Derby, common ! 

A. viride, Huds. I. Very rare ! Nearly extinct. 

A, Adiantum-uiijriuii,!^!!!!!. IV. Anchor Church, near Eepton, 
Harris. 

Athijriiuii Filix-fmnina, Bernh. Common. 

Ceterach ojficinarum, Willd. I. Very rare ! Nearly extinct. 

Scolopendriuni vulc/are, Sm. Common. 

Cystopteris fraiiilis, Bernh. I. Common on limestone. 

Aspidiitiii actdeatniii, var. iuhatum, Sw. I. Mellor, Hannan; 
Wormhill and Chee Dale, West ; Peak Forest ! 

A. amjidare, Willd. I. Rare, Hannan. 

yepJirodium FiUx-mas, Rich. Common. 

N. spinulosum, Desv. IV. Eepton Shrubs and Foremark, 
Harris ; Repton Rocks ! 

N. dilatatum, Desv. IV. Common. 

N. Oreopteris, Desv. I. Kinder Scout, Bailey ; Matlock Bath, 
Smith. IV. Repton Shrubs, Harris. 

Polypodium vidyare, Linn. Common. 

P. Pheyopteris, Linn. I. Rare ! 

P. Dryopteris, Linn. I. Rare ! 

P. Eobertiannm, Hofl'm. I. Miller's Dale, Wild; near Buxton! 
Via GeUia ! 

Ophioylussum vidyatum, Linn. I. Burbagc, Wild. IV. Morley, 
Whittaker ; Derby ! 

Butrychinm. Lnnariu, Sw. I. Charlesworth, Whitehead; Monk's 
Dale and Matlock Bath, 11 '//(/. IV. Foremark, Harris. 

Lycopodiuin clavatum, Linn. I. Stcnior Clough, Hannan. 

Equisetum arvense, Linn. Common. 

E. sylraticuin, Linu. I. Horsley Car ! 

E. paliistre, Linn. I. Miller's Dale, West ; Axe Edge ! Dove 
Dale ! IV. Osmaston-by-Derby ! 

E. iimosu7n,Ijmn. 1\. Gvesley, Harris; r>readsall! Osmaston- 
by-Derby ! 

N.B. — The name of Mr. Whitehead, Dukinficld, was in- 
advertently omitted from the list of those who liave assisted in 
the C()ni])ilation of the foregoing notes. 



802 



ON ERYTIUIMA CA PIT AT A, Willd., 
var. SFH.EROCEPHALA . 

By F. Townsend, M.A., F.L.S. 

Two summers have passed since the attention of botanists was 
first called to the Freshwater Erijtlir(ea. in the pages of this Journal 
for 1879 (p. 327), and I have since described this plant as Erythraa 
capittUa var. sjiliarocephalu (Jomii. Bot. 1881, p. 87, and Journ. of 
Linn. Soc, June, 1881). Unfortunately I have been unable to 
visit the locality again during the flowering season, but this year I 
have seen it in excellent fruit, and have secured a collection of fruit 
specimens for distribution. 

The plant is at this date — August 27th — quite past flowering. 
I expect the hot weather we had in June last, and again later on, 
has this year hastened the flowering time, which has consequently 
been of shorter duration than usual. It grows in plenty in the 
sunniest and most exposed situations on the southern side of the 
downs, where the turf is shortest and sweetest, thus causing speci- 
mens of luxuriant growth to be liable to be cropped by sheep, and 
from one or the other or both reasons, viz., exposure and cropping, 
the plant more usually grows so low and stunted that it does not 
even rise above the height of the excessively short herbage of these 
downs. Only when protected by low gorse, of which there are a 
few patches, does an occasional plant rise to the height of more 
than about a quarter to one inch. In less exposed spots the species 
might commonly attain the height of the tallest specimen I have 
gathered, the stems of which, four in number, arising fi-om the 
crown of the root, are about three inches high, and are overtopped 
by the long naked stalked secondary flowering tufts which are so 
peculiarly characteristic of the species. 

In fruit the species is very easily distinguished from E. Cen- 
taurium, E. littoralis, or E, indchella. The corolla-tube of E. capi- 
tata does not grow and lengthen with the growth of the ovary after 
flowering. At the time of flowering a portion of the ovary is 
already exserted beyond the mouth of the corolla-tube, and the 
capsule, when ripe, has only its lower two-thirds covered by the 
marcescent corolla-tube, the upper third of the capsule being naked. 
The corolla- tube is not narrowed at the top, either in flower or in 
fruit ; indeed it could not be, because both the ovary and the 
capsule extend and j)rotrude beyond the mouth of the tube, thus 
preventing any narrowing. In the other species just named the 
corolla-tube grows and lengthens with the growth of the ovary, 
which is included within the corolla-tube at the time of flowering, 
and the capsule, wdien ripe, is also wholly included ; the corolla- 
tube is narrowed over the top of the ovary, and even more 
evidently over the top of the capsule, above which sit the shrivelled 
corolla-segments. 

I have not been able to ascertain whether E. capitata is still to 
be found on the downs of Newhavcn, but its occurrence there led 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 303 

me to think that it might be found about Beachy Head and East- 
bourne, and Mr. Eoper, author of ' Tlae Flora of Eastbourne,' has 
kindly examined his herbarium, and has shown me three specimens 
of K. capitata var. spJiccnicejihala, very small and stunted, gathered 
by him on the downs of that neighbourhood ; thus the range of 
the species is already considerably extended. 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

By J. G. Baker, F.E.S. 

(Concluded from p. 273.) 

51. P. Sprucei, Baker. — Leaves 6-10 to a rosette, with an 
oblong-lanceolate chartaceous lamina 6-8 in. long, 16-20 lines 
broad at the middle, acute, cuneate at the base, green and glabrous 
on both surfaces, with a distinct petiole half a foot long edged with 
a few spines. Peduncle slender, 6-8 in. long, with several small 
lanceolate bract-like leaves. Eaceme simple, very lax, about half 
a foot long; pedicels erecto-patent, the lower ^-^ in. long; bracts 
lanceolate, |-1 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, f in. long. 
Petals bright red, twice as long as the sepals. Genitalia included. 
— Barra do Eio Negro, Sjiruce, 1653 ! We have had the same 
or a nearly-allied species in cultivation at Kew for some time, but 
it has never flowered. 

52. P. UNDULATA, Schiedw. in Otto & Dietr. Allgem. Garteuzeit. 
X. 275 ; Eegel Gartenfiora, t. 781 ; Flora des Serres, t. 162. — 
Lamproconus undiUatus, Lemaire in Jard. Fleur. sub t. 127. — P. 
speciusissima, Hort. — Produced leaves obovate-oblong, a foot or more 
long, 4-5 in. broad above the middle, thin but firm in texture, 
cuneate at the base, green and naked on the face, finely white- 
furfuraceous on the back, with a distinct unarmed petiole 6-8 in. 
long. Peduncle a foot long, with 5-6 adpressed erect small lanceo- 
late leaves. Eaceme simple, a foot long, lax in the lower half; 
rachis bright red, nearly naked ; pedicels erecto-patent, j^-^ in. 
long ; bracts lanceolate, as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, 
nearly glabrous, seven-eighths to one inch long. Petals bright red, 
more than twice as long as the petals, scaled at the base. Stamens 
as long as the petals. Stigma finally protruded. — A fine plant, 
well knowai in cultivation, said to be Ijrazilian, of which I do not 
know the precise locality. My description is taken from a s})ecimcn 
that flowered at Kew in July, 1877. 

53. P. vALLisoLETANA, Lex. et La Llave Nov. Veg. Descr. i, 19. 
— About a foot high. Leaves cnsilbrm, very narrow, prickly. 
Flowers spicate. Bracts ovate, amplexicaul, bright red. Petals 
rose-red, twice as long as the calyx, not scaled at the base. — 
Mexico. 

54. P. I'KNDULiFLOKA, A. liicli in Sagra Fl. Cuba, iii. 262. — 
Leaves lanceolate, 2-3 ft. long, 2-2^ in. broad, the edge entire or 
subsiiinulose. Stem 3 ft. long. Flowers sessile, in dense horizontal 



304 A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PiTCAIRNlA. 

or pendent paniclcd spikes ; bracts ovate-acuminate, nearly as long 
as the flowers. — Cuba. 

55. P. puNicEA, Lindl. ; K. Koch, Mon. 8. — Pepinia pitnicea, A. 
Brogu. — Caulescent, with a short stem below the lax rosette of 
leaves. Whole plant about a foot high. Proper leaves 20-30, 
spread over 3-4 inches of the stem, linear, not distinctly petioled, 
about a foot long, under i in. broad at the middle, very acuminate, 
minutely spine-edged in the upper part, green and glabrous on the 
face, with a broad paler central band, white-fui-furaceous on the 
back. Peduncle very short. Kaceme lax, simple, 4-6 in. long ; 
rachis thinly floccose ; pedicels erecto-patent, the lower ^f in. 
long ; bracts lanceolate, as long as the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, 
slightly floccose, i-l in. long. Petals bright red, 1^-lf in. long. 
Stamens and style included. — Mexico, in the province of Tabasco, 
Linden, 1159. 

56. P. APHELANDE^FLORA, Lemairc in 111. Hort. xvi. Misc. 90. — 
Pepinia apheUindrccjiora, Andre in Linden 111, Hort., n. s., 32, t. 5. 
— Stems slender, simple, reaching a foot in length below the rosette 
of leaves. Leaves 30-60, extending over 3-6 in. of stem, linear, 
sessile, about \ ft. long, under |- in. broad at the middle, green on 
both surfaces, minutely serrulate. Flowers in a dense oblong sub- 
spicate raceme 4-6 in. long in the centre of the leaves ; lower 
bracts linear, leaf-like, 2-3 in. long; upper deltoid, brown- 
furfuraceous, -^f in. long. Sepals coral-red, glabrous, lanceolate, 
^— I in. long. Sepals bright red, 2^ in. long, scaled at the base. 
Stamens and stigma considerably exserted. — Para, Baraquin. In- 
troduced into cultivation by Linden about 1867. My description is 
from a specimen that flowered at Kew in 1877. 

57. P. FERRUGiNEA, Euiz et Pavou Fl. Peruv. iii. 36. — P. astero- 
tricha, Poeppig et Endlich. Nov. Gen. t. 158. — Piiya grandifiora, 
Hook, in Bot. Mag., t. 5234.— Whole plant 10-12 ft. high. Stems 
3-4 ft. long below the rosette of leaves, as thick as a man's arm, 
and sometimes forked. Leaves perhaps 100 in a very dense rosette, 
lanceolate, sessile, 2-3 ft. long, 1^-2 m, broad, horny in textui-e, 
channelled all down the green naked face, the back densely white- 
lepidote, the margins prickly all the way down, the lower spines 
brown, lanceolate, uncinate, ^in. long, the upper growing gradually 
smaller. Peduncle 2-3 ft. long below the inflorescence. Piacemes 
up to 10-12, secund, arranged in an ample deltoid panicle, the 
lower branches of which are 2-3 ft. long ; rachises brown-tomen- 
tose; lower pedicels 2-3 in. long; bracts oblong-navicular, scariose, 
shorter than the pedicels. Sepals lanceolate, densely ferrugineo- 
tomentose externally, 2-2^ in. long. Petals white, twice as long 
as the sepals, each with two large scales at the base, twisting up 
spirally as they fade. Stamens and style rather shorter than the 
petals. — Andes of Peru, L'avon! Cuming, 976! Maclean! A very 
fine species. The giant of the genus, and far more Like a Puya 
than an ordinary Pitcairnia in habit. The locality of Mexico, given 
in Bot. Mag., is doubtless a mistake. 

58. P. viREscENs, K. Koch, Monog. 4. — Puya virescens. Hook, in 
Bot. Mag., t. 4991. — Pitcairnia viriditiora, Kegel, Ind. Sem. Petrop., 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 305 

1866, 81. — Acaulescent. Leaves lanceolate, not petioled, li-2 ft. 
long, 1|~2 in. broad, green and glabrous on both surfaces, free 
from prickles. Peduncle 2 ft. long, the leaves passing gradually 
into bracts. Eaceme simple, subspicate, 6-8 in. long, 4-5 in. 
broad when expanded ; bracts ovate, yellowish green, reaching to 
the top of the calyx. Sepals pale green, naked, l-lj in. long. 
Petals pale yellowish green, twice as long as the sepals, scaled at 
the base. Stamens and style rather shorter than the petals. — 
Venezuela. Introduced into cultivation in 1857. 

59. P. MAiDiFOLiA, Decue. in Flore des Serres, t. 915. — Pni/a 
via id [folia, Morreu in Ann. Hort. Soc. Gand v. 453, t. 289. — 
Acaulescent. Leaves lanceolate, petioled, green on both sides, 
2-3 ft. long, 1|~2 in. broad, without prickles. Peduncle leafy, 
1^2 ft. long. Eaceme simple, subspicate, nearly a foot long, lax 
towards the base ; bracts oblong-deltoid, l^-li in. long, reddish, 
with green tips. Sepals naked, above an inch long. Petals 
greenish-white, 1^ in. longer than the sepals. Stamens and style not 
protruded. — San Cristobal, Venezuela, alt. 4000 ft.. Funk d Schlini. 

60. P. zEiFOLiA, K. Koch, Mouogr., 4; Baker in Bot. Mag. 
■ t. 6535. — Acaulescent. Leaves with an unarmed channelled 
petiole -J- ft. long and a lanceolate entu'e lamina 2-3 ft. long, 
2-2|- in. broad at the middle, green and naked on both surfaces. 
Peduncle 1-2 ft. long, leafy, nearly glabrous. Eaceme subspicate, 
reaching 1-li- ft. long, 3 in. diameter when expanded ; bracts 
oblong-navicular, reddish-yellow, l-H in. long. Sepals oblong- 
lanceolate, greenish, naked, |-1 in long. Petals nearly white, 
more than twice as long as the sepals. Style and anthers reaching to 
the tip of the petals. — Guatemala, Warceu-icz. Santa Martlia, Ptirdie ! 

61. P. FuNKiANA, A. Dietr. in Otto et Dietr. Allgem. Gartenzeit. 
xix. 337 ; Eegel, Gartenfl. t. 113. — Phlomostachys Funkiana, Beer 
Brom. 47. — Pitcainda dmciockIi/x, Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 4705. — 
Leaves with an unarmed petiole ^-1 ft. long and a lanceolate 
entire lamina 2-3 ft. long, 2-2^ in. broad at the middle, green and 
glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle slightly pubescent, 2 ft. long, 
its lower leaves large. Eaceme subspicate, ^-1 ft. long ; lower 
pedicels sometimes J-^- in. long;, bracts ovate-acuminate, yellowish 
green, l-l^ in. long. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, an inch long. 
Petals nearly white, more than twice as long as the calyx. Stigma 
finally exscrted. — Venezuela, Fimck. Santa Martha, Purdle! 
British Guiana, Sir 11. Schombun/h ! 

62. P. RECURVATA, K. Kocli, Mou. 4. — Puija recurvata, Schiedw. 
ill Otto et Dietr. Allgem. Gartenzeit. x. 275. — -Pitcairnia poh/tnith- 
aides, A. Brong. — Acaulescent or shortly caulescent. Produced 
leaves 10-12 to a stem, with an unarmed channelled petiole ^ ft. 
long and a lanceolate lamina 2 ft. long, 12-21 lin. broad, minutely 
serrulate towards the tip, green and naked above, white-furfuraceous 
beneath. Peduncle 1 J-2 ft. long, furfuraceous, all its leaves small 
and bract-like. Eaceme dense, subspicate, simple, 4-6 in. long, 
4 in. diam. when expanded ; bracts oblong-deltoid, brownish, 
l-H in. long. Sepals lanceolate, greenisli, J-l in. long. Petals 
milk-white, 3-3^ in. long, much dccurved, minutrly scaled at the 

2r 



306 A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 

base. Anthers and stigma not exscrted. — For this I do not know 
the precise station. My description is taken from a phmt tliat 
flowered at Kew in June, 1877. 

G3. P. ocHROLEUCA, Baker. — Xcumannia ochrolcuca, K. Koch ct 
Bouche, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1856, 2. — Acaulescent. Produced leaves 
ensiforni, not distinctly petioled, 2-8 ft. long, 2 in. broad at the 
middle, distinctly costate, acuminate, green and glabrous on both 
surfaces, minutely spine-edged towards the base. Peduncle terete, 
naked, nearly as long as the leaves. Eaceme subspicate, a foot 
long, simple; bracts oblong-deltoid, acuminate, greenish brown, 
1^-2 in. long. Sepals an inch long, lanceolate, naked. Petals 
pale yellow, twice as long as the sepals, not scaled at the base. 
Genitalia not protruded. — Volcan de Fuego, Guatemala, alt. 
3800 ft., Sah-in! 

(Jl. P. RHODosTACHYS, Hassk. in Retzia, ii. 8. — Produced leaves 
ensiform, distinctly petioled, 3-4 ft. long (petiole included), 2-2^ in. 
broad at the middle, very acuminate, green and glabrous above, 
white -furfuraceous beneath. Peduncle leafy, 1^-2 ft. long. 
Raceme simple, subspicate, 8-9 in. long, 1^ in. diam. ; bracts red, 
oblong or ovate-oblong, 1^-2 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, naked, 
reddish yellow. Petals whitish, twice as long as the sepals, not 
scaled at the base. A garden plant known to me from description 
only. 

65. P. Altensteinii, Lemaire in Flore des Serres, t. 162. — 
Paya Altensteinii, Ivlotzsch in Link, Klotzsch et Otto Ic. t. 1. — 
Laiiiproconus Altensteinii, Lemaire in Jard. Fleur. sub t. 127. — 
Phlomostachys Altensteinii, Beer Brom. 45. — Neumannia Altensteinii, 
Griseb. in Gott. Nacht. 1864, 14. — Pitcairnia 7in(lulat{fi>lia, Hook, in 
Bot. Mag. t. 4241. — Acaulescent. Produced leaves about 10 to a 
stem, with an unarmed or miniitely prickly channelled petiole 
^-1 ft. long and an ensiform entire lamina 2-3 ft. long, 
1^-2 in. broad at the middle, green and naked on both surfaces. 
Peduncle 1-1^ ft. long, stout and stiffly erect, hidden by its many 
sheathing erect glabrous reduced leaves. Raceme simple, sub- 
spicate, 4-6 in. long., 2 in. diam.; bracts bright red, oblong- 
navicular, glabrous, 1^-2 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, 
1-1-|- in. long. Petals whitish, twice as long as the sepals. 
Stamens and stigma reaching to the tip of the petals. — Mountains 
of Western Venezuela, alt. 2500-3000 ft., Moritz : Fendler, 1529 ! 

PJilomostacJn/s i/if/tnitca. Beer Brom. 47 (Puya Altensteinii, var. 
gigantea, Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 4309 — Pitcairnia Altensteinii, 
Lemaire in Flore des Serres, t. 253, 254), is a giant variety of 
this species with an inflorescence 6-7 feet high, peduncle included. 

66. P. Wendlandi, Baker. — Pnija sulpliurea, Wendl. ; Hook, in 
Bot. Mag. t. 4696. — Phlomostachys sulphnrea. Beer Brom. 46. — 
Xewnavnia sulpliurea, K. Koch, Lid. Sem. Berol. 1856, 2. — 
Acaulescent. Produced leaves with a distinct unarmed petiole 
nearly a foot long and an entu-e ensiform lamina 2-3 ft. long, 
2-3 in. broad at the middle, green and glabrous on both surfaces. 
Peduncle closely leafy, 2 ft. or more long, stout and stiffly erect. 
Raceme simple, subspicate, -J-l ft. long, 2 in. diam. ; bracts 



A SYNOPSIS OF THE GENUS PITCAIRNIA. 307 

ovate-deltoid, glabrous, purplish red or greenish towards the tip, 
much imbricated, li-2 in. long. Sepals lanceolate, naked, 1 in. 
long. Petals sulphur-yellow, scaled at the base, more than twice 
as long as the sepals. Anthers and stigma not produced. — Intro- 
duced into cultivation about 1853 ; the exact country not known. 

67. P. IMBRICATA, Baker. — Xeiimannia imhricata, A. Brong. in 
Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 2, xv. 362. — PhloiiwatacJnjs imhricata, Beer 
Brom. 47. — Acaulescent. Leaves 12-20 to a stem, with a petiole 
•J-1 ft. long, armed with small deflexed horny brown prickles and 
an ensiform lamina 1^-2 ft. long, 1^-2 in. broad at the middle, 
green and glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle a foot long, closely 
leafy. Eaceme simjple, subspicate, finally a foot or more long, 
2 in. diam. ; bracts greenish, oblong-acuminate, l-i-2 in. long. 
Sepals lanceolate, very glutinous, an inch long, whitish, tipped 
with green. Petals cream-white, lingulate, more than twice as 
long as the sepals, not scaled at the base. Anthers and stigma 
not protruded. — Mexico, Andrieux. Valley of Cordova, Boim/eau, 
1778 ! My description is mainly taken from a plant that flowered 
at Ivew in October, 1879. 

68. P. ATRORUBENS, Baker. — Phlomustachys atroruhcns, Beer 
Brom. 48. — Nemnannia atrorubens, K. Koch, Ind. Sem. Berol. 1856, 
App. 3. — Puya Warcemczii, Wendl. ; Hook, in Bot. Mag. t. 5225. — 
Produced leaves with a spine-edged petiole 3-6 in. long and a 
lanceolate lamina 2-3 ft. long, 2-3 in. broad at the middle, green 
and naked on both surfaces. Peduncle stout, erect, leafy, shorter 
than the leaves. Eaceme simple, subspicate, 6-8 in. long, 2.^-3 in. 
diam. ; bracts bright red, acuminate, oblong-navicular, much 
imbricated, 2-2i in. long. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, under an 
inch long. Petals pale yellow, lingulate, 2^-3 in. long, scaled at 
the base. Anthers and stigma not protruded. — Mountains of 
Chiriqui, Central America, Warcewicz. 

69. P. PETIOLA.TA, Baker. — Neumannia. petiolata, K. Koch et 
Bouche, Ind. Sem. Hort. Berol. 1856, App. 2. — Produced leaves 
with a distinct petiole 1^-2 ft. long, edged with smaU decurved 
blackish prickles and an ensiform lamina 3-4 ft. long, lA-2 in. 
broad, green and naked on both surfaces. Peduncle stout, erect, 
leafy, 1^-2 ft. long, h in. diam. at the top. Eaceme simple, 
subspicate, 1^-2 ft. long, 2 in. diam. ; bracts much imbricated, 
oblong-deltoid, acuminate, glabrous, greenish brown, 2-2^ in. long, 
1 in. broad at the base. Sepals lanceolate, glabrous, an inch long. 
Petals greenish-yellow, more than twice as long as the sepals, 
scaled at the base. Stamens and pistil shorter than the petals.— 
Guatemala, Warccivicz. Described from K. Koch's garden specimen. 

70. P. DENsiFLORA, A. Broug. in Hort. Univ. vi. 228, ciuii icune. 
— /'. aicrantiaca, Tenore in Ann. Sc. Nat. Ser. 4, ii. 378. — Acaul- 
escent. Produced leaves with an unarmed channelled petiole i- ft. 
long and an ensiform entire lamina 2-3 ft. long, 1]— li in. broad at 
the middle, green and glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncle 1-2 ft. 
long, leafy, furfuraceous upwards. Eaceme very dense, simple, 
subspicate, oblong, 3-4 in. long, li in. diam.; bracts deltoid, 
much imbricated, greenish, naked, l-l-l^ in. long. Sepals pule 



308 PRODUCTION OF HYBRIDS IN THE GENUS EPILOBIUM. 

green, lanceolate, glabrous, under an inch. Petals bright 
yellowish red, twice as long as the sepals. Stamens and stigma 
reaching up to the tip of the petals. — A garden plant of which 1 do 
not know the exact station. It differs from all the other Neuvumnias 
by its bright-coloured flowers. 



ON THE PEODUCTION OF HYBRIDS IN THE GENUS 

EPILOBIUM. 

By T. Pi. Archer Briggs, F.L.S. 

Observations for many years past of the Ejnlohia growing about 
Plymouth have convinced me that hybrids are fi-equently produced 
between several of the species of this genus, and I mentioned the 
subject in my 'Flora of Plymouth' (p. 154*). Sometimes the 
hybrid nature of a plant has been clearly manifest ; for instance, 
when such a strikingly dissimilar species as K. jxirvijlorum has 
partially stamped its features on a hybrid production. From the 
less obvious differences between E. viontanum and E. lanceolatum, 
or E. lanceolatum and E. ohscunim, admixtures between these have 
not always as clearly shown their parentage. 

Some botanists seem anxious to ignore as much as possible the 
fact of natural hybrids being produced ; still if they find themselves 
obliged to admit that they are certainly found in some genera, such 
as CarduHS and Virbascitm, they clearly cannot deny the possibility, 
or even probability, of their being discovered in certain others also. 
Many years ago Schultz called attention to plants which he con- 
sidered to be the off'sining of Epilohium ohscunim and E. palustre, 
and of E. montanmn and E. j)ahisti-e. 

This past summer I have been so fortunate as to meet with a 
hybrid between the strikingly dissimilar species, E. hirsutuDt and 
E. montanum. It formed a patch, with many stems from the root, 
on top of a hedge-bank by a damp lane at Shalaford, Egg Buck- 
land, South Devon, about four miles from Plymouth, and was 
growing near both E. hirsntin)) and E. montanum. The following is 
a brief description of this plant : — Eoot-stock apparently somewhat 
creeping from the number of the stems ; stem round, 2-3 ft. high, 
upper part with woolly hairs ; leaves lanceolate, serrate, sessile ; 
buds nodding or erect; flowers as large again as E. montanwn, 
deep purple. Differs from E. Mrsntum in the much more glabrous 
surface of the whole plant, the broader and shorter leaves, smaller 
flowers, and partially nodding flower-buds. Differs from E. mon- 
tanum in the habit of growth, many stems proceeding fi-om the 
root-stock ; in the more branched and more hairy stem ; longer, 
narrower, and more sharply serrate leaves ; larger flowers, of a 
deeper purple in colour ; and in the downy or shortly hau-y pods. 

It was in full flower at the beginning of the month of August, 
when I found it. I forward a couple of specimens for the Herbarium 
of the British Museum. 

* [See also ' Journ. Bot./ 1880, p. 284.— Eu. Joukn. Bot.] 



309 



THE DATES OF PUBLICATION OF THE VARIOUS 
PARTS OF CUETIS'S 'FLORA LONDINENSIS.' 

By B. Daydon Jackson, Sec. L.S. 

In the following remarks I can claim little merit but editorial, 
the entire working out of the subject — one of the last on which he 
was engaged — having been accomplished by our deceased friend 
Alfred Reginald Pryor." 

The issue of Curtis' s ' Flora Londinensis ' was long protracted ; 
the parts were issued at uncertain intervals, sometimes very wide 
apart ; the work did not pay its expenses, and its progress was 
compared to a funeral. I tried some time ago to discover the 
order in which the plates were issued, only the later plates being 
dated, and the very earliest not having even a number to mark 
their sequence. All the copies known to me had been arranged by 
the binder in the order indicated in the index to each fasciculus of 
twelve numbers, a plan which, however good when the Linnean 
system was dominant, is awkward at the present time, the more so 
when it is remembered that six fasciculi have to be consulted, and 
each is so arranged. After some time vainly spent in this research, 
I gave it up in despair, thinking it as little within reach as the 
somewhat similar case of Jacquin's ' Stapeliarum Descriptiones.' 

The task I failed in, was accomplished by our late friend 
bj' an ingenious and painstaking elaboration of all the references 
to Curtis, which are extant in the folloAving contemporaneous 
Floras :— 

Lightfoot's 'Flora Scotica,' 1777. 

Witheriug's ' Botanical Arrangement of British Plants,' cd. 2, 
1787-92. References by Dr. Stokes. Much used. 

Sibthorp's ' Flora Oxoniensis,' 1794. Next to the preceding in 
usefulness. 

. Relhan's ' Flora Cantabrigiensis,' 1785. Not much used, no 
specific references being given by the author. 

Hudson's ' Flora Anglica,' ed. 2, 1778, does not cite Curtis, 
owing to some feud between the two authors ; the absence of citation 
is emphasised by Lightfoot's Flora being extensively quoted, itself 
published after the completion of the first fasciculus of the ' Flora 
Londinensis.' 

From these chief sources, with an occasional reference to others 
for single points, a full list was drawn up by Mr. Pryor, who had 
intended to summarise its contents for publication. I3ut before he 
could do so he Avas taken from us ; and his list, from which the 
following summary has been drawn, has been placed in my hands 
for that purpose by the Editor of this Journal. 



* He is bt^ttcr known as a coricsiioiKli-ni ol' iljis .Idiiiniil iiinttr tlic hmiiio of 
lleginald A. I'l} or, an inversion adopted to preveut coul'usiou of liini^^elf and his 
father, both jiossesssing the same unmes. 



310 FEEDERICK CURREY. 

Vol. I. 

Fasc. 1. — The first uumber was issued in May, 1775, according 
to a MS. of Pulteney seen by Mr. Pry or, but which I have 
not been able to verify ; the date is presumably correct, for 
we know the first fasciculus was complete by the time 
Lightfoot's preface was written, July 24th, 1777 (see also 
' Fl. Scotica,' pp. 1149-1151). The date given by Stokes in 
' Withering,' 1776, is certainly a mistake ; from the preface 
to the first fasciculus it is evident at least six weeks, if not 
longer, elapsed between the issue of each part ; if two 
months on an average, that would amount to two years, 
thus coinciding with the date derived from Pulteney's MS. 
Smith, in Eees's ' Cyclopfedia,' art. "Curtis," says 1777; 
but that is the date on the title-page, and marks the con- 
clusion, not the beginning, of the publication. 

Plate 10, in fasc. 2, is the first to bear a number. 

Vol. II. 

No. 47, in fasc. 4, referred to by Curtis in his ' Catalogue of 
Settle Plants,' in 1782. 

No. 50, in fasc. 5, the last quoted by Kelhau in May, 1785. 

No. 58, in fasc. 5, the last quoted by Stokes, August, 1787. 

No. 59, in fasc. 5, the numbers on the plates cease, November, 
1788. ' Pulteney MS.' 

No. 64, in fasc. 6, January, 1, 1791, on the plate. 

No. 65, in fasc. 6, March 1, 1791, on the plates; issued June, 
1791, according to ' Pulteney MS.' 

No. 66, in fasc. 6. December, 1791 ; June, 1792, ' Pulteney MS.' 

No. 67, in fasc. 6, 1793, ' Pulteney MS.'; " 67 numbers," Sib- 
thorp, ' Fl. Oxon.,' p. xvi., 1794. 

No. 69, in fasc. 6. Published between Sept. 1, 1794, and July 
] , 1795 ; HeUehonis riridia in ' English Botany ' of the former 
date has no reference to Curtis, whilst Antirrhinum PeJoria 
at the latter has. The letterpress to this plant speaks of 
" this summer 1794 in the beginning of August." This 
fasciculus is the last quoted by Stokes in ' Withering,' 
vol. iii., 1796. 

No. 72, in fasc. 6. Published between January 1, 1797, and 
the end of 1798. PuJvunwria nutritiiiia in ' English Botany ' 
of that date does not cite Curtis. See also under Lobelia 
urens, " October 18, 1796," referred to as " two years since." 



THE LATE FEEDEKICK CUKEEY, M.A., F.E.S. 

Anotheii name has to be added to the roll of English botanists 
recently removed by death ; Frederick Currey died on Thursday, 
September 8th, 1881. He was born at Eltham, in Kent, August 
19th, 1819, his father, Mr. Benjamin Currey, being Clerk of the 
Parliaments. He received his education at Eton and Trinity 



FREDERICK CURREY. 311 

College, Cambridge, where lie obtained a scliolarsliip, took his B.A. 
degree in 1841, aud proceeded to M.A. in 1844. In that year he 
was called to the Bar, and thereafter practised as conveyancer and 
equity draughtsman. 

His earliest work on scientific subjects appears to have been a 
translation of Schacht's ' Das Mikroskop,' which was issued in 
1853, and so well received as to call for a second edition two years 
later. In 1854 he contributed a paper to the ' Microscopical 
Journal ' on two new Fungi, and in the fifth volume of the 
' Phytologist ' were printed some observations on the " Fimgi of the 
neighbourhood of Greenwich." The ' Microscopical Journal ' about 
this time contains several papers on tlie more obscure points in the 
life-history of cryptogams and local botany. 

The Greenwich Natural History Club, established in 1852, had 
appointed a committee to draw up a report on the flora of the 
neighbourhood. Mr. Currey was chosen chairman, and drafted the 
report, which was printed as an octavo pamphlet early in 1858, in 
which 395 Fungi were enumerated. The title runs, ' On the 
Botany of the district lying between tiie Kivers Cray, Eavensbouriie 
and Thames.' 

In the first volume of the ' Journal of the Linnean Society ' he 
described the development of ScleroUnm roseiim, Kneiff., which was 
named by the Eev. M. J. Berkeley Peziza Curreyana. In 1856 he 
was elected Fellow of the Linnean Society ; in 1857 he communi- 
cated an account of the existence of amor})lious starch in a 
Tuberaceous fungus to the Eoyal Society, followed by his being 
elected into that Society in 1858. On the retirement of Mr. J. J. 
Bennett, in 1860, from the secretariat of the Linnean Society, 
Mr, Currey was chosen as his successor, and continued in that 
ofiice until 1880, when he relinquished it to undertake the less 
exacting duties of treasurer, which position he held at the time of 
his death. 

In 1859 he undertook his most extensive work in the shape of 
a translation, with considerable additions by the author, of Hof- 
meister's ' Verzleichende Untersuchungen ueber der . . . hoeherer 
Kryptogamen.' This was published in 1862 by the Bay Society, 
under the title ' On the germination, development, and fructi- 
fication of the higher Cryptogamia, etc' This was quickly followed 
by his edition of i)r. Badham's ' Esculent Funguses of England ' in 
1863, in which he restricted himself to corrections and bringing 
the work down to date. Several communications will be found in 
the Journal and Transactions of the Linnean Society, which are 
set out ill the ' Catalogue of Scientific Papers.' Amongst them we 
may name ' Notes on British Fungi ' in 1864, and his last contri- 
bution, ' On a collection of Fungi made by ]\Ir. Sulpiz Ivurz,' 1876. 
With Daniel llanbury he prepared 'Remarks on Sclcrotiuiii stipi- 
tiitiiin, Berk. & Curr.,''' Pachyina Cocas, Fries, and some similar 



* 'I'ht re was no joint coniiimiiii-atinn to tiie Society, as inif,'lit be inferri'd 

Iroiii this, lull llie iintliurity is given in one oC I'l vkcley's own jjiipcrs. 



312 SHORT NOTES. 

productions,' 18G2 ; and, with Dr. Welwitsch, ' A description of the 
Fungi collected by Dr. F. Welwitsch in Angola during the years 
1850-61' (1870)." 

The latest production of his pen was issued last spring in the 
Eeport of the West Kent Natural History, Microscopical, and 
Photographic Society, an association which had absorbed the 
Greenwich Natural History Club before mentioned. The paper is 
entitled ' On some useful and noxious Fungi ' ; it is a popular 
resume of well-known facts, but is of interest as testifying to his 
abiding interest in local Natural History. He was President of this 
Society from 1870 to 1872. 

For some years he had considered his health precarious ; but 
only a short time before his death, from an affection of the liver, 
was any alarm felt by his family. He died at Blackheath, and was 
buried at Weybridge, 13th September, 1881, where his wife had 
been interred some years before. His collection of Fungi, by his 
express desire, will be added to the Herbarium of the Eoyal 
Gardens, Kew. 

Mr. Currey's long official connection with the Linnean Society 
had given rise to a large circle of friends, whilst his ever kind 
and genial manner had attached them to him by close ties 
of esteem. By all, his loss will be felt as that of a personal 
friend, an officer of large experience whose place it will be difficult 

*° ^^^- B. Daydon Jackson. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Irish Potamogetons. — Potmnoijeton mucronatns, Schrad. In the 
' Cybele Hibernica ' the authors notice the records of this plant 
under the name of comjnrssiis, but say they have seen no specimens. 
Mr. D. Orr, of Dublin, kindly sent me, a few days since, a packet 
of Potamogetons gathered many years ago, and among them there 
is a specimen of P. mucronatus labelled "River Bann, Co. Down, 
1844, D. Orr," this being one of the stations mentioned in the 
' Cybele ' from ' Flor. Hib.'— P. tnchoides, Cham. There is a 
specimen of this species in the same collection labelled "Pools, 
Conlig Hills, Co. Down, 1844, D. Orr." It is an interesting addition 
to the Irish flora. — P. Zldi, M. & K. Among some Potamo- 
getons kindly sent me by Mr. Stewart, of Belfast, is a specimen of 
this plant, with the following locality on his ticket: — "Slow 
stream, Carrick, Co. Fermanagh, August, 1880." This is, I think, 
its first record as an Irish plant. It will be in District 10 of 
the 'Cybele Hibernica.' — Arthur Bennett. 



Leontodon hastilis, L.--Dr. Boswell, in 'English Botany,' 
ed. 3, vol. v., p. 133, appends to his account of Leontodon hisjrulus, 
L., the following statement: — "This plant is a sub-species of the 
L.' prutei/ormis of Villars, the typical form of which is the L. hastilis 
of Linnffius, which is nearly" or perfectly glabrous; but, though 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 318 

common on the Continent, this form has not been observed in 
Britain." On the 18th of August last, I met with a very few 
plants of a Leontodon in a meadow by the Avon, at Diptford, South 
Devon, which at first much puzzled me, as although their 
appearance generally was that of the Lcuntodon hispidus, L., they 
yet lacked the long hairs I had always seen on this species, being 
either quite glabrous or else having only very short hairs. On 
turning to Boreau's ' Flore du Centre de la France ' I found them 
to agree with his description of Leontodon hastilis, the plant referred 
to by Dr. Boswell in the words quoted above. I now do not doubt 
their being this, though probably existing in the meadow where I 
found them only as an introduction, brought with foreign grass or 
clover-seeds. This supposition is strengthened by their being 
associated there with Planta<io iiiedia, a species unknown elsewhere 
in the neighbourhood, and also with the certainly alien TrifoUum 
Jiijhridniii. Possibly, however, now this plant has been introduced 
it will become established in the locality, as others of the order, 
Crcph tani.vacifolia and C. biennis, have done elsewhere in Devon. 
— T. E. Archer Briggs. 



iSxtvacts autr jSTottccs of 9i3ooUs> antr iiTtmoivs. 



ON THE COLOURS OF SPRING FLOWERS.* 

By Alfred W. Bennett, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S. 

This paper was an attempt to explain the prevalence of certain 
colours in spring flowers, as contrasted with those of autumn and 
summer. The common spring flowers of England were reckoned 
as 64, and these were included, as regards colour, under five 
heads, r/c, (1) white, (2) green, (3) yellow, (4) red and pink, 
(5) blue and violet. The proportion was found to be as follows : — 
white 26, or 40-5 p.c. ; green 'J, or 14-1 p.c. ; yellow 13, or 
20-3 p.c; red and pink 5, or 7"8 p.c; blue and violet 11, or 
17*4 p.c. The chief feature in this table is the great preponderance 
of white, as compared with other times of the year; yellow is also 
greatly in excess, while the number of red and pink flowers is 
extremely small. Taking now 50 early spring Swiss flowers, the 
following list is obtained : — white 18, or 36 p.c. ; green 1, or 2 p.c ; 
red and pink 10, or 20 p.c. ; blue and violet 8, or 16 p.c. The 
chief points of contrast in this list, as compared with the first, are 
the smaller proportion of white and green, and the very much 
larger proportion of red and pink. "White and green differ from 
all the other shades as indicating rather the absence than the 
presence of colour. Seeing, therefore, that the briglit-coloured 
fluid pigments of petals are formed only under the influence of a 
sufticient supply of light and heat, the large proportion of green 
and white in our early sj)ring flowers is easily accounted for. 

* Abstract of a Paper read on Sepleniber 2nil, iHHl, at the Meeting oi' tlio 
Jiritibh Absocitttiou at York. 

2 s 



314 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

Then with regard to yellow, M. Flahaut observes that "a solid 
iasoluble pigment, the xanthine of Fremy and Cloez, is in the first 
place to be distinguished from all the soluble colouring-matters, 
all of which are acted on very readily by reagents, and which are 
usually formed only in the epidermal cells." This xanthine Fremy 
states to occur always in the "form of clearly-defined grains, 
occasionally in the epidermal, much more often in the deeper-lying, 
ceUs, slowly soluble in alcohol and potassa. It is in all probability 
a modification of chlorophyll." The plants in which he found this 
substance are all early-flowering spring plants. The colours which 
pre-eminently distinguish our summer and autumn flora, the reds, 
pinks, blues, and some yellows (not due to xanthine, but to a 
soluble yellow pigment), are caused by the presence of substances 
which requn-e both a strong light and a high temperature for their 
production ; and Batalin has shown this to be especially the case 
with the red coloming substance. The difference between the 
prevailing colours of the spring flowers in England and in 
Switzerland is due to the same cause. Owing partly to the spring 
being a month later, partly to the more southern latitude and 
consequent greater elevation of the sun, partly to the clearer air of 
a high altitude, the light which opens the earhest spring flowers is 
much stronger in Switzerland than in England. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE REPORT FOR 1880 OF THE BOTANICAL 
EXCHANGE CLUB OF THE BRITISH ISLES. 

[Edited by Mr. James Groves] . 

Caltha palustris, L., var. Gucranijerii. — Marshes near Bramber, 
W. Sussex, 18th May, 1880.— W. H. Beeby. I believe the true 
plant ; it is one not familiar to me. — C. C. Babington. 

Erodlum cicutarium, L'Herit., var. — Flowers pale pink, 4i-5 
lines diameter, petals without any spots, beak of fruit only \-^ in. 
long when fully grown, leaflets more deeply cut, with smaller 
segments than usual (nearly pinnate, with simple linear-lanceolate 
divisions). Coast sand-hills, north of Deal, September, 1880. — J. 
G. Baker. I believe /';. pilosum, Bor. — C. C. Babington. 

Uuhm Lcc.sii, Bab. — Woodloes, Warwickshire. — E. L. Baker 
and H. Bromwich. This is the very curious and interesting form 
which Mr. Bromwich sent last year. It is the plant referred to 
in my last published notes. It must be joined to Iihcus. — C. C. 
Babington. 

It. fhsus, Lindl. (Bab.!) — South Burn of Quoys, Hoy, Orkney, 
August, 1880.— J. T. Boswell. 

E. wihricatus, Hort. — Great Doward, Herefordshire, October, 
1878. — Augustin Ley. This is very near indeed to the original 
imbriattus, if not identical with it. — C. C. Babington. 

/,'. imhricatua, Hort. — Trusham, S. Devon, September, 1880. 
Professor Babington writes: — "Your imbricatus is very near 
indeed to the original plant. I think that there can be no doubt 
of their specific identity." It is one of our commonest brambles at 
Trusham. — W. Moyle Eogers. 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 315 

Rosa tomentosa, Sm., var. Woodsiana, H. and J. Groves. — Bush 
erect, compact. Prickles slender, uniform, decidedly curved, 
those of the main stem 4— 4i lines long, scar ahout -4 lines long. 
Leaves 2^3 in. long and 2-2^ in. hroad ; petioles hairy and 
densely glandular; leaflets elliptic, the terminal 12-15 lines long 
and 6-9 broad, thinly hairy above and hairy and slightly glandular 
beneath, serrature copiously compound. Flowers 1-3. Peduncles 
and calj^x-tube glandular. Sepals persistent, becoming erect. 
Corolla small, pale pink. Styles slightly hairy. Fruit ellipsoid. 
A form nearly allied to 11. scdhriuscuht, from which, however, it 
differs by its smaller size, more compact habit, narrower leaflets 
with more compound serratures, more ellipsoid fruit, with de- 
cidedly erect persistent sepals. It difl'ers from E.ffctida and R. 
sylvestris by its narrower and much less glandular leaves and hairy 
styles. Wimbledon Common, Surrey, 1876-8. — H. and J. Groves. 

R. ruhujiuusa , L., var. R. apricorum, Rip. — Down, Box Hill, 
Surrey, 11th September, 1880. — H. Groves. This appears to be 
one of our commonest forms of R. rubu/inosa ; the principal charac- 
teristics appear to be the large roundish fruit, the deciduous 
se^Dals, and the hairy styles. M. Deseglise confirms the name. 

Ri. djimaUs, Bechst., tending towards siihcristata (jide Baker). — 
Serquoy Burn, Orphii', Orkney, August, 1875. — J. T. Boswell. 

R. Reuteri, Godet. — By the Oyce of Firth, Orkney, August, 
1880.— J. T. Boswell. 

R. subcristata, Baker, form, {fide Baker). — Oyce of Firth, 
Orkney, August, 1880.— J. T. Boswell. 

R. corymbifera^ Borkh., fide M. Deseglise. — West border of 
Bentley Wood, South Wilts, June and September, 1880. A 
handsome, strongly-arching, well-marked bush, plamly belonging 
to the aggregate stylosa, Desv. " Hairy variety, near opaca,'' is 
Mr. Baker's note on the label of the specimen I sent him before 
communicating with M. Deseglise ; but it may be at once distin- 
guished from opaca (as described in Mr. Baker's monograph) by 
the long bristly peduncles and the leaflets narrowed to the base, 
and hairy above as well as beneath. The hairiness of the plant 
is most remarkable, the leaves being whitish green beneath and 
tomentosa-like in tint and texture above ; white petioles, stipules, 
bracts, and even the long leaf-pointed pinnate sepals are all 
densely clothed with silky hairs, long and short. The flowers are 
creamy white, and the calyx-tubes and fruits very slender elliptic. 
— W. Moyle Rogers. Mr. Baker considers that this belongs to 
the Sti/Jusa:, and is near his DesmH.rii. M. Deseglise, in his 
Catalogue Raisoune, places R. corifmbifera, Borkh., among his 
Canhu/'- VoUiniv, and in the clavis to that section gives the 
characters " folioles simplement dentees," "styles herisses," 
" fleur rose," " pedonculcs rcunis en corymbc, folioles ovales, 
aigui'S aux deux extremites," with most of which Mr. Rogers's 
specimens do not agree. — J. G. 

Sedum Forsterimunr, , Sm., vars. r//rt?<f^.sc("?is and riirscens. — These 
two (the former from dry exposed rocks at Stanncr, the latter 
from shady damp rocks at the cascade of " Waterbrcak-its ucck," 



316 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

Kadnovsliiro) were cultivated side by side in my garden, under 
similar conditions of light and temperature, i. e., in a hot dry 
corner. This year the former threw up three times as many 
heads of bloom, the whole plant was more vigorous, and flowered 
nearly a fortnight earlier than the var. rircscens. — Augusthi Ley. 

(Tcdiiuii uehroleucuia, Koch. — Trushara, South Devon, 12th 
July, 1880. In some quantity, on a dry stony hedgebank, with 6f. 
vrriDii and G. MuUuijo. — W. Moyle Kogers. Box Hill, Surrey. — 
G. Nicholson. 

(jr. Mulbu/o, L., var. — A dwarf form, with stems not more 
than half a foot long, forming dense masses on the dry coast sand- 
hills north of Deal. — J. G. Baker. I think that I have never seen 
this curious small form ; I presume that it is a form of G. Mulhiijo. 
— C. C. Babington. 

Hierariuin iricum, Fries. — Waas, Hoy, Orkney, August, 1880. 
J. B. T. Fortescue. 

H. prcnantlioult's, Vill. — Paren'r Esgob, Brecon, 25th August, 
1880. — Augustin Ley. 

FI. strictuiii, Fries. — Hobbister Rocks, Orphir, Orkney, August, 
1880.— J. B. T. Fortescue. 

H. strictum, Fries ? Approaching H. cori/mbosum, Fr. — Shore, near 
Regal Burn, Waas, Hoy, Orkney, Aug., 1880. — J. B. T. Fortescue. 

Mi/os(itis pdltistris, With. — Bank of Bovey stream, by Jew's 
Bridge, Knighton Heath, S. Devon. Collected by Mr. T. R. 
Archer Briggs and me on August 28th, 1880, in this the first 
Devon station where it has certainly been observed by either of us. 
It seems as completely absent from the Teign Valley proper as from 
the whole Plymouth neighbourhood. Perhaps it may prove quite a 
local plant in the extreme S.W. of England. — W. Moyle Rogers. 

iUnnex cris/)t(s, L., b. eloiKjatus. — Tidal mud of the Wye, Tin- 
tern, Monmouthshire, 26th July, 1880. Very abundant, and the 
earliest flowering dock; nuts well formed on July 26th, when R. 
ctnuiJoineratus was in flower, earlier than ordinary crlspus, tri- 
(jranalatm growing with it. Stature of this dock enormous, height 
often 6 ft. The root-leaves vary very much in breadth and crisp- 
ing, and seem to be narrower and flatter the lower the plant grows 
on the level of the tide-way. — Augustm Ley. This is less per- 
fectly trigranulate than the var. trigranulatus, and the granules are 
smaller in proportion to the size of the petal ; but I have observed 
similar changes take place in a plant of ordinary tru/ranuhitKs from 
the Fife coast, which I have cultivated in the garden at Bahuuto 
for some years. — J. T. Boswell. 

Puli/i/onuin avicuhnr, L., e. ru.riraf/iaii. — Roadside, Bu'stal Hill, 
Leicestershire, August, 1880. The five specimens marked '■' are 
all parts of one plant, too large to be preserved entire. It is much 
more diffuse and flaccid than typical ruru-aguin (which grew within 
a few feet of it), but has the long silvery ochrefe, the acute 
ascending leaves, and the green and crimson perianth of that 
form. The plant is almost entirely barren, having only two 
flowers, and this may account for its abnormal habit ; but it is 
perhaps doubtful whether it should not be referred to aijirstimun or 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 817 

ruh/atum. — F. T. Mott. I think this is ruruagum, but evidently 
growing under some unusual circumstances. — J. T. Boswell. 

Kiiphorbia pseudo-ci/paiissias, Jord.. — Dry bank, Henfield, West 
Sussex, June, 1880. Abundant and thoroughly naturalised, but 
evidently an escape from the garden of the late Mr. Borrer. — 
W. H. Beeby. 

Fotaincxjeton ? — From the Tweed and Teviot. I sent a 

number of specimens in 1876, labelled P. nltens (see Pieport for 
1876, p. 35), where it will be seen that Dr. Boswell considered 
them to be " very luxuriant specimens " of P. nitons. Dr. Trimen, 
in a footnote, ' Journal of Botany,' u. s. viii., p. 289, referring to the 
same specimens, writes : " It does not ajipear to me to be that 
species (nitens), but a large form of P. decipiena approaching P, 
prceloniiiis, probably P. salicifoliua, Wolfg." After seeing the above 
note, i wrote to Dr. Trimen, askmg him to give it a name. His 
reply was : " It is not very easy to give a name to your Koxburgh 
larger plant further than that suggested in my footnote. Some of the 
foreign specimens of 2'. decijiiais come very close. From P. salici- 
fulius, Wolfg. ! of which we have the type here [Herb. Brit. Mus.] it 
differs in the more rounded base and more obtuse apex of its leaves, 
but might pretty well goto it." Through the kindness of Dr. Boswell, 
I have examples of P. -nitens from four different localities. The 
Tweed and Teviot plant differs from all these, and is also very 
different from Mr. Ley's Herefordshire P. salicifuiius, distributed 
through the Club (see ' Eoport,' 1877, p. 10). — Andrew Brotherston. 
A dubious plant, and it is not easy to give a name without fruiting 
specimens. I cannot think it comes under P. nitens. It approaches 
specimens named P. undulatns, Wolfg., and in its peduncles and 
spikes it resembles P. salicifolius, Wolfg. — Arthur Bennett. 

(To be continued). 



Quelques mots snr Vetude des fniits. Par Paul Brousse. With 
Sixteen Plates. Montpellier, 1881. 

The author of this interesting little study commences by 
pointing out "the variability in value of fruits for classification. In 
the L'ajiilionaccd', (hwurbitdvcie and Cruciferw. the form of the fruit 
is a good distinguishing character, but it is not so with other 
orders, notably the Vapaccrncea;, Ilosaccfc, Olcinca: and SolanacecB. 
These four orders are discussed in this work with a view to show 
that the differences are apparent rather than real. The work 
consists of three parts. The first treats of the definition of certain 
botanical terms : the author defines the receptacle as that part of 
the peduncle which bears all the lloral whorls ; the apex, which 
supports the carpels, he calls the gynophore ; the part intermediate 
between this and the calyx whorl he terms the torus ; the common 
receptacle of the tSi/ntinthercd; he calls the clinanth ; the involucre, 
the pericline ; in placeutation he substitutes the term ungnlar for 
the axile placeutation of Jussieu ; (jmeral placentation for those 
cases where the ovules arc scattered over the whole of the 
carpellary leaf, as in liiituiidis; iw defines as fruit as the entirety 



318 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

of the parts which doveloiie after fertihsation, and wlion rii)e fall off 
as a whorl. The second part of the hook discusses the four methods 
of botanical investigation — analogical, organogenical, anatomical, 
and teratological : the author points out the absolute necessity of 
using all in pursuing researches on structure. The third part is 
occupied with the analogies in the dissimilar fruits of the four 
orders above mentioned. The fruit of (jrlaucmm at first sight more 
resembles that of a crucifer than that of Avf/emom', but in the 
crucifer the ovary is from its earliest stages quadrilocular, and the 
ovules are arranged in regular rows, whereas in Glaudum it is 
originally bilocular, with the ovules irregularly scattered as in 
other Fapdri'riicctf : but as it grows a partition is formed cutting 
the two loculi into four, and causing all the ovules, except those in 
the secondary cavities, to abort. Another important distinction 
lies in the absence of albumen in the seeds of Cnidferat, as opposed 
to the large albumen of Glauciuni. It is true that while Glaudum 
has but two carpels, Argemone has four ; but the number of carpels 
is not very constant even in Papaveracea, as it varies from four to 
twelve in Papaver somnifernm. The structure and position of the 
stigmatic lobes, of the vessels supplying them, the position of the 
ovules, the large albumen, and the dehiscence, are the sam in both. 

In the family of the UosaceiE there appear even greater 
differences in the form of the fi-uits, but they all resemble each 
other in being foi-med of one or more free carpels, containing one 
or more seeds with large cotyledons, and no albumen. The chief 
differences between all the forms consist in variation in number of 
carpels, which is inconsistent even in the same species ; the form 
of the receptacle, which varies from the cupule of the AmygdaledB 
and Rosea through the flattened disc of Piuhus strujoHUs to the 
gynophore of Fragaria ; the number of ovules, from the single one 
in the Aniggdalea:, the others having aborted, to the numerous ones 
of the Spireacece. The Pomacea:, though usually classed as syncarpous 
fruits, have the carpels quite free in the young state. 

With respect to the Oleinetc the fruits appear very different ; 
they take the form of a berry [Ligustnim), a drupe {(Jlea), a 
2-carpelled capsule ( SgHnga), a monolocular samara [Fraxinus). All 
originally consist of two carpels, of which one aborts in the olive 
and ash ; consequently these fruits cannot really be classed with 
apocarpoiis fruits, as is usually done. The remaining differences 
are due to increased development of the mesocarp. 

In the Solanacea:, Sohmuiii tuherosutii has a bare epicarp, the 
peduncle surrounded by the calyx ; Datura has a spiny fruit, with 
only the disc of the calyx persistent ; Hgoscgamus has a capsule 
quite concealed in the calyx ; Xicotiana has a capsule of two 
separate carpels. The ovaries of all, however, exce^Dt Datura, are 
identical in consisting of two cells, one to each carpel, which are 
separated by their joined edges, but in Datura there are four; this 
is due to a false partition which grows from the middle of each 
carpel, and divides each into two. This is quite secondary, and 
cannot be said to alt'ect the form or structure of the fruit. 

H. N. E. 



EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 810 

Mk. William Eobinson sends us a copy of Lis ' Wild Garden,' 
wliicli, to quote the title-page, suggests " one way onwards from the 
Dark Ages of Flower Gardening, with suggestions for the regenera- 
tion of the bare borders of the Loudon Parks." It is a very 
handsome book, the woodcuts — some of which are of remarkable 
beauty — being in the best style of art, as well as very faithful 
representations of the plants they are intended to depict. The 
letterpress is of course rather horticultural than strictly botanical, 
but it is very accurate, and shows a full acquaintance with the 
habits of our most important hardy herbaceous plants. Mr. 
Eobinson has already done much to improve the taste of horti- 
culturists, and his labours have borne abundant and satisfactory 
fruit ; and the present volume cannot fail to add to his reputation , 
which is by no means inconsiderable. 

Mr. F. G. Heath's somewhat similar work, with a similar title, 
' My Garden Wild,' compares unfavourably with Mr. Eobinson's 
book in appearance, inasmuch as it has no illustrations. The 
author is well known as an enthusiastic admirer of ferns, and as a 
somewhat diffusive writer upon them. In the present volume he 
has turned his attention to our common British plants, a large 
number of which he has cultivated in his garden at South Hackney. 
Mr. Heath's style is familiar to all who have read any of his other 
works, and the volume now before us will doubtless be welcomed 
by his admirers. His use of botanical terms is often rather lax; 
and his uniform practice of spelling specific names with small 
initial letters shows a want of acquaintance with scientific custom. 
Mr. Heath's enthusiasm is rather oddly distributed : he is rapturous 
about Chickweed, which he has always regarded "as an exceed- 
ingly beautiful object"; Dandelions "are welcome 'to him' in 
every possible position"; and Groundsel, from its early flowering, 
has "an especial claim on [his] regard." On the other hand, so 
really beautiful and artistic a plant as Geuin rivale is dismissed 
with the remark that it "is somewhat like its congener, the Herb 
Bennct, except that the flowers are of a dull i^urplish brown hue, 
and droop instead of growing erect." Again, while AldicmlUa 
arvensi.H is styled " a thing of beauty," and its " elegant foliage " is 
descanted upon, A. vuhjaris elicits scarcely a word of approval. 
Mr. Heath occasionally indulges in bold metaphor — as when the 
spadix of Arum is spoken of as " wonderfully resembling a poker 
rising up like a spectre ! " 

Mr. Peter Henderson, of New York, has issued a ' Handbook 
of Plants,' arranged alphabetically after the manner of the 
' Treasury of Botany,' but designed for the use of " florists, 
gardeners, and amateurs interested in horticulture," rather than for 
botanists. We are inclined to think, however, that the ' Treasury ' 
would be a more useful volume even to those for whom this hand- 
book is intended, although Mr. Henderson has brought together a 
good deal of information which is accurate in the main. It "has 
been written with a special view to the wants of the climate of 
the United States," and thus aj)peals mainly to our transatlantic 
brethren. 



320 EXTRACTS AND NOTICES. 

A SECOND volume of the ' Auualcs du Jardin Botanique dc 
Buitcnzorg' has been begun, under the editorship of Dr. Treub, 
the Director of the Gardens. The first part contains a paper by 
the late Dr. Scheffer on new or little-known plants of the Indian 
Archipelago ; and two memoirs by Dr. Treub on the embryogeny 
of the Cijcadem and Loranthacem respectively, each being carefully 
illustrated. 

Messrs. Veitch and Sons, the well-known nurserymen, have 
issued a very useful ' Manual of the Conifcrse,' to which no author's 
name is attached. It is not professedly a scientific work, and a 
detailed notice of it would therefore be somewhat out of place in 
these pages ; but it contains an extremely careful account of the 
hardy Conifcnc cultivated in Britain, rendered especially useful and 
attractive by numerous good illustrations, and fills for the order 
the position occupied hitherto by Loudon's ' Arboretum.' The 
principal drawback to the book is its very inadequate index. 



New Books. — G. C. W. Bohnexsieg, ' Eepertorium Annuum 
Literaturag Botanicre Periodicaj,' 1877 (Haarlem, Ex. Loosfes). 
— J. Bresadola, 'Fungi Tridentini,' fasc. i. (tt. xv.) (Trent, 
Monanni). — P. Saccardo, 'Fungi Italici' (fasc. xvii-xxviii; tt. 641- 
1120). — 'Flora Brasiliensis,' fasc. Ixxxiv. [Ilubiacea, pt. 1, by 
J. Mueller, Argov; tt. 67). 



Articles in Journals. — August. 

Botanical Gazette. — T. Meehan, ' Lilium Grayi.' 

Botanische Zeitumj. — C. Gobi; ' Outlines of a Systematic Classi- 
fication of the Glseophytes ' (Thallophytes). — A. DeBary, ' Contri- 
butions to the knowledge of Peronosporece.' 

Flora. — A. Geheeb and E. Hampe, ' Additamenta ad Enumera- 
tionum Muscorum in Eio de Janeiro et Sao Paulo detectorum.' — 
P. G. Strobl, 'Flora of Etna' (continued).— J. B. Jack, 'The 
European Species of Badula' (2 tt.). — H. Dingier, 'Two new 
Thracian Astragali ' [A. ictericus and A. maroniensis). 

Midland Naturalist. — J. E. Bagnall, 'Flora of Warwickshire' 
(continued) . 

Xaturaliiit (Huddersfield). — W. West, ' Ciyptogamic Eeport of 
Yorkshire Naturalists' Union for 1880 ' (continued). 

(Esterreischische But. Zeitschrift. — A. Tomaschek, ' Hybernated 
Prothallia of Equisetum." — S. Schulzer von Miiggenburg, 'On 
Beticnlaria Lycoperrdon, Bull.' — D. Hii'C, 'On Salvia Bertolonii.' — 
J. Kreuz, 'On Lenticels in Ampelopsis hederacea.' — P. Sintenis, 
' On the Flora of Cyprus ' (continued).— P. G. Strobl, ' Flora of 
Etna ' (continued). 



Tab 223. 




/' 



;iyi 



i I 




/Ji i 



\\ 






'% 




Ul 



U* Ahvis dA.. 




-L 1 m r*]n t~w\ ^ \ i=s. A t^ j-jx ^1 r-^ ^^ /-^ A/J ^ .-> .,^ . 



W^^t Ncwmrt-H « C*** 3vt: hir 



/ 



.^^ 



\ 



Tab 222. 



\ 




leAiwis liA 



. vsitBv i; I, V cnr I 



Cinch-oaxa LecLgeriana, Mo ens 



i!Dv((jiual .^vtultss. 



CINCHONA LEDGFAIIANA A DISTINCT SPECIES. 
By Henry Trimen, M.B., F.L,S. 

(Plates 222 & 223). 

All wlio have followed the progress of the great and wonder- 
fully successful experiment carried out in the East during the 
last twenty years, will be aware how prominent a part as a 
quinine-yielding tree is now filled by the plant known under the 
name of Cinchona Ledijeriana. The discovery of its value in 1872 
gave new life to the flagging Cinchona enterprise in Java, which 
has since, under the able guidance of the present director, Mr. 
Moens, taken so leading a position ; and the cultivation, propa- 
gation, and improvement of this species are now the principal 
objects of the plantations of the Dutch Government. In our own 
plantations in Sikkim, after years of neglect as one of the trouble- 
some and hopelessly variable forms of C. Calisai/a, the plant is 
now the object of careful cultivation ; whilst in Southern India 
and Ceylon private planting enterprise especially has not been 
slow to turn to account the knowledge acquired, and the spread of 
C. Ledgeriana, in plantations in suitable localities, is merely a 
question of time. 

There is no occasion to go into details as to the history of 
this species, but it is necessary to mention that the tree is only 
known to botanists in a cultivated state. All existing plants in 
the East are descendants of seed collected from about fifty trees 
growing on the almost inaccessible banks of the Eio Mamore in 
Bolivia, in June, 1865. It does not appear that any European 
has been within a hundred miles of this locality, or that the trees 
have been again seen. The actual collector was a half-caste, or 
native servant of Mr. C. Ledger, named Manuel IncraMamani, who 
was afterwards murdered.* Mr. Ledger's seed was sent to London, 
and after being (unfortunately as it has turned out) declined by 
the India Office, was purchased by the Dutch Government in 
Dec, 1865, and sent to Java, where it Avas raised and the plants 
carefully attended to under the care of Van Gorkom, then director 
of tlie plantations. A portion, however, of the same seed was 
acquired by Mr. Money, a planter in the Nilgiris, whence some 
found its way to the Government plantations at Ootacamund, and 
a small quantity to those at Darjeeling. Hence it resulted that 
plants of this valuable kind were ])(iiig grown both in India and 

* J. E. Howaxdin riiarin. Jourii., Miircli 13tb, 1880. 

N. S. VOL. 10. [NOVEMBEU, 1881.] 2 T 



822 CINCHONA LEDGERIANA A DISTINCT SPECIES. 

Java, but it was in the latter country that its suiDeriority as a 
quinine-yielding variety was discovered. 

In Java, too, it was soon observed that though showing a good 
deal of variation, the plants possessed some well-marked characters, 
and the name '' LeJucriana" became used (first in 1873 ?) in official 
reports and as a plantation name, to disthiguish it from other 
varieties of C Calimija.-'- In India, however, it was not dis- 
tinguished from other yellow bark trees, and it is only in the last 
few years that the trees have been picked out and identified by 
their botanical characteristics. Seed from Indian Ijedgeriana also 
found its way to a few planters in Ceylon under the name of 
C. Cali.s(ii/a ; and trees five or six years old have been found on 
several estates mingled with other varieties, and generally un- 
recognized until the characters were pointed out by Mr. Moens 
during a visit to the island in Sept., 1880. 

The name Ledgeriana received scientific sanction in 1876, being 
then published in Howard's magnificent work as C. L'aUscnja, var. 
Ledfjeriana, How. i In this book, which I regret I have not at 
present at hand, mucli information will be found with reference to 
the plant and its allies. In now publishing it as a separate species, 
I almost feel to owe an apology for adding another to the already 
far too numerous specific names in the genu.s, and I should have 
abstained from doing so on my own judgment alone. But several 
supporting facts have been observed, especially by Mr. Moens in 
his long and intimate acquaintance with, and close study of, the 
plant and its allies. His opportunities for arriving at a correct 
conclusion are so much greater than those of any other person, 
that I feel there is little risk in adopting the view he holds 'which 
will be more fully exhibited in his forthcoming book on the genus 
Cinchona), agreeing as it does with my own less well-grounded 
opinion. 

A point which early struck me as noteworthy was, that among 
the amazing variety in the progeny of the ordinary Calisai/a -forms 
nothing quite agreeing with (J. Ledgeriana was ever observed. 
Desiroiis to know whether this was the case elsewliere, I made 
mquiries of Mr. Moens, who assured me that he never saw " any- 
thing like Ledgeriana, either botanically or chemically," to come 
from seed of a Calimga. I understand that Mr. Gammie has the 
same experience. This is very remarkable, for the progeny that 
come from any sowing of C. Calimya seed are certainly less like 
one another than some are like C. Ledgeriana ; moreover, seed 
from the latter has not hitherto been found to come very true, 
even the progeny of the original seed from Bolivia showing a good 
deal of variation. But as seen under cultivation this has as yet 
been always the case with Cinchonas. How far it results from a 
strong natural tendency to variation, and how much is due to 
cross-fertilization, we have at present little direct evidence to 
show\ The latter must, however, be a cause, and alone explains 



* Howard, Quinol. Ind. Plant, p. 84. 

t It is used in Howard's Notes on Cinchona in Journ. Linn. Soc. xiv. p. ITi 

(1874). 



CINCHONA LEDGERIANA A DISTINCT SPECIES. 323 

the undoubted improvement in the true-ness of seed from a tree 
hitherto grown in proximity to other species after isohxtion by then* 
destruction. This has been conspicuously sliown in the case of 
C. Lechjeriana itself in Siiikim, the seedlings from which, since 
Mr. Gammie uprooted nearly all the neighbouring trees, now come 
remarkably true, whereas before that was done the sporting was 
so great that Dr. King would not propagate by seed at all. The 
same results have been even more marked in Java. We may hope 
for some direct evidence on the subject, however, in time, as Mr. 
Moens is now conducting experiments in artificial hybridization 
wuth a view to comparison of the results with the naturally- 
produced sports. 

So much interest attaches to this Cinchona that, though it has 
been comparatively recently the subject of three fine plates in 
Howard's sumptuous volume,''' I have thought that a less 
ambitious figure, carefully drawn from living specimens of the 
plant cultivated in Ceylon, might fitly accompany this notice. 
The artist has not been very fortunate in the specimen he had for 
delineation, which was from a tree grown in poor soil and an 
unsuitable situation, and flowering at an earlier age than would be 
the case with a more healthy subject. But there was then little 
choice as to specimens in Ceylon, where we have but few adult 
trees of the kind. 

The following description gives those characters only which are 
helpful to distinguish C. Ledgeriana from its allies. They are 
chiefly taken from fresh Ceylon examples, but I have been assisted 
by di'ied specimens of some of the original trees from Java, ibr 
which I am indebted to Mr. Moens : — 

Cinchona Ledgeriana, Moens, MSS. 

C. Cdlisaya, Wedd., var. Ledgeriana, Ho-w^vd, Quinol.Ind. Plant., 
p. 84, tt. 4—6 (1876). 

Lea\^s when adult varying from pure lanceolate I to oval or to 
linear-lanceolate, or to oblong-oval, hut ahraijs haviiuj the broadest 
part at or about the middle and especially narrowing towards either 
end, apex sub-acute (rarely acute) or sub-obtuse, base much 
attenuate into the short petiole, always perfectly glabrous on both 
surfaces, subcoriaceous, often wavy, full deep green, paler beneath, 
shining but not polished above, the base of the midrib and petiole 
more or less stained with orange-pink, the veins prominent 
beneath, scrobicules not conspicuous mostly confined to the upper 
vein-angles, stipules enclosing the terminal bud, quickly caducous, 
lanceolate-oblong, subacute, glabrous, keeled, and witli numerous 
parallel vcinlets. 



* Qiiinol. Ind. Plant., tt, i. 5, 0. 

t The sense in wliich ] have always used the terms "lanceolate" and " oval 
is that given in lilnplish text-hooks, and more precisely detined in this Journal, 
1R71, J). 370. liut several descriptive hotanists use tlio term "lanceolate" 
to express a form wliich I am accustomed to call ovate-lanceolate or narrowly 
ovate, i.e., with the hrondest diameter helow the middle; whilst "oval" is 
employed with extreme laxity for several very diti'enmt oiulincs. 



824 CINX'HONA LKDGKRIANA A DISTINCT SPKCIES. 

Flowers small, on short curved pedicels and thus dronpiwj or 
(lirariratc, tufted or crowded at the ends of the branches of the 
usually small rather dense pyramidal panicle ; hiidn oblong-ovoid, 
blunt, when mature not at all ay eery slif/htly widened at the end and 
never ahrajithi enlar(icd. there. 

Corolla with a short wide tube about i inch long, sontewhat 
inflated in the middle, pale green, lobes jmre tchite or somewhat 
cream-coloured (very rarely pinkish), the marginal hairs copious 
and long. 

Capsule short, ovoid-oblong, rarely more than f inch and 
never more than | inch in length, capped by the persistent cup- 
shaped calyx-limb with erect teeth. 

As with other species of Cinchona in cultivation there is in this 
a great deal of variability in the form of the leaf, even in adult 
trees. On the flowering branches they are often narrow and 
almost strap-shaped, whilst in some plants they are as broad as 
C. officinalis, var. (Jondaminea, fi'om which it is indeed not always 
easy to distinguish them. The amount of red coloration in the 
veins is variable, and rarely quite absent. Though always 
absolutely glabrous when mature, this is by no means the case 
with young plants ; seedlings up to a year or two old are frequently 
more or less hairy beneath, but as the trees get older this 
disappears. These young leaves are also often of very large size, 
and the upper surface usually has a velvety sheen or rcjiet ; not 
unfrequently the under side is of a fine pui-plish tint ; but none of 
these points are, I think, of much importance. The unexpanded 
leaves and the buds and young soft shoots have, however, a bronzed 
or olive-orange tint by which in a field of C. Calisaya the plants of 
C. Ledyeriana may often be picked out at first sight. When 
withering the leaves turn orange-lake to brown. 

The tree does not apparently attain any great height ; it is 
distinctly j)yi'amidal in shape, and less handsome in appearance 
than some other species. The bark is usually rather clean and 
smooth ; but there seems to be considerable variability in appear- 
ance, and I cannot learn that any guide as to quality is afforded 
by it. 

The long- styled and short -styled forms seem to be pretty 
equally distributed in Ceylon specimens, perhaps the short-styled 
(with exserted stamens) being rather more fi-equent. I do not 
observe any correlated differences in foliage or inflorescence. The 
trees flower here during the months from May to September. 

The capsules are described by Dr. King as "nearly globular," 
but I have seen none of that form, all being as above described. 
Those originally collected were considered by Mr. Howard to be 
similar to G. Calisaya, var. microcarpa, Wedd. (figured in the 
Quinology, t. 15). 

The best marks distinguishing C. Ledyeriana from all forms of 
C. Calisaya are found in the flowers. Their drooping habit, and 
more especially the small size, short inflated tube, and white colour 
of their corolla, are quite characteristic ; the difference is well seen 
just before expansion, Avlien in C. Calisaya the tube is topped by a 



A CHINESE PUZZLE BY LINN^US. 325 

suddenly-inflated knob quite absent in the present species. The 
flowers certainly thus make an approach to C niirnmth((, E. & P., 
but the very different foliage and capsules widely separate the two 
species. The plant alluded to by Mr. Howard in this Journal f 
under the name of the "Morada," and collected by Pedro Rada on 
the rivers Bossi and Beni in Eastern Bolivia, is, to judge from the 
coloured figure given of the young leaves, extremely like C. 
Lediieriiinii. The bark, too, is known to be a good sort of Calisai/a- 
bark. The trees, however, are said to reach a height of 120-150 
feet, and the flowers of this "morada" to be "purple"; but a 
closely-allied form, "la verde," has them "white." 

For the specimens figured I am indebted to Mr. Walter Agar. 
They are from Mahanilla Estate, in the Maskeliya district of 
Ceylon, about 5^ years old from seed, and about Oi feet high 
(being, as above mentioned, grown in unfavourable circumstances). 
The seed came from the late Mr. Maclvor, Superintendent of the 
Cinchona plantation in the Nilgiris, obtained, there can be no doubt, 
from trees which originated from Mr. Ledger's seed. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon, September 1st, 1881. 



Explanation of Plates 221 and 2ii2. — Fig. 1. A flowering twig. Fig. 1.* 
A panicle-branch showing the dimorphic habit of the flower. Fig. 2. Buds 
(enlarged). Fig. 8. Calyx, with short style (enlarged). Figs, i, b. Corolla 
opened (enlarged). Fig. 6. Fruit. Fig. 6.* Id. (from Java). Fig. 7. Tree from 
which specimen was taken (j^j). Fig. 8. Top of a seedling plant. 



A CHINESE PUZZLE BY LINNAEUS. 
By Prof. Asa Gray. 

In the ' Species Plantarum' Linn^us characterized and 
named an Athamantha chinensis, and gives the following indi- 
cation of its source: — "Habitat — Chinensem dixit Barthram 
qui semina misit ex Virginia." Loureiro, taking his cue from 
the specific name, applies it to some Chinese Umbellifer. 
DeCandolle, in the 'Prodromus,' seizing upon the phrase " Sta- 
tura Selmi Momiieri," adds the name (with references both to 
Loureiro and to Linnseus) as a synonym to CnhUum Monnieri, 
giving the habitat only of " Gallia Austr.," and that with a 
mark of doul^t. American botanists have generally passed it by, 
notwithstanding the statement that Linnjeus raised the plant from 
seed sent by Bartram from Virginia. Some one — I cannot now 
say who — suggested to me the solution of this riddle, namely, that 
the seeds sent by Bartram belonged to Seliniim canaclotse, and 
came from (jcnescc, which name Linnftus had inadvertently cliangcd 
to ( 'hinense. The Linnean herbarium confirms this suggestion as 
to the plant, which althougli only in tlie flowering state, well 
accords with Siliivmi vdiiadeusc ; and so does the description of the 

t 'Jonrn. T5nt.,' IMfifl, p. 1, t. HI. 



326 A NEW DRACiENA FROM SINGAPORE. 

fruit in tlie ' Species Plaiitarnra,' wliicli Limineus miist have drawn 
up from tile plant in the Upsal garden at a later period, without 
preserving a specimen. Now this plant inhabits the " Genesee 
country," namely, the western portion of the State of New York, 
which is traversed by the Genesee River, and which had been 
visited by Bartram ; and so it is almost certain that the Chinense 
or Chinesee written upon the herbarium- sheet answers to Genesee. 

There are several other Linntean puzzles relating to North 
American plants which have from time to time been found out. 
linbus Canadensis, L., for instance, was described as having 10, 5 
or 3 leaflets ; and it remained an enigma until, upon my first visit 
to the Linna?an Herbarium, I found that the ten leaflets belonged 
to two superimposed leaves which had been mistaken for one. 
A not uncommon state of Lysimachia stricta, without flowers, and 
bearing concatenate or torose bulblets in the axils, is the original 
of the Viscum terrestrc of Linnteus. An abnormal and undeveloped 
specimen of FJius typhina is the original of the Datisca hirta of 
Linnaeus. 

Then there are specimens in the Herbarium mistakenly attri- 
buted to North America, such as two South European species of 
Senecio, upon one of which Senecio canadensis, upon the other 
Cineraria canadensis, were founded. According to Schultz Bip., 
the first proves to be S. artemisiqfolius, Pers. ; the second, a form 
of S. Cineraria. As it is most unlikely that the former was ever 
cultivated in Canada, a total mistake respecting the source of the 
specimens may be presumed. The same must be said of Soli- 
dayo Novehoracensis, L., which is founded on a specimen of Aster 
tataricus ! The specimen on which Linnaeus founded his Hieracium 
Kalmii still remains a puzzle. We can only say that it is not a 
Hieracium, and not a North American plant. 



A NEW DRAC^XA FROM SINGAPORE. 
By J. G. Bakee, F.R.S. 

Amongst a number of plants brought home by Mr. Cantley— 
who was appointed a few months ago superintendent to the botanic 
garden at Singapore, and who is now in England — are specimens of 
a fine new species of Dracaena, which it is to be hoped he will be 
able to procure again and introduce into cultivation. To compare 
it with familiar types it may be said to come in about half-way 
between D. aiiyustifulia and D. frayrans. According to the sequence 
adopted in my monograph, in vol. xiv. of the ' Journal of the 
Linneau Society,' it should follow No. 14, D. timorensis, Kunth. 

J). Ga^tileyi, Baker, n.sp. Leaves sessile, oblanceolate, 16-18 
in. long, 3-3^ in. broad above the middle, narrowed gradually from 
the middle to a base about i in. broad, moderately firm in texture, 
brown -tinted, with an indistinct midrib visible from base to tip. 
Racemes copiously panicled, the lower branches a foot long, dense ; 
branch-bracts small, lanceolate ; pedicels 6-8-nate, \-^i in. long. 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. 327 

articulated at the tip, much longer than the small deltoid mem- 
branous flower-bracts. Perianth whitish, clavate, lg-1;^ in. long, 
cut down to a small campanulate basal cup. Stamens distinctly 
shorter than the perianth-segments; anthers whitish, linear, -j^^ in. 
long. Style finally exserted ; stigma capitate. 



ON THE NATUEAL HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. 
By J. G. Baker, F.R.S.- 

Area and Physical Geography. — Madagascar is the third largest 
island in the world, Australia and Borneo being the only two 
that surpass it in size, the latter but slightly. It extends over 
about 15° of latitude, its southern extremity being a little outside 
the tropic of Capricorn, and the remainder all included in the 
south tropical zone. It is nearly a thousand miles long, with an 
average width of 250, and an extreme width of 860, miles. Its 
area is nearly a quarter of a million square miles, about equal to 
that of France, and about four times that of England and Wales ; 
and there is at the present day a channel 2-10 miles broad between 
it and the African continent. It is divided into two well-marked 
physical regions. About a third of its area is occupied by a mass 
of high land, the greater part of which is at an elevation of between 
3000 and 5000 feet above sea-level. This mass runs from the 
extreme north of the island down south as far as the tropic of 
Capricorn, and forms the water-shed between the principal rivers, 
which run east and west. It forms a ridge of which the long 
diameter is north and south, and of which the width from east to 
west varies from 80 to 160 miles. It slopes steeply towards the east, 
and on this side arc many of the umerous rivers, all of which 
are short, deep-cut gorges through this eastern escarpment, and 
make their way to the plain in a succession of wooded cataracts. 
The falls of the Matinana, for instance, leap at a single plunge a 
depth of 500 or 600 feet. A good deal of this central elevated 
portion of Madagascar is bare and somewhat dreary-looking 
country, consisting of rolling moor-like hills, covered principally 
with long grass, which gets very brown and dry by the end of the 
summer. The soil is generally a red clay, and granite, gneiss and 
basalt are present throughout the whole of this region, which has 
evidently been raised above the sea-level from a very early geological 
epoch. The highest level anywhere reached by the forest is 6000 
feet. There are abundant marks of recent volcanic action, but 
there are now no active volcanoes left in Madagascar, though they 
occur to the west of it in the Compro group, and to the east of it in 
Bourbon. In the southern portion of tlie island there is some fine 
mountain scenery in the Betsileo country, and in the centre the 
Ankaratra mountains rise to a height of 9000 feet within a short 
distance of the capital, which itself stands at a height of 4000 feet 



Read at the meeting of the British Association at Yoi Iv, Si pieiuber, 1881. 



828 UN THE NATUKAL HISTOKY OF MADAGASCAR. 

above sea-level. This range consists of five or six principal peaks, 
arranged like a cross, and in the clear atmosphere which prevails 
in tluit part of the world it forms a conspicuous object from a great 
distance. The valleys, interspersed between these red-clay moor- 
lands, are often wooded, and in some places there are tracts of rich 
black alluvial soil, two of the principal of which occur in the 
neighbourhood of the two chief cities of the interior, and are used 
for the cultivation of rice, which in Madagascar is the " staff of life," 
like bread with us in Europe. The remaining two-thirds of the 
island is occupied by a country of typically tropical climate, con- 
sisting mainly of extensive plains elevated not more than a few 
hundred feet above sea-level. Of its geology very little is known, 
but it is probably underlaid by sedimentary rocks of a much later 
date than those of the interior. The fossils which have been found 
are Neocomian, Jurassic, and Tertiary. This belt of low country 
is narrow on the east side of the island, but much broader on the 
west, and on the south it occupies a wide continuous area. The 
river that runs down from the capital in a north-western direction, 
the Betsiboka, is 300 miles long. It can be ascended by steamers 
of light draught for nearly 100 miles ; boats can sail up for 60 
miles more ; and from the point where navigation terminates the 
merchandise has to be carried 85 miles by road up a steep slope to 
Antananarivo. In some places ranges of hill, Avhich run north 
and south, diversify the surface of this low country. A belt of 
primaeval forest runs all round the island : it comes down to the 
shore at the north-west, opposite the French island of St. Marie 
and northward, and here it fills up the whole space between the 
coast and the mountain region, but generally it forms a belt with 
an average breadth of 15 or 20 miles, which does not come down 
to the shore. On the east side of the island this belt splits into 
two, and its upper half runs along the edge of tlie mountains ; on 
the west side of the island the belt of forest runs through a level 
country. This belt of primaeval forest is substantially continuous 
for a length of upwards of 2000 miles, and the trees which compose 
it have as yet been only explored botanically very imperfectly. 
These, then, are the main physical features of the island : the great 
central ridge of elevated ground ; the encircling tropical plains, 
broad on the west side of the ridge, narrow on the east; and this 
long girdle of untouched primiBval forest. 

The popixlatiou of the island is vaguely estimated at five 
millions. There is a vast extent of country in the plains where 
the soil is fertile, which is without inhabitants, and there are wide 
tracts of land between the territory occupied by the difl'ereut tribes 
in the hill country, as, for instance, what is called "No-man's 
Land," between Imerina and Betsileo, which are only peopled very 
thinly, or not at all. As scarcely any of it is desert or rainless, it 
could doubtless support ten or twenty times its present population ; 
and there is probably nowhere else in the tropical zone such a wide 
extent of country so little interfered with, or Avhere man has done 
less to modify the natural distribution of the animals and plants. 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. '•)29 

Climate. — In Madagascar we possess very few precise dates 
bearing on the subject of climate, but what we know about 
Mauritius will indicate all that is necessary for our present 
purpose. At Port Louis the average annual mean is 78^ Fahrenheit 
in the shade, and the average daily range is fi-om 70° at sunrise to 
86° in the middle of the afternoon. In Bourbon the mean tempe- 
rature throughout the year is stated to be 77° in the shade, that in 
exposed places often rising to 50° more ; the average minimum 
of the day throughout the year being 72°, and the average 
maximum 82°. No doubt this may be taken as a fair representation 
of the state of things that holds good for the sea-level in Mada- 
gascar. If we follow the accepted rule of deducting 10° Fahr. for 
every hundred yards in elevation, this will give us an average of 
65° for the temperature of the capital, which is about that of 
Naples or Palermo ; and an average of 48° Fahr. , which is that of 
London, for the summits of the highest mountains of the island. 
But in making this comparison we must remember to take into 
account how little within the tropics the mouths vary in tempera- 
ture and the days in length between one season of the year and 
another, so that AspidiiDii acuhatum or Lycopodium claratum on a 
Madagascar mountain would pass through a very much smaller 
range of temperature throughout the year than they would on a 
Surrey heath. In a trip which Dr. Meller made in 1862, in July 
and August, from Tamatave to Antananarivo, the maximum tem- 
perature here noted in the shade was 88°, and the minimum 49°. 
Madagascar falls within the zone of regular periodical rains and 
winds. The wet season lasts for about our winter half of the year, 
from November to April, when the monsoon wind blows from the 
north-west. At this time there is a heavy fall of rain, which 
sometimes continues incessantly for several days. In Mauritius 
the annual rainfall varies from 146 inches on the east coast to 
38 mches at Port Louis. The vegetation of the forests, the 
abundant epiphytes, the tree-mosses, the filmy-ferns, and the 
viviparous character which so many of the ferns put on, show 
clearly that they get an abundant supply of moisture. The dry 
season, which is rather colder, lasts from May to October, when 
the wind blows from the south-west ; and as the summer advances 
the vegetation of all the exposed places turns very dry and brown, 
and burns readily if set on tire. Dr. Parker writes : — " The 
flowering season of most plants in Madagascar, whether in the 
forest or out of it, is from October to May, i.e. during the rainy 
season ; but by far the great majority of them wait until December 
is nearly or quite over until they flower; whilst the majority of 
grasses and CuperacetE wait for the approach of the colder dry 
season, flowering best between IMarcli and ?klay." 

Zoology. — The fauna of Madagascar is a very remarkable one, 
and exhibits an extraordinary amount of peculiarity, both in its 
positive and negative characteristics. Of the mammals there are 
sixty-six species known in the island, and they arc harmless, timid 
animals, often of small size and nocturnal habits, of a kind that 
could only maintain their existence iu the struggle for lifi^ either 

2 u 



330 ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. 

by being protected by isolation or their facility for hiding them- 
selves from the notice of their predatory brethren. Although 
monkeys, apes and baboons are numerous and widely-spread in the 
tropical and subtropical regions of the adjacent continent, there 
are none of them in Madagascar, and the Quadrumana are only 
represented by the lemurs, of Avhich there are six genera and 
thirty-three species, just half the whole number of the mammals of 
the island. The lemurs are spread from Angola and Guinea to the 
Malay archipelago, but Madagascar is the great head-quarters of 
the family, aud of the four subfamilies two are exclusively confined 
to the island. The Cheiromys, or aye-aye, is a very peculiar type, 
intermediate in habit between a monkey and a squirrel, with very 
large ears, large eyes, long claws, and a long bushy tail. It is now 
classed at the end of the Quadrumana, and is quite confined to 
Madagascar. There are six bats, but they all belong to widely- 
spread families. Of the Insectivorous Ferae there are about a 
dozen, consisting of one shrew, a large cosmopolitan group ; aud 
all the rest Centelidae, a group allied to the hedgehogs and moles, 
only known elsewhere at the present day in two or three of the 
larger West Indian Islands. In Carnivora the lions, bears, tigers, 
leopards and hyenas of the adjacent continents, are totally absent, 
and the family is represented only by Cryptoprocta ferox, a cat-like 
plantigrade animal of savage disposition, like a small leopard in 
shape and size, which is confined to the island, and has no near 
affinity ; several civets, and an ichneumon. The Rodentia consist 
of four species of rats and mice of peculiar genera, which, as 
individuals, are numerous and troublesome. In the Ungulata the 
antelopes, so plentiful both in Asia and Africa, the bufi:"alo, horse, 
zebra, elephant, hippopotamus, and rhinoceros, are entirely absent, 
and the order is only represented by a single river-hog of the 
African genus Potamochccrus, which is very rare. The bones of a 
small hippopotamus have been found in the south-west in a half- 
fossil state. Mr. Wallace has treated the question of the Mada- 
gascar Mammalia in full detail in his ' Island Life ' and former 
work on the ' Distribution of Animals,' and draws the conclusion 
that it is likely that the absent types have originated in the 
Palaearctic region, wdi-ere most of the genera are found in a fossil 
state in the rich Miocene deposits of France, Germany, Greece, and 
the north-west of India; that they have been stopped from spreading 
southward by the sea that extended in early tertiary times from the 
Atlantic to the Bay of Bengal ; and that Madagascar must have 
been isolated before they extended themselves so far in a southern 
direction. 

Birds. — Tiie birds of the island show the same strongly-marked 
peculiarity of character as the Mammalia. Upwards of one hundred 
species of laud-birds have been determined scientifically, and of 
these not more than half a dozen are known elsewhere, whilst 
about fifty belong to thirty-three genera which are peculiar to the 
island, and the remainder are endemic species of African and 
Asiatic genera. The Raptores are represented by one eagle, and 
several hawks and owls. One of the hawks has been adopted as 



ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. 331 

the crest of the Hova government, and an immense figure of the 
bn'd crowns the roof of the two chief royal palaces at Antananarivo. 
There are nmnerous Piece and Passem in the woods, none of which 
are remarkable for their large size or musical capacity, but some of 
them are striking in appearance from their brilliant colours. There 
is a kingfisher with a lovely purplish blue body, a yellow breast, 
and a scarlet throat ; a weaver-finch about the size of a lark, which 
flies in flocks of thirty or forty in the rice-fields, of which the male 
is a brilliant scarlet, whilst the female is sober brown ; and several 
Nectarinidfe, or sun-birds, of beautiful brilliant metallic hues. 
There is a large dark blue cuckoo, and another which is a blackish 
glossy green, with a very long tail, which is forked at the extremity ; 
a very intelligent slaty black parrot, and another dark green one ; 
some bright green parroquets, about the size of love-birds, that fly 
in flocks ; and a large crow, with a white collar and a white breast. 
Of iDlainer coloured perching types, thrushes, pigeons, goat- suckers, 
wagtails, swallows and swifts are represented. About the lakes and 
in the marshes there are numerous. Grallae and Gallin^e, such as 
ducks, waterhens, sandpipers, quails, guinea-fowls, herons, storks 
and ibises ; so that Madagascar is a country where a sportsman 
can find plenty of occupation. Of characteristic African types 
Mr. Wallace enumerates the plantain-eaters, glossy starlings, ox- 
peckers, barbets, honey-guides, hornbills and bustards as being 
entirely absent ; as is the case also with several of the striking 
Asiatic and Polynesian types, such as the trogous, golden -pheasauts 
and birds of paradise. At the present day there is no ostrich, 
emu, or cassowary known in the island ; but the bones have been 
found of at least three Struthionidfe, one of which, the ^Epyornis, 
had an egg a foot long and nine inches the shorter diameter, with 
a capacity six or seven times that of the ostrich, and 140 times that 
of an ordinary barn-door fowl. 

Reptiles. — The lower groups of animals have been less fully- 
studied than the Mammalia and birds. In Reptilia there are 
several snakes, but no venomous ones are known in the central 
hill-region. The cosmopolitan familj^ of the Colubrinae is repre- 
sented by two American genera, Phi/lodri/as and Heterodon ; and by 
a third genus (Herpetodri/as) common to China and America. The 
other genera are all eudeuiic, but belong to widely-spread tropical 
families. Two families, Lycodontidae and Viperidae, both abundant 
in Tropical Africa and Tropical Asia, are absent. Lizards are 
numerous, belonging mostly to specially African or widely-spread 
tropical families. There are some species of two American genera 
of Iguanidfe, and that family, except for these, is entirely restricted 
to America ; and a genus of Geckoes, which also inhabits America 
and Australia, occurs also in Madngascar. Crocodiles are plentiful 
and troublesome ; and there are several tortoises of African affinity, 
including a gigantic species, which is probably now extinct in 
Madagascar, but which still survives in the small uninhabited 
islets of the Aldabra group, 4° further north. There are two living 
specimens of this huge creature at the zoological gardens, of which 
the male is between five and six feet long, rather broader than long, 



882 ON THE NATURAL HIHTOKY OF JIAUAGASCAK. 

weighs 800 pounds, aucl is said to be able to carry a weight of two 
tons on its back. 

As regards the general bearing of the character of the 
fauna of the island on its previous physical history, we may 
regard it, without proceeding further through the lower groups of 
animals, as a proposition fully established by the facts that have 
been already brought forward that Madagascar produces many 
striking types that are peculiar to it, and that many striking and 
widely- spread and copiously-represented types which inhabit the 
neighbouring continent are absent ; and that as a whole the fauna 
possesses the stamp of a remarkable individuality of character, such 
as can only be explained by supposing it to be the result of long 
insulation. 

General Chakactee of the Flora. — But when we come to deal 
with the botany of the island a great many of the facts point in an 
entirely different direction. No special work on the flora of Mada- 
gascar has yet been written, but taking the species that have been 
described in general monographs and scattered papers in the 
various periodicals and transactions of learned societies, and adding 
to these the species contained in the Kew Herbarium, including 
five or six parcels that have been received from different sources 
during the last two years, I estimate that we have now definite 
knowledge of at least 2000 flowering plants that grow wild in 
Madagascar ; and considering how many novelties each new parcel 
from an iiuexplored district contains, and what a large proportion 
of the named and described species gathered by the French collectors 
we do not possess in England, and how rich the fern-flora of the 
island, which has been much better explored than the flowering 
plants, has proved, I should not be at all surprised if the number 
of flowering plants inhabiting the island should ultimately be 
raised to 4000 or 5000 ; so that of course all the remarks that 
follow must be considered as founded on a botany that is perhaps 
not more than half -known. But looking at the catalogue of Mada- 
gascar plants, as it stands according to present knowledge, as a 
whole, the first point that strikes the mind is how thoroughly the 
general plan of the flora follows the same lines as that of other 
tropical regions of the Old World. This may be illustrated in 
various ways, as follows : — -In the first place by taking the natural 
orders one by one, and noting how nearly they run parallel in 
Madagascar and the adjacent tropical areas. 

The following Table shows the number of the genera and species 
of each natural order of TJicdamijiora: known in Mauritius, 5lada- 
gascar. Continental Tropical Africa, and India apart from the Hima- 
layas. Out of fifty-five known orders of Thalaviijiorce only eight 
are not here represented ; out of these forty-seven, thirty-seven 
are already discovered in Madagascar. Of the ten orders not yet 
known in Madagascar none are known in Mauritius proper, but 
two are represented by single species in the Seychelles. Two of 
them are confined to Tropical Asia, and one to Tropical Africa ; 
but the other seven are common to both continents. 



ON THE NATURAL, HISTORY OF MADAGASCAR. 



333 



1. Ranuuculaceffi 

2. Dilleuiacese . 

4. Magnoliacese 

5. Anonacefe 

6. Meuispermaceffi 

7. Berberide^e . 

8. Nympliaeaceffi 

11. Crucifei'fe 

12. Cappai'idaceffi 

13. Resedace® . 
15. ViolaceiE . 

17. Bixiueffi . 

18. PittosporeaB . 

20. PolygalecB . 

21. Frankeiiiace® 

22. Caryopliyllaeeae 

23. Portulacefe . 

24. Tamariscinefe 

25. Elatiue^ . . 

26. Hypericiuese 

27. G-uttifera? 

28. Ternstromiace* 

29. Dipterocarpese 

30. Clila^naceje . 

31. Malvaceie 

32. Sterculiacete 

33. Tiliaceaj . . 

34. Linacese . 

35. Humii-iace* . 

36. Malpigliiaceffi 

37. Zygophyllefe 

38. Geraniacea) 

39. Eutacege . 

40. Simarul)ejB 

41. Ochnacese 

42. Burseraceie 

43. Meliaceae . 

44. Chailletiacete 

45. Olaciueas . 

46. Ilicineae . 

47. CelastrinejB 
49. Rliauinete 
60. Ampelidea) 

51. Sapiudacete 

52. Sabiacea; . 

53. Auacardiacete 
55. Moriugea; 





1 


MADA- 


TROPICAL 


TROPICAL 


MAUEITIUS. 


GASCAR. 


AFIUCA. 


INDIA. 


1 


1 


2 


15 


4 


18 ; 


5 


17 


1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


3 


6 
5 


34 

7 


2 


"4 


5 


10 


12 


59 


25 


190 


1 


4 


7 


10 


11 


22 


19 


34 


■ • • 


• • • 


■ • • 




1 


1 


1 


3 


1 


1 


1 


5 1 


2 


3 


5 


8 


3 


3 


3 


6 


21 


45 


2 


6 


2 


2 


7 


20 


11 


61 


8 


49 


... 


■ ■ ■ 


* • • 


■ ■ ■ 


4 


5 


1 


1 




... 


4 


20 


4 


16 


3 


16 


"3 


3 


5 


8 i 


6 


27 


9 


26 


1 


1 


1 


8 


1 


2 


1 


5 


• ■ ■ 


• ■ • 


1 


5 


3 


24 


6 


30 


... 


... 


... 


... 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


12 


25 


7 


11 




• ■ • 


1 


1 


2 


8 


2 


6 


... 




• • 




1 


2 


1 


3 


... 


• ■ ■ 


• • • 


... 


1 


5 


2 


6 


1 


1 


3 


11 


5 


18 


2 


12 


1 


2 


5 


19 


6 


12 


6 


61 


1 


1 


... 


. . > 


3 


3 


11 


37 


1 


1 


... 


• • • 


3 


3 


9 


92 


... 


■ ■ ■ 


5 


9 


2 


2 


... 


... 


7 


7 


10 


28 


17 


88 ^ 


20 


85 


6 


13 


6 


22 


14 


51 1 


16 


79 


2 


3 


4 


15 


10 


70 


13 


109 


2 


4 


2 


6 


6 
1 


14 

1 


6 


18 


... 




"2 


4 


5 


14 


3 


10 


1 


1 


1 


1 


5 


14 


4 


8 


2 


3 


4 


15 


6 


39 


7 


101 


3 


7 


2 


2 


4 


12 


1 19 


70 


2 


2 


1 


1 


9 


11 


9 


16 


1 


1 


2 


9 


2 


19 


4 


11 


2 


2 


1 


1 


4 


9 


10 


39 


2 


4 


1 


5 


5 


15 


19 


83 


... 


■ ■ • 


1 


8 


1 


15 


1 


() 


3 


3 


3 


3 


15 


26 


23 


65 


... 




i 1 


2 


1 


1 


] 


14 


3 


8 


7 


22 


6 


44 


1 13 


85 


4 


5 


6 


15 


8 


12 


: 11 


40 


2 


*} 


2 


12 


2 


78 


3 


75 


8 


11 


9 


11 


13 


37 


20 
2 


55 
9 


* t 


~> 


7 


14 


11 


31 


18 


93 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 






il26 


350 











834 ON THE NATURAL HISTORY OF MADAGAKCAR. 

Large cosmopolitan Genera in Madagascar. — One of the most 
striking and suggestive characters of the flora of the intertropical 
zone of the world, taken as a whole, is the large extent to which 
it is everywhere made up of species representing large genera 
which do not show any special preference for one of the three 
great continents, or to the Old or New World, as compared with 
each other. The area embraced by the intertropical zone is about 
twenty millions of square miles out of fifty millions for the whole 
world, and there are many genera that contain 300, 400, or 500 
species that are largely represented both in America, Asia, and 
Africa. Some of these are herbaceous glumiferous Monocoty- 
ledons, as, for instance, Cypenis with 400 species, and I'cmlcwn 
with 500. The large genera of ferns all fall into this category, 
Folypodium, Acrostic/ium, Aspleniian, and Pteris. Some of them are 
Dicotyledons, with separated sexes and small inconspicuous flower- 
wrappers, such as Ficus with 400 species. Piper with 600, Plujl- 
lantlius with 400-500, Croton 450. But many of these large 
cosmopolitan genera are Dicotyledons of shrubby or arborescent 
habit, with insect-fertilised hermaphrodite flowers, a distinct calyx 
and corolla, and showy scented petals. Lomnthus, with 300 
species, although exclusively parasitic, falls into this geographical 
category ; so do Psychotria with 500 species. Indigo/era with 300-400, 
Venwnia with 400, Solanum with 500, Euyenia with 600. And a 
point that must be prominently taken into account in estimating 
the general relations of the flora of Madagascar is that these large 
cosmopolitan genera are nearly all represented in the island. 
This holds good of all those that have been ah-eady mentioned ; 
and others of the same class that may be named in addition, of 
which two species or more are already detected in the island, are 
Ipomica, Vitis, Goiiania, Hibiscus, Gomphia, Ochna, Desmodium, Cro- 
talaria, AcalypJui, Cleome, Capjjaris, Cassia, Dalbergia, Erayrostis, 
Cornvielina, Dioscorea, Dalechampia, Andropogon, Scleria, Kyllingia, 
Mimosa, Jussicea, Homalium, and many others. 

Widely-spread Species. — The marked tendency to uniformity 
in general character which is shown by the flora of the whole 
tropical zone is further illustrated by the fact that a considerable 
number of species are spread universally through the Old World, 
and that a considerable number extend their range in addition to 
Tropical America. Out of 1058 flowering plants and vascular 
Cryptogamia which are indigenous in Mauritius and the Seychelles, 
370, or about one-third of the whole, occur also both in Tropical 
Asia and Continental Africa ; and of these 225 species, or about 
one in five of the whole flora, extend their range to Tropical 
America. Of tlie 225 cosmopolitan Mauritian species, 159 are 
flowering plants and 66 are ferns and fern-allies, f'or Madagascar 
I have been able already to make out a list of 100 cosmopolitan 
flowering plants, and I have no doubt a closer search through the 
London herbaria would raise the number to 150. The orders 
w